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X% ' ^' 











IN 1662. 





Of whom the world was not worthy. — Hkbbews. 

The Nonconformists have salTened what is next to death, and too maay 
have suffered even onto death: of whom then shall 4)ieif*4i£aths .be • 
required? — Bishop Mortom. ;!••' * /• •* *.••**• 

. •,• 

^ •*•" •••• • • • 

• m 


Honoon : 



* 1813. 

• • • « 

•• ••• ••• : •«• 

• • •• ••\ I 


JohuUdal 1 

John GrMDiTDod S3 

WiUiun Smjlb 44 

Tfaomas Seltle 4B 

John PcDry 48 

Thomu Galakcr, len 68 

ArthorWake 70 

WiUlun Whilaker 19 

Henc? Alvcy 8S 

John Prime ST 

Richard Alln ib. 

Fr«aci9 JohBMD 88 

William Cole 106 

JohDHonand lOT 

Hesrj Smith loe 

ArttorDeal Ill 

William Cbarke 119 

JohDDairell IIT 

Cbcistnpher Ooodman 183 

WilliamPerklD IS9 

Joiias Nicboli , IH 

Tfaoma* Cartwright Ib. 

Edward Phillpi 169 

Mr Midglvy 163 

Williun Hubbock 104 

Thomas Care w 166 

Georfe Coiyat 168 

FraDcuTilgge 160 

FerclTal Wjbora ih. 

McbolaiBoaad HI 

Xzckias Morley 174 

JohnRainolds 176 

Thomat Brightmao 168 

Richard HauBKl 183 

Tboma* WUcocki 165 

Jobo Smyth 196 

▼OL. II. 

Richard ClifloD IM ' 

NkhoUuRoih 900 

Hr. Uuicaiter SOS 

Thomai Peacock ib. 

Gabriel Powei SH 

Thomai Holland *19 

Hugh Bronghlon SIS 

Wilham Burton SW 

Richard Rt^icn !>■ 

RandalBata 8M 

DanlelDjke !3S 

Robert Parker BST 

Richard OaiTtoa S4I 

BcoryAlray M7 

Georce TTIlhen 248 

Franci) Bonne; SSO 

EdDiundBuDDey ......... S5S 

Huiebiui Pagel SS9 


Pan! Bftjaa Ml 

Vniiiani Bradihaw 864 

Hr. Jenklo STD 

SiLmucI Hteron 870 

GeorgeGiffoid 87S " 

JeremlabDvke S79 

Tliomai Hdwhie ib, 

Tbomai Wilwii SSS 

AndrewWiUet 884 

Stephen Bfcrtan 889 

Thomas Paget. . . .' 891 

Hr.Knighi !9» 

jDhnRandall CM 

Nicholai Byfieid S»T 

Heniy Aintwerth 990 

William Femble SOt 

John Sprint 306 


.* ' 



•'• r 

• • • • 

» • • • • 
* ■ • • • 

• • 


JskdUdal 1 

lokn Greenwood ......... 83 

WOliamSmjIh it 

nomuSeltle 48 

John Peor; A8 

Thomu GkrakcT, )eD 68 

AiUmr Wake TO 

WiUiuD Wbiiaker 78 

VtMzj Ahej 85 

JahnPrine 8T 

UckardAUen ib. 

flucia Jobaion 89 

mUiaaColc 106 

JthaBdUnd lOT 

HarjSinltk 108 

ArikuDent Ill 

William Charkc 113 

JobDDarrell 117 

Cbriilnphei Goodman 183 

ffilliam PerkiD 1S8 

Joiiai Nkbols 136 

TtMui Cartwrisbl lb, 

Elaard Pbillpi 1 69 

Ui.UUgtej 163 

William flobbock 164 

TkoBuCarcw 166 

Gta^ Corjal 168 

Fnneia Trigte 160 

PeriiTnl Wjbarn ib. 

Nicboiai Bound Ill 

Ezekiai Haric; 1 74 

Juba KaiDoliiiL 116 

Tboma* BrighbnaD 188 

Rictaard Hauowl 1 83 

namni Wilcocki 18fi 

JoboSmjlb 195 


Richard Cltnon IM ' 

Niebolai Ruk KO 

Hr. I^neaiter 80ft 

Tbomai Peacock lb. 

GabrielPowel 811 

■niaiiiai HoilaiH] 813 

Hugh Broagh Ian 81K 

ffUliam Barton 830 

Richard Riqien 881 

Randal Bain 834 

Daniel Dyk 83ft 

RoberlPaiker BST 

Richafd GantoB «■ 

Henry Aira; 9*1 

GeoTge WItben **8 

Franc U Bnnaey **" 

Edmund Bunncy B« 

Jiusebiu. Pagel BSS 

TboBiu stone SSS 

Fanl BajnM Ml 

William Bradabaw 88* 

Hr. JcDkln tETO 

Samnel Hleron fflO 

George Gi Hind S73 

JercDiiah Dyke 8T9 

Tbomat Helwlue ib. 

Thomai WilMD 888 

Andrew Willet 881 

Stephen Egerton 889 

Tbomas IVgel 891 

Mr.Knighl S95 

John Randall SBS 

Nichola* ByBeld B9T 

Henry Aimworth 899 

William Pemble 304 

John Sprint 30S 



JabD Knewtiub SDH 

Jlidwrd Ct*ckeniharj> .... 319 

WaliBr TrpiYin 314 

ttnry Jucub 3W 

Jobn Itobintun 3M 

Rleburd HIack M4 

Aalhuny WottDD 34S 

tlif bard Ibilbwcl) M9 

Jnbn I'mloii 398 

J*b Thrnimurton 361 

IWopbllnt Bradbvurn .... 3M 

\CiUlBm Hinde S«t 

WlltianPinke 369 

SabMllan Bcarfirld lb. 

Robcrlfirawn 866 

Pnuwi* iiiniMon- • < am 

nobrrlTllEolU S7S 

Jalu Warbam 976 

ArlJiDr llildrrihon lb. 

Tbomai INII 388 

Kobfrl Rollou SBO 

ClIlciThnrn MB 

TfcawK Beard 399 

TbonlfTajlor an 

wllllaB Ann 405 

Joha CarUT 40Q 

Jl>|h Clark 4lt 

JohnllaydcB 4J& 

Rickard Slbbi 41s 

Jobo Avrry 410 

Juhn Itugcn 4il 

JobD Msfcrlck tSS 

Hear) Uelltbrand 4S4 


ll«nry Raaiidtn .' 42T 

Kubcri Cutlln 4U 

Jwrpb Motft 4» 

JMlmAVorkraul. 4St 

William WbaUkr 4SS 

JobuBall MO 

n<.™.llrr«r 4M 

l^wrrnrr Chadderlon MB 

JobuRodd iM 

M'lliljm I'Vrincr Ul 

HamMel Ward 4SS 

llrory Arcber 49f 

KwBDcl Ihwc 460 

Htepben Mote 4U 

Rlcluud Baruirri 4M 

JoDBihu Bnrr 4W 

Jobo EaUD 4M 

John Howe Ml 

Mr. Wrath 4W 

WllUuni Wralbband 410 

Tobiai Criip 471 

Alfunder l.e>KhtDn ...... 410 

Juba Hrdgwkk 4SS 

Kicbucd Hcd^xJck 4W 

JulloM Herring 4W 

(terip Fbllipi 4B1 

CDllbulrTlowtilng 405 

Jnhn DoHnliani 4H 

Tbomaifoilc} 40T 

lAwrcDreSntlllaic 4M 

Cktitft IlnBlley SOI 

Mr UifU dOS 

llriiry UnMrr Mil 

Lawreoee ClarbMW ,. 5Uk 


'IVcbanKlerot ArebbkhopWblltin 

Tbc eaaalnallaB or HcHji Barrav 

Barrow^ prlUlM to the AilarD«y-(irMt«l 


k»p Hall's acctuMion «f Fraocii Jobiuon •■■^•i 
Ji4Hiri««aad AiuworthUn BnwalM '•■.. .,^. 

AtMMtaf tiang-neek • ».<« 

Ihjlia' ii[ iif rhilfiiliiM M«. 

nntdM made KUuip for afpoiiag tta pMilM* ••* 
Tte coHrgiam ca*t alF their larplica »•••••..■..■ 

nticiflTefaled Caitirtighl'i mtwiim i,.^. ...*.. 

ftiftop UaddoE ciBum Cartwrigbl ••..•........ 

Irikrd^ i^mion of Wbiigifi'i wrilJDgi ....•«..>. 

WtagiA'i (real incopiialcDcy . ......i>*« •■••••*' 

4Kn ElialwUi ioccned aptat BMif Ajtew «. 
lk<karacMr of tbe Earlof W*wkk ..,*>.««. . 

Bcn'tcbuacinof Caitvrisbi .^ , 

^ diiines wrow ID CortwTicU »•_.„,., 
VAjlnu'i&lscBcciuallaaorCuMricbl .... 

biipurilaniiai ■•.*i... 
SiiFiancii KnaUjs a palianaf (be pnritana •. 

IbrTraBibUioD of tkaBlUa ..,.».■.. 

laecdoie of Wake bmI Bte«p ..• ...>«: 

Ih'fbarscurDflJicboluFollor,*^. ».*•*». 
Ik^w VoodcDck coainuKed ro NcwptB ...•« 
fc Petti Vttatwonb't cbancler and impriioaBe 
kitobtrt Harie;'i tbaruter and dcatk ...••.., 

"' > Hogh Brongbtou ..,■........»>•••••.• 

AnosBloritae famoot Jobn Speed .....•.«•■■■••••. 
l^vCoMao TemBTkabte for leadiog tta MM* ••.»•* 

Ajaoliar method of teachiog Hebrew •... 

ABdNe of Bishop Hoiioaand H. BrmeUH 

^ckarBclerof Bbhop Ravis 

' Vaughnn ..•.•.........••..• 

IMip Neile JocUaed la popery 

~~^ Freke a lealDDi penecator ..........■.....••■ 

"~~^ 8ea»ble» » lealoni pmecniar ............... 


A little black edpBgaflko(i>e la Bancroft 

Bah^ Baion'i defence of Ike charch 

—— WartwrtM't »btud opinion of penccvtiM .... 

» af BUbop Nortn «gS 

Kootsfonl chapel iiupeDdcd ,., lb. 

Accaaot of the famous Poraui S9S 

Tbomai Fotficid S»T 

Dr Thomas Sparke 384 

William Brenster S4I 

Sir Anthon; Cope 344 

Arehbiitop BBOcrofi 34* 

' Or. fiicbard Uoabpie 348 

L*dj BowM a feneroiii Triiad to (be paritaw ,..,. S5I 

AccoDot of Lord Brook 353 

"' Bisbnp Andrews 366 

Anecdote of (he Duke of Backingham S5T 

AccoDDl of the Dulie of Backiagbam SB9 

Biihep Wiilianu .' 310 

Theiip|;eaiidplDDder ofLeicuiler 373 

EailafHunliiiEdDn'BleUerloJIildenliam 380 

Tbecni^UeDtenceagaiDstVigblaDsndHoit 3S3 

Tbechanuter of Sir AugUilin NichoU 391 

AaecdolcaraBiihapaBd W. Amet 40S 

AccDDDt of Biihup Wren 410 

Archbishop TIarinet 41S 

"The cauit of Mr. Baxter's «0D>er9itiii 4S0 

Accoant of Lawrence Faltciongh 4!l 

— — Sir Henry Savlla 4S4 

Alnunacki burnt by the paplits 4S5 

The Fhanicter of Archbiahop Laud 436 

JobDHuoiacoufessDriQQueenHaiytraign 4ST 

King CharWs recommcndaiion 444 

AccouUarUr Waller Uildmay 44a 

Bilmne battery of KlngJamei 447 

Account of Bishop J e(;on 440 

Anecdoleof S, Fairclough's coDVeTiloD ........... ........ 45S 

A mistake of Dr. Doddridge reciieed 4t5 

Lr?ingstnnBndAndr.rfunpro«ecnled 48B 

Archblshcip Laudaboldamertion 500 

The characterofArclihishop Abbot 509 

Theodore Hwk projected (beRayal Society 004 



John Udal. — This celebrated puritan was educalei 
in tbe uniyenitj of Cambridge, andwas a man of excdknt 
parts, great learning, Pennine pietj, and vntatnidiei 
lojalty to Queen Elizabeth, but a great sufferer oa account 
of his nonconformity. He was prdacher abouit si^en years, 
at Kingston-upon^Thames ; but aflenriudB dcprireA^ 
imprisoned, and condemned; and, at lafit, he died^pute 
heart-broken in prison. Some of his faeaiera at Kin^ston^ 
taking ofieoce at his faithfid ivamings and admonitionfl^ 
j^xnight complaints against him to those in power, whm he 
was put to silence by the official. Dr. Hone, and commttfarf 
to prison. But by ikk unaoficited' fayotv and influence of 
the Countess of Warwick, Sir Drue Dniry, aild dther 
excellent perscms, he was lekawd, and mtorcd to ius 

September 96, 1586, he was conyened befbre the Bish(q[> 
of Winchester, and the Dean of Windsor, wfaed thejr 
entered upon the following conversation : 

Bishop. Mr. Udal, you are beholden to my bdy oif 
Warwick. She hath been earnest for you, and tdleth me^ 
that you will submityourself. 

Udal. I thank Grod for her ladydiip's care. I watt 
contented, and alwajrs have been, to submit taany thing 
that is just and godly. 

B. W hat you wUl do, I know not Hitherto you have 
not done it ; for you refiued to swear according to law. 

U. By your honour's ferour, I never refused to swear, 89 
&r as the law doth bind me. 

B. No i Wherefore then were you committed ? 

U. You know best. I was contents to swear, if I might 
ftret see the articles. 

B. Th^tiiaakndei foondatipfttoatandupttD. 

VpL. If. & 


U. It is to me a matter of great importance^ For with 
what conscience can I call the Lord to witness, and protest 
by his name, that I will answer I know not what ? 

Dean. Mr. Udal, the thiogs objected i^inst you, I dare 
say, are against your doctrme^ or your fife, which are no 

B. Nay, they charge nothing against his life, but his 
doctrine only. 

U. The greater is the mercy of God towards me. For 
I have given the greater offence by my life ; but it hath 
pleased him so to keep my sins from their sight, that I 
might suffer for his sake. Your restraining me from my 
ministry, makes the world believej that the slanders raised 
against me are true; the ignorant call in quc^ion the 
jgospel which I have preached ; and thus a door is widely 
opened for every wicked man to contemn the doctrine of 
our Saviour. 

' Here the bishop laid all the blame on Mr. Udal, aiid 
discovered so haid a heart against the suffering church of 
^God, that Mr. Udal burst into a flood of tears, and was 
^nstndned to turn aside, to weeip for the space of half an 
Jiour. Upon his* Wtum, he was addressed as follows : 

.B. Will you answer the articles charged against you, 
that thesethings may be redressed ? 

U. If I may first see them, I shall be satisfied. . 

B. Mr. Hartwell, write to the roister to let him see 
them ; then go with him to some of the commissioners to 
swear him. 

U. This will be a long course. ' I pray you, that, in the 
mean time, I may continue my ministry, for the good of the 
poor people. 

' B. That you may not Now that you are suspended, 
you must so abide, until you be clearecL - 

U. Then whatsoever becomes of me, I beseech you, let 
flie poor people have a preacher. 

B. That is a good motion, and I will look after it. 

Mr. Udal then receiving tb^ letter, departed ; and the 
articles being shewn him, he was takesr to Dr. Hammond to 
be sworn, who said, " You must swear to answer these 
articles, so far as the law bindeth you." " Do you mean," 
said Mr. Udal, << that I shall answer them, so &.r as it 
appeareth to ine, that I am by law required ?" And 
finding that he might, he took the oatiii,* and ddivered to 
the register his answers to all the articles in writing. These 
articles, with the alisn/^rs, are ndw be£tee me, and are 

UDAL- 9 

thirty-six iti number ; but too long for insertion.* They 
cdiitain the charges ^hich certain ill-disposed persons, in 
the parish of Kingston, brought against him to the hi^h 
commission. His answers, indeed, furnished the commis- 
sioners with sufficient matter for animadversion, when he 
underwent his next examination. October 17th he was 
convened before the high commission, at Lambeth ; whea 
Archbishop Wliitgift, the Bishops of Winchester and 
Hereford, Dr. Aubery, Dr. Lewin, Dr. Cosin, Mr. Hartwell, 
and others, were present. Upon the reading of the articles 
and his answers, they made their remarks as follows : 
. Archbishop: You are not to judge, Mr, Udal, who ymlk 
disorderly ; nor account any so to do, till it be proved. 
. U. How shall I count him to do otherwise, who ^ivetfa 
himself up to notorious sins ; and after being admomshed^ 
not only amendeth not, but goeth on more stubborn than 
before ? 

B. You must do more than that. 

U. You mean, we must present them ; and so we have 
done several ; but presentment is of no use. - 

A. You must expect what will follow, and not appmnt 
your own time./ 

U. We may do this long enough before we see any 
redress, so long as things are managed thus. I have seen 
malefactors presented two or three years ago, but of whose 
trials we have heard nothing. 

A. You say, Christ is the only archbishop. Why do 
you not caU him arch-pastor and arch-shcphnd ? 

U. As I am at liberty to call the ministers of Christ bj 
those titles given them by the Holy Ghost, as pastors, 
shepherds, and watchmen ; so, I think, I may Jesus Christ. 

A. No, no; the archbishop was in your way, and 
it troubled you to think of ham. - But there will be an 
archlnshqp when you shall be no preacher at Kingston. 

B. The rest of that artide is sophistical, on like Apollo 
the oracle. 

U. Perhaps I have taken some advantage of the words, 
and not answered acoxding to the meaning thereof as the 
law lequiinelli. 

A. Those eldcEs of which you q^eak, were bisbopi^ and 
not any other. 

. U. in 1 C». xiL tpwamon are mfirfionfrf as ditittoct 
fiom teachers. 

« MSu Kcfirt^^ ffu ni-^7lu 



A. That is meant of civil gort^rnors, and not of a oompany 
of unlearned, simple men, as you would hayie it. 

U. The apostle there speaketh of those who were ordained 
in the church. But it is of no use to dispute these matieni 
in this place. 

A. Wiken you say, that pastors may di3 ta^nng by thdr 
efwn discretion, but only by the direction 6f the word 6f 
God, y<m say true; hvit in this, you strike at something 

B. Many things are lawful^ and mhy be doiie^ that h&ye 
no direct warrant from the itotd. 

U. If that can be proTed^ it is sufficieiM, and agte^abte to 
no\y answer. 

B. What occasion h&d jrou tb sp«aK of imch datteM a^ 
•fficerilL orders, canons, &;C. t 

U. I have not choteft those subje6ts oii ptii'pos^, and 
have spoken upon them only as they qame in my way; 
This I mu^ do, or I could not dechtre All the council 
of God. 
. Dr. Cpsin* That you will neVer do vMle you lire. 

U. But I must ddivet as much as I know. 

A. It is becaui^ you would rail agfunst aiitfabrif^. 

B. Why do you wbh that the pfiBlie sertice were 
IdMdged? It may all be read in three quarters of an 

U. But I have known it, with other business io be dont 
before sermon, to last about two hours. 

A. They who are wearied iritii it, are your scholaiti, Wh6 
iilm km,f inih noticing but your setmonil. 

U. my schdars never keep out till ibe sermon begins ; 
but if any ckf them be weary of the senice, I nerer taught 
thein so to be. 

A. All the service might be i^ead well enbtigh ; but yaa 
will ist^nd in your rain r^titions, both in your ptayerii 
Hnd your sermons, and niake no account of so doing. 

U. I pray you have a better opinion of me, unless yod 
know that wlmt you say is true. 

A. Nay, I speak not of you alone, bUt all of yout sort : 
this iar your manner. Why should you preachy thai soml^ 
)[^rs(in6 make but small acCoiint of setmbh^ If 

. U. Because I know it to be true. 

B. Though petscms may have been bf tHat mind^ they 
may be altered. 

A. When you spoke of Christ's descent into hell, that 
which you said is most afisurd. 

, B. The ptooes i|i Pettr and Aeti^ aie monstroudvaboied 
oj Calvin and others, -who hcid tliat c^i^on^ For w)iQ 
ever knew sepulchre mean hell ? 

U. The original word there used, is qRcxl taken for 
grav^, though |t alfp ipeans lieU ? 

IfaitweU*, Shew me pne place^ if jou can. 

U. That I can easily do ; for as often as the Hebrew 
f" ord in the 014 Tf^ftameni^ meaneUi grave, so does also the 

H. How can that be ? The Old Testament was writteii 
in Hebrew, and not in Groek* 

IJ. Do you not know that thf Septuagint is in Gseek, in 
which you will find what I say is true t 

A. How can tb§ foul go into t)ie grave ? What an 
absurd thfnff is that I 

.. U. The H<^Eew vnpi^ usui^y ^^piifieth the whole mail f 
as Gren. :<lvi. it is odd, ^^ Tkeife went seventy souls, that m^ 
twenty persom, into E|gypt*^ 

A. Do you then believe ijat QM^ both «oul and body^ 
w&kt into the grave ? 

U. No. But it is, alsQp often taken for the body ; and 
jvhen^sver it is thufs tsdiea, it is so translated in the Sep* 
iuagint : as Lam. i. 19. 

H. 1 wish I bad a book, that I might see it. 

A. The human soul of Christ after his dsalh^ descended 
ji^to th(9 place of the damned/ and whosoever bolkveth not 
this, but denieth it, is an heretic. 

^ U. The church ff EngUmd is taught, and also believeth, 
fliat which you acco«9t haopi^. 

A. Nq rmi^t for tbat. We ceoeive ngtbing for the 
^tiine of the ^iMircb of i^figlfmd, bft Ib^t iHiich is 
authorized by act of parliament. 

U. Then your doctrine i9 not the doctrine of the ciiurch. 
ffxim§ §f ber airtickpt saHjb <Hily, that Christ descended o 
iBtp bell, witbput Qxi^rseMiflg }iow. J ' 

A. You speak of unprea^biMi^ ministetos being fcMsted if 
by satan, that vou may disgrace authprity. 

, 9. If a.miaiirt^r be learned, yet bath no utterance, will 
iron di^ftUov him as wfit ? 

V.' Yen, Ab4 J nHiJili Ufomi^ tba word i^ God dis* 
alloweth him. 

B. Whaprp, I |^y gm^ *b*k I vmy know it ? 

U. In 1 Tim. iii. 2., 2 Tim. ii. 24. He must be op/ <# 
Uacb^ which imiftieOk moi f»fy iakmkdge, ha> uHerancef 



B. Yaa mwA wbUithf mm mmnB^ ilkthm. 

U. I Uiiiik I bnre dcued mjwdf bjr ny wm 

B. Nay, fay your Une, jma faaic wiL Yi 

U. THen dupatdi me aeomdiBgiy. II ii 
and buideoMMiie to aitcod so aAcs frooi day to day. 

A. My lord of Wiacha^ •ppo^ kn ^ ^«l*»d on 
Friday oome wcweom^sL 

B. I am content Come in tfe aftenooa. 

Mr. Udal then departed, intendii^ to ffaa aoeofding 
la ajqpointment. In the oMan time, tlie Coualoi of War- 
wick wrote a pressing letter to tlie bishop, in hia behaK 
Upon hiff appeanoice, afier long attendanoe, he wna called 

bdfdre the biriiop, who tlras addressed Um : 
B. The aiticleshroagfat against yo«, are not to be ptofod) 

§K the witnesses fear the displeasure of yoor unineiow 
ftiends, wUdi is a veiy hard care. 

U. It is haid, if it be trar. Bat there if aa ascb ftar^ 
only they are nnaUe to prove more than I have abcady. 

B. Yon hare, indeed, oonfinsedsofficient^unst yourself. 

U. Let ii then apjpear. F<» I most jnstify all that I 
haye confessed, nntil it be refilled; and when it is refuted, 
I shall be willing to recant, in the same ptaoe in which it 
was spoken. 

B. I will not deal with you in that way. Bnt for the 

sake of yonr friends, and other causes, I am willing to 
restore you to your preaching, if you wiU assnre mo 
under your own nttud, that yon will speak no ukho against 
any thing by authority estabUshed. 

U. I will promise you to preach nothing but the word of 

B; The word of God, as you tune pleased to call it i 

U. If I be unable to understand what is, and what is not, 
the word of God, I am unfit to be a preacher, and so you 
may finally dismiss me. It were abetter for me to be a 
{dbughman, than a preacher, imder any oflier conditions. 

B. Then I may not admit you. This would help td 
incrpase oontroyersies. 

U. I will promise you to promote the peace of the 
church, all that I can. More I cannot do. 

B. Wall, 1 wm 8(«k advice about it Ip the mean time 
you may depart. 

; Ifr. Udal, Imimg ^epvted, commimkated an •ocomt 
^ these transacftipo* to bip frienck^ and the Cioiuifcn of 
Warwick seat a messenger tp the bishop for a deckuira 
answer. Therefore, by l^r jodlj and zealoas importonitji 
bis lordship sent for A(r. Udal, when he thus addiesiea 

B. I am to restore yoa, Mr. Udal, to yoor former place 
of preaching; yet I must admonish you to reftain finom 
speaking against things by law established. For, sorely, if 
you give occasion to be again deprived, no subjad in 
£nffland shall obtain your restoration. 

U. Surely, I have not at any time^ purposely said any 
thing tending thereunto. But I may never conceal the 
trutb which my text otkietix me. 

B. We had need walk warily. Things are out of square. 
There is much inquiry where is the cause. Some blame us 
Wshc^ ; but God knoweth where the blame ia. I think it 
is in the controversy among ourselves. 

U. So do I. Butinwhomisthecauseofthecontnnrersy, 
I shall not now dispute. I came for another purpose. 

B. Take heed you do not triumph over your enemiesL 
This will create greater variance and dissention. 

U. If I should be restored, I am determined to pass it 
over in nknce, and leave my enemies to their maker and 
judge. I must suffer greater things than these for Christ*! 

B. Well, this is all I have to say to you at this time. 

Mr. Udal then departed, having obtained his libertv to 
ccmtinue preaching; for which he blessed and praised 
God, and prayed that these troubles mi^ht be over-ruled for 
the advancement of God^s glory, and Ine further prosperity 
of his church,* 

Thus, after much trouble and expense^ with the loss of 
much tune^ this learned and excellent divine was restored 
to his mimstry. About the same time, he united with ln| 
bfethren in subscribiag the '' Book oi Discipline."f His 
troal4e9, however, were not ended. In the year 1588^ 
he was again suspended and deprived al his living. Having 
received the ecclesiastical censure a second time, the inha- 
bitants, of Newcastle-upon-Tyne prevailed upon the Earl 
of Huntingdon, k^d president of the north, to smd him to 
preach the word of life among them. Therefore, being 
driven from his living add his flock at Kingston^ he went 

• MS. Refiner, p. 779-781. f Neal*t Puritam, v»l. i. p. 4M. 


to Newcastle, where his ministerial labours, during hit 
continuance, were greatly blessed to many souls. But Mr. 
Udal- had not been there above a ^ear, (the plague being in 
the town all the time, which carried off two thrasand of its 
inhabitants,) when, by an order from the privy council, 
he was sent for to London. He immediately obeyed 
the summons, and appeared at Lord Cobham's house, 
January 13, ISS9, The conunissioners present were Lord 
CoUham, Lord Buckhurst, Lord Chief Justice Anderson, 
the Bishop of Aocliester, Dr. Aubery, Dr. Lewin, Mr. 
Fortesque, and Egerton the solicitor, llie lord chief 
justice then entered upon his examination in the following 
manner : 

Anderson. How long have you been at Newcastle ? 

Udal. About a year, if it please your lordship. 

A. Why went you from Kingston-upon-Thames ? 

U. Because I was silenced Uiere, and was called to 

Bishop. What calling had you thither ? 

U. The people made means to my lord of Huntingdon^ 
who sent me thither. 

B. Had you the allowance of the bishop of the diocese I 
U, At that time, there was none. 

A.. You are called hither to answer concerning certain 
books, which are tiiought to be of your making. 

U. If it be for any of Martin s books, I have already 
answered, and am ready so to do again. 

A. Where have you answered, and in what manner ? 

U. At L?imbeth, a year and a half ago, I cleared myself 
not to be the author, nor to know who ne was. 

A. Is this true, Mr. Beadle ? 

Beadle. I have heard that there was such a thing, but I 
was not there, if it please your lordship. 

Aubery and LewLn. 'There was such a thing, my lord's 
grace told us. 

U. I am the hardlier dealt with, to be fetched up so far, 
at this time ot the year. I have had a journey, I would 
not wish unto my enemy. 

B. You may thank your own dealing for it. 

A. But you are to answer concerning dher books. 

U. I hope your lordship will not urge me to any others, 
seeing I was sent for about those. 

A. You most answer to others also : What say you of 
^ A Demonstration" and << A DiaiiogQt ?" did you not 

UDAL; 11 

v. I cannot answer* • 

A. Why would you clear yourself of M artin, and not 
of th^se, but that you are guilty ? 

U. Not so, my lord. 1 have reascm to answer in thef 
one, but not in the other. 

A. I pray let us hear your reason ; for I cannot conceive 
dfiiy seeing they are all written concerning one matter. 

U. This is the matter, my lord. I hold the matter pro- 

Ced in them to be aU one ; but I would not be thought to 
die it in that manner, which the former books do ; and ' 
because I think otherwise of the latter, I care not though 
(he? should be fathered upon me. 

Buckhurst. But, I pray you tell me, know you not 
Penry ? 

U. Yes, my lord, that I do. 

Buck. And do you not know him to be Martin ? 

U. No, surely, nor do I think him to be Martin. 
Buck. What is your reason ? 

U. This, toy lord : when it first came out, he, under- 
standing that some gave him out to be the author, wrote a 
ktter to a friend in London, wherein he denied it, in such 
terms as declare him to be ignorant and clear in it. 

Buck. Where is tliat letter ? 

U. Indeed I cannot tell you. For I have forgotten to 
whom it was written. 

Buck. You will not tell where it is. 

U. Why, my lord, it tendeth to the clearing of one, and 
the accusation of none. 

Buck. Canyon tell where Penry is ? 

U. No, stti^y, my Icnrd. 

Back. When did you see him ? 

U. About a quarter of a year ago. 

Buck. Whete did you see him? 

U. He called at my door and saluted me. 

Buck. Nay, he remained belike with you. 

U. No, indeed ; he neither came into my house, nor did 
he so much as drink with me. 

Buck. How came you acquainted with him ? 

U. I think at Cambridge; but I have often been in his 

Buck. Where? 

U. At various places. 

A. What say you? did you make these books? or 
know you who made them ? 

U. ^ cannot answer to that question, my lord. 


A. Yoa hnil an gmiil my you vera the autliur. 

v. TlmtwilUoiri>lluw. 

Cdiiliiuii. Mr. lltliil, if yew l>p not llic nutbor, my to; 
and ifyuu be, coiifMut it: Von amy fiiul fovoiir. 

U. My loni, I tiiitik tiw. niittidr, fur luiy tliiojt I know* 
did wdT; aiul 1 kium he iv iiK|uiroil ndcr lo Ih; pimihiiol ; 
thisnififfCf I think it my duty lo biiiiliT tlic riiidinfr uf him 
out, wliJcli I VMiiiiot do licttcr liuiii thiia. 

A. And why in>, I pmy you ? 

V- BtKMUnp, ifitvury oiii; that in siiRunolMl do deny it, 
the KUtlior nt length inusl rieudo Ik; found out, 

A. Why (hire yon not cotifrui it, if you Im; IIk! auliuir? 
Dare you nut Htiiiid Ut your own doiri^ ? 

U. 1 pr»rnmni iKfiirr, tJuit I likrd oflhe lirMikH, and (lie 
mattff Iinndli-d iu th<-ni : hut wlwther I iiinilt^ tliein or n'>, 
I will iKit iiHRwcT. BeHiUn, if 1 were tlie uullior, 1 think 
tliot liy law 1 need nut wiHWcr. 

A. Tliiit iittnic, il'it coiiconii^l the lou of your life.* 

Furtifiqiie. 1 ftruy yiiu by what law did you jwiioh nt 
Newctrntle, biting forhiildtin at Kin^pilim ? 

U. I kniiw no lawiifpiiiiiititfNni;iHf{ it writ the ofiidnl. Dr. 
Hone, who HileucuJ int;; wluwc authority reacketh not out 
of his own nrrlidmrmiry. 

F. What wn> the i-AUfM! lor Hhidi you were nilcmx-d? 

V. Kurrly J cannot U-]\, nor yet tNui|fiue. 

A. Wrll, whiit Miy you of Uiohc IjuoJwI who made 
tbpm I and whiire wen; they |irintt:d ? 

U. TIioukIi 1 «»mld Ml your Icvdnliip, yet dare I not; 
for the rcnjuitiH liitlore alleged. 

B. I ivuy you let nu; ask you a qnoitiun or two OHiccrn- 
lAK vourlwoK. 

IT. It M not ynt proved to be mine. Dot 1 will antwcr to 
any thing concornuig the matter of the book, M f«i M ( 

B. You cnll it a DcmonitnUion. 1 pray you wlial is a 
Pononiliation i I bi.-lievc you know nhol it U. 

U. Ifyoii lind ukknd nu- \hitt (junlioa wIm« 1 wu a \iof 
In Cumitt'idf^'. of B year'* »tniHlijfx, it IimI Imiu a note uf 
ifptoriuv:r in mr, toltare IkO) uiutMr tonmmcTyou. 

KkitIuii. Mr. I'dal, I am torry llwl yoo will iwt 
aiuwi-r, nor lake an oatii. Tou nrtt llkn the •etuiaa'T 
prresf « ; wbo aay, thore b no law to fioa|fal|lMRU utjuai** 

tJDAL. is 

tr. Sir^ if it be a liberty by law, there is no Teaionrwfij 
they should not challenge it. 

Buck. My lord, it is no standing with him. What 
sttyest thou, wilt thou take the oath ? 

U. I have said as much thereuiito ^ I ckAj my lord. 

Aub^ry and Lewin. It on hare taken it heretofore; and 
why will yon not take it now ? 

U. I Was called to answer certain articles upon mine oaflt. 
when I freely confessed that against myself, which coura 
never haVe been proved ; and when my friends labodred t6 
have me restored, the archbishop answered, that there was 
sufficient matter against me, by my own confession, why | 
tiionld not be restored : whereupon 1 covenanted with mine 
own heart, never to be mine own acciiser in that sort 

B. Will you take an oath ? 

U. I dare not take it. 

B. Then yon mu^ go to prison, and it will go hard with 
you. For you must remain there until you be glad to 
take it. 

U. God's will be done. I had rather go to prison with 
m mod conscience, than be at liberty with an ill one, 

B. Your sentence for this time is, to go close prisoner to 
the Ghitehouse, and you are beholden to my lords here, fliat 
ihey have heard you so low. 

tr. I acknowledge it, and do humbly thank their hooouit 
for it.» 

In the conclusion, Mr. Udal was sent to the Gatehons<$. 
Take the account in his own words. << I was carri^ to 
the Gatehouse by a messenger, who delivered me with a 
warrant to be kept close prisofier ; and not to be sufiered to 
have pen, ink, or paper, pr any person to speak to me. 
Thus I remained half a year, in all which time, my wife 
could not get leave to come to me, saving only that in the 
hearing of the keeper, she mirht speak to me, and I to her, 
of such things as she should think meet : although she 
made suit to uie commissioners, and also to the council, for 
more liberty. All this time, my chamber-fellows were 
seminary priests, traitors, and professed papists. At the 
^A €^ half a year, I was removed to the White-lion in 
Sottfliwaik; and iQien carried to the assizes at Croydon. "f 

JuFf S4tb, Mr. Udal, with fetters on his legs, was taken 
4o Croydon, and indicted upon the statute of 23 £liz. cap. 3. 

* State iVyaU, toI. t p. 144—146. fedU. 1719. 
t Peiree't Ylndicstto, put h p. in. 


before Baran Olarke and Serjeant Puckering, for -wrlilng 
a wicked, scandalous, ahd seditious libel, entitled << A 
Demonstration of the Truth of that Discipline which 
Christ hath prescribed in his Word for the Govenunent ot 
bis Church, m all Times and Places, until the end of the 
World/' It was dedicated '^ To the supposed govemort of 
ihe chi^rch of England, the archbish<^, lordAiishops, 
archdeacons, and (he rest of that order/' In the dedication of 
the book, are these words, as inserted in the indictment^and 
upon which the charge against him was founded : '^ Who 
<< can, without blushing, deny you (the .bishops) to be 
<< the cause of all ungodliness : seeing your government is 
}^ that which ^iyeth leave to a man to be any thing, saving 
<^ a sound christian ? For certainly it is more free in these 
<^ days, to be a papist, anabaptist, of the family of love ; 
<^ yea, any most wicked one whatsoever, than that which we 
^ should be. And I could live these twenty ^ears, any 
^ such in England ; (yea in a bishop's house,' it may be) 
^ and never be much molested for it. So true is that which 
<< you are charged with, in a ^ Dialogue' lately come forth 
^< against you, and since burned bv you, that you care for 
^ nothing but the maintenance of your dignities, be it to 
^^ the damnation of your own souls, and infinite millions 
<^ more."* His indictment said, <^ That he not having the 
fear of God before his eyes, but being stirred up by the 
. imii^ation of the devils did maliciously publish a scandalous 
and infamous libel against the queen's majesty, her crown 
and dignity ."f 

, Mr. U(ml being brought to the bar, and his indictment 
read, humbly reouested their ^^ lordships to grant him to 
answer by counsel ;" which the jud^ peremptorily refused, 
•aying, ^< You cannot have it Therefore answer your 
indictment'' He then pleaded nU guillj/j and put himself 
iipon the trial of his country .{ In' opening the case, Mr. 
Daulton, the queen's counsel, made a long invective against 
the new discipline, as he was pleased to call it, which, he 
affirmed, was not to be found m the wonl of God. When 
he had done, Mr. Udal observed, that, as this was a contro- 
yersv among learned divines, he thought Mr. Daulton 
mi^bt have suspended his judjH^ent, especially as he himself 
had formerly snewed some likinff to the same cause. Upon 
which the judge said, << Sirnm ! sirrah ! answer to the 


• FoUer^t Cbvrch HU(. h. is. p. Sgl, 999.— 8(ryp€*i Wbitcifl, p. 941. 
t Stetc Trytdt, toI. 1. p. 147. t l^M. 

UDAL. 16 

Hmtter.^^^ ^' Mr. Daulton/- said he, '^ go on to prore tba 
points, in the indictment;" Tvhich were the following: 
' 1. That Mr. Udal was the author of the book* 

S. That he had a malicious intent in making it. 

3. That the matters in the indictment -were felony by tbo 
statute of 23 £liz« cap. 3. 

- The first point to be proved^ was, that Mr. tJdal was the 
author c^ the book; and here it is. observable, that his 
judges did not stand upon the formality of bringing him 
anuhis accusers face to face, and cause them to appear as 
witnesses against him in open court ; but only their exami- 
nations were produced, to which the register swore. And, 
first, Stephen Chatfield^s articles were brought forwards, 
containing a report of certain papers he had seen in Mr. 
UdaUs study. Upon seeing them, and asking whose they 
were, Mr. Udal answered, ^' a friend's.'^ Chatfield then 
desired him to get rid of th^ ; for he feared they concerned 
the slate. He added, that Mr. Udal told him at another 
time, that if the bishops put him to silence, he would give 
them such a blow as they never had. Chatfield was then 
called to witness these things, but he did not appear. 
Daulton said, he went out of tlie way on purpose^ And 
when the judge said,'" Mr. Udal, you are glad of that;'* 
the prisoner replied, " My lord, I heartily wish he were 
Jbere.. For, as I am sure ne could never say any thing to 
prove this point ; so I am able to prove,^that he. is very 
sorry that he ever made anv complaint against me, con- 
fessing he did it in anger wnen Martin first came out, and 
by their suggestions whom he has since proved to be very 
bad men.'' Mr. Udal added, " That the book was pub- 
lished before he had this conversation with Chatfield." And 
as he proceeded, the judge interrupted him, saying, the case 
was sufficiently clear: 

The examination of Nicholas Tomkins was next pro- 
duced. This Tomkins was now beyond sea, but the paper 
said, that Mr. Udal had told him, he was the author. But 
Tomkins himself afterwards said, "That he would not for 
a thousand worlds affirm any more, than that he heard Mr. 
Udal say, that he would not doubt, but set his name to the 
book, if he had indifferait judges." When Mr. Udal 
ofkied to produce his witnesses to prove. this, the judge 
said, " That because the witnesses were against the queen's 
majesty, they could not be heard." 
* The contession of Henry Sharp of Northampton, was 
next read, who^ upon his oath before the lord chamberlain, 


had declared, ^< That he heard Mr. Pcnrr say, that Mr. 
Udal ^as the author of the Demonstraiiot:. • 

This was all the evidence of the fact, upon which he 
was convicted, not a single living witnesn being produced 
in court. The poor man had, therefore, no opportunity to 
ask anj questions, or refute the evidence. And what 
methods were used to extort theae confi^ions, may be easily 
imagined from their non-appearance in court, and having 
testincd their sorrow for what they had done. What man 
of common understanding, would hang his dog on such 
evidence as this ? 

To prove Mr. Udal guilty of sedition, and bring him 
within the statute, the counsel insisted, that his threatening 
the bishopsj who were the queen's officers, was, by con' 
■tniction, threatening the queen herself. The prisoneir 
desired liberty to explain the passage ; when he insisted, 
that offence against the bishops was not sedition against the 
quoen. But all that could be said, was set aside, and the 
judge ^vc it for law, even without allowing the twO 
remainmg points of the indictment to be examined, <^ That 
they who spake against the queen's government in causes 
ecclesiastical, or her ecclesiastical laws, proceedings, and 
officers, defamed the queen herself." Upon this the 
jurv were directed to find him guilty of the fad^ and the 
ludgcs taking upon themselves tlie \yo\\\i of law, condemned 
liim as a felon. Fuller even confesses, that the proof against 
liim was not piwiant ; for it watf generally believecJ, that 
he wrote not the book, but only the preface.f His enemies 
might as well have condemned him without the formality 
of a trial. The statute was undoubtedly strained beyond 
its meaning, and evidently with a design io reacli his life. 
The good man behaved himself with great modesty and 
discretion at the bar ; and having said as much for himself 
as must have satisfied any equitable persons, he submitted 
io the judgment of the court. 

<< The case of Mr. Udal seems singular." says Hume^ 
« aven in the arbitrary times in which he lived. He was 
thrown into prison on suspicion of harinf^ pnblished a book 
•gainst the bishops, and brought to his trial for this oifencc*. 
It was pretended that the biriiops were part of the qneen^ft 

Klitical body ; and to speak against them, watf to attadl 
r, and was, therefore, felony by the statute. This waa not 

• atrype*! AbmIi, vol. Ui. Appet. f% Mb«»8Mtta Tryahf «•!• f. p. 
f Fuller*! ChsKli Hlit. b. ii. p. 

UDAL. 17 

the only iniquity to which Udal was exposed. The judges 
would not allow the jury to ^temdne any thing but the 
facty of his being the author of the book, without examining 
nis intention, or the import of his words. In order to pro?e 
the fapt, they did not produce a single witness to the court : 
they only read the testimony of two or three persons absent. 
They would not allow Udal to produce any exculpatory 
evidence, saying, it was not permitted against the crown. 
His refusing io swear that he was not the author of the 
book, was employed against him as the stron^t proof of 
his ffuilt. Notwithstanding these multiplied iniouities, the 
Terdict of the jury was brought a^inst him. For, as the 
queen was extremely bent upon nis prosecution, it was 
impossible he could escape."* 

Mr. Udal was convicted at tlie summer assizes, 1590, but 
did not receive sentence till the Lent following. In the 
mean time, pardon was offered him, if he would sign the 
fi>llowii^ recantation, dated February, 1591 : 

" I, Jo\m Udal, have been heretofore, by due course of 
*^ law, convicted of felony, for pennii^ or setting forth a 
'' certain book, called ' The Demonstration of Discipline ;' 
<^ wherein false, slanderous, and seditious matters are 
'^ contained against her majesty's prerogative royal, her 
^' crown and dignity, and against her laws and government, 
<^ ecclesiastical and temporal, by law establishol under her 
^' highn^^ and tending to the erecting a new form of 
'^ government, contrary to her laws. All which points, I 
^' do now, by the grace of God, perceive to be very 
^' dangerous to the peace of this realm and church, seditious 
^^ in the commonwealth, and infinitely offensive to the 
" queen's most excellent majesty. So as thereby, now seeing 
^' the grievousness of my offence, I do most humbly, on 
^' my knees, before and in this presence, submit myself to 
<^ the mercy of her highness, being most sorry that I have 
^^ so deeply and worthily incurred her majesty's indignation 
<^ against me ; promising, if it shall please God to move her 
'^ royal heart to have compassion on me, a most sorro\?ful, 
^' convicted person, that I will, for ever hereafter, forsake all 
^' Undutiful and dangerous courses, and demean myself 
" dutifully and peace&ly ; for I acknowledge her laws to be 
^^ both lawful and godly, and to be obeyed by every subject."+ 

No arguments or threatenings of the judges could prevail 
upon Mr. Udal to sign the above recantation. He could 

• Hume's Hist, of £ng. vol. v. p. 345, S46. 

t 8trype*8 Aonais, vol. W. p. 8a» 9t.— Baker's MS. CoUec. vol. ZT.p. 45. 


not, for the world, tiabscribe to that ids irue^ whteh ht knew 
to be fdlse. He, therefore^ resolved to suffer on the gallop 
rather than be guilty of such pretarieatioti and hypdorilrjr. 
&ut the day before fiibnteiice vftcs to be passed upon hiiuu 
fae oifleied the fMlowihg MbmiBSiim, dirawn u]^ by biSoMf^ 
dated February 19, 1591 : 

<< Concerning the book wherecrf* I itas by due touUM of 
^ bw convicted, by refenrinff itay^df to th^ trial of Hie laW^ 
<< and that by the verdict cftiireife tneh, I am found to b6 
^ the author of it, for "HfUch cause an MiMt Subihtesiuta ik 
^ teorthtty required aivd offidred of iwe. Although I ^MiHOl 
^< disavow the muse and sufostttuce ^tiA d(MsiHiV^ debMSd 
*^ in it, which I must needs aicknoWledge td be hoiy^ and fM 
^ far as I can conceive of it) agreeable tb the w^rd of God; 
^^ yeft I confess, the manner m Writing it is ^neh, in some 
^^ paits, as may worthHy be bhmed, atkd might piioVt)ke hdt 
<< majesty's indignation. Wherefore the triid df th^ hm 
<< imputing to me all such defaults as are in that book^ Mil 
*< laying the punishment of the same fai m6st grievous 
<< manner upon me ; as mv mofit humble sikit to her inosl 
^^ excellent majesty is, that hier mercy and gracious pardon 
<^ may fVee me flrom the guUt and offence, which the said 
"^^ trial of the law hath cast upon me, and l^irther, of h^r 
" great clemency, to restore me to the comfort of my life 
^< and liberty ; so do I promise, in aH humble submission to 
^^ God and her majesty, to caity myself in .tiie whole 
<^ course of my liife, in such humble and dutiful dbedience. 
<< as shaU befit a minister of the gospel and a dutiful 
<< subject, fervently and continually praying for the good 
*< preservation of her highnesses pretjeus life and happy 
" government, to the honour of Go^, and comfort oi^hcr 
^ loyal and dutiful subjects."* 

Previous to this, Mr. Udal had often, and with great 
teamestness, petitioned his judges for their mediation with the 
quwn.f In his letter to Puckering, dated November 11, 
1590, he thus expressed himself: — " I resolved to call to 
your r(*mrml)rancc my hard estate, which I pray you to 
accept as proc<*edin£i: from him who wishdh as well to you 
as to his own soul. I nei*d not oiler to yonr lordship's con« 
sideration of Ihe miserable state I nm in, being deprived of 
that living Inr which myself, my wife and children, should 
be sonpnirlofl ; and s|)en(ling the little substance which 
God has given me, in this tedious state of imprisonment; 

• Htr>|»c*H Aiiniiltf, vol. iv. p. n.— State Tryalty vol. i. p. 152—165. 
f linker*! MH. CvUec. vol. sv. p. 10—62. 

USAL. 1^ 

and duM expofiifig hoik ne and them to \mgg^ and 
misery^ I praj you eall to miod, by whal; cdnnie tiiii 
miseij WII8 brought upon me ; and if you fisd, by dai^ 
consideration, that I am worthy to leceive the pnnfaiiHBiirt 
from the (sfinteace of upr^ht jiuBtice, I pray yoa ha^en Ac 
execution of the same : tor it were faei^, in Ais case, tor 
me to die tha^ to Uye. ' But if it a{^)€ar to your con« 
jdufncas, as I h<^ it will) tfaot ao jualioe against her 
majesty can possibly be in me, seeing I pray daily tor 
her maiesty^A piosperky and happiness, bpU| in soul and 
body, th^ { do humbly and aaartil^ desire you to be « 
means that I may be released. In doing this, I shall net 
enly forget thi^ haid opinion copceiv^ of your couises 
agauut me, but also pray heaitily unto God to bury the aasM^ 
arith the .sest of your sins, in the grave of his scm, Jasua 
Christ." Mr. Udal wrote several other lettors, eiq>iassed 
in most humble and dut^l languageJ» Ait iall these ap- 
plications were to no purpose. The court would do BotUog 
iiU he signed their sidinussion ; which, being directly coBr 
Ijrary to the /Convictions of his conscience, heuttoily refused. 
AX the dose of 4he Lent assizes, Mr. Udal, being called 
ixk the bar, wilh die rest of the &ilQnB, and adLed what he 
haA to say, why judgment ishould not be given against 
bim, according to tiie veidiot, ddiveied ft p^per to the 
/c»ui4,jC0iisisti^.ef certain reasons; the priocipai of wfaicj^ 
oreoe the toUowing : 

1. '' Because ti^ juryweredixeeted only to find the/od^ 
viHbeMier I was the author of the book; aad were expressly 
^Q<^9^ by ypur lordafaip from inquuing. into the uAtM^ 
.wkhout a^ich there is no felimy. 

2. ^< Ttie men on the jury were not left to their awn 
consciences, but were wrought upon, partly by |iroffMret> 
assurii^ them it should be no further danger to me, bot 
4end to my good ; and partly by /ear, as appears fixim the 
^ief some of them have manifestal ever since. 

3. ^ The statute, in the true meaning of it, is thought not 
to reach my case, th^e being nothing ^spoken in the book 
^^oncerning her majesty's person, but in duly and honour; 
1 'beseedi you, therefore, to consider, "vi^iether drawing it bom 
dier royail person to the bid^c^, as being part fii her body 
•politic, be nota violentdepraving and wiiestmgof the statute. 

4. -^^ But if the statute be tal(:en as it is urged, the felonjr 
jnust consist in the wusdidkms intent,' wherein i appeal finrt 

• Sliype^s AmuOiy voL if « p. S|8-^a0. 


Ui G^nI, and tlicn to nil men who have knrmn the eoune 
of my life, and to your lordnhipft* own coniiciencesy wfaelbi:r 
you can find me guilty of any act, in all my life, that 
•avoured of any malice or maiicioiM intent against her 
nutj^y* And if your comiciefirefi clear me before God^ I 
faofie you will not procured to judgment, 

b. ^' By the lawn ot God, and, I tni*t aliifi, by the lawa of 
the land, the witneMes ought to have been produced in open 
court lx;fore me ; but they were not, nor any thing else, 
only certain papers and reports of defiositions* This kind 
of evidence is not allowed in the case of lands, and, there- 
fore, it ought much less to Ih; allowevi in the case of life. 

6* " None of the di;prwitions directly prove me to be the 
author of the Imok in qui?stion; and the principal witiMM 
is wo grieved for what he has done, that he is ashamed to 
come where he is known. 

7* ^< Supposing I were the author of the book, let it be 
lememberra that the said book, for substance, contains 
notliing but what is taught and believed by the best 
reformed churches in Europe ; so that in condemning me, 
you comlemn all such nations and churches as hold tlie 
same doctrine. If the punishment be for the manner dl 
writing) this may be thought by some worthy of an 
admoniiion^ otfme^ ox $ome nhart impriMonment ; but drMh 
for an error ofsuch a kind, cannot but be extreme cruelty, 
against one who has emhMvoured to shew himself a dutiful 
subject, and a faithful minister of the g<ispel. 

" If all this prevail not," says Mr. IJdal, " y<4 my 
Redeemer liveth, to whom I commcmd myficlf, and say, as 
Jeremiah once said, in a case not much unlike mine, 
^ Behold, I am in your hands to do with me whatsoever 
seemeth good unto you ; but know you this, that if you )mt 
me to death, vou shall bring innocent blrxxl upon your 
own heads, and upon the land.* K% the blofxl oi Abel^ so 
tlie blood of Udal^ will cry to Gwl with a loud voice, and 
the righteous Judge of the land will require it at the luwds 
of all who shall be found guilty of it."* 

All that lie could sa^ proved unavailalile. His reasons 
were rejected ; and his judges remained inflexible^ unless 
lie would sign the recantation drawn np ton Um ; wmeb bis 
conscience not suflfcring him to do^ MBfOMB of dartb was 
passeil upon him Febniarjr SOtiii wad wamwHtm wnmAy • J 
awarded. WhenbereoeiviMl'llii^ ■ 

UDAL. 21 

be was hot in the least dismayed, bui with great serioosnessy^ 
said, "God's will be done."« The next morning, the 
judges, by direction from court, ^ve private orders to put 
off his excy^ution, until her majesty's pleasure was further 
known. All this was done by the particular appointment 
of Whitgift. " For Dr. Bancroft, by his order, wrote to 
Puckering, signifying, that, if Udal's submission did not 
satisfy him, it was the archbishop's pleasure that he should 
proceed to judgment, and command his execution ; but 
afterwards defer the same, till her majesty's pleasure be 
consulted. "f In the mean tune, the Dean of St. Paul's and 
Dr. Andrews were sent to persuade him to sign the recan- 
tation ; which he still peremptorily refused. And, l)ecause 
the queen had been misinformed of his opinions, Mr. Udal, 
by the motion of Sir Walter Rawleigh, who highly 
esteemed him, sent her majesty a short confession of hit 
faith, as follows : 

"I believe, and have often preached," says he, "that 
the church of England is a part oiibe true visible church, 
the word and sacraments being truly dispensed ; for which 
reason, I have communicateid with it several years at; 
Kingston, and a year at Newcastle-upon-Tyne; and do 
still desire to be a preacher in the same church. There* 
fore, I utterly renounce the schism and separation of the 
Brownists. — I do allow the articles of idigion, as far as 
they contain the doctrine of faith and sacraments, according 
to law. — I believe the queen's majesty hath, and ought to ^ 
have, supreme authority over all persons, in all causes 
ecclesiastical and civil. Ahd if the prince command any 
thing contrary to the word of God, it is not lawful for sub- 
jects to rebdl or resist, but, with patience and humility, to 
bear the punishment laid upon them. — ^I believe the church, 
rightly reformed, ought to be governed by ministers, assisted 
by ddersy a& in the foreign reformed churches. — I believe 
the censures of the church ought merely to concern the 
soul, and may not impeach any subject, much less any 
prince^ in liberty of body, goods, dominion, or any earthly 
privile^: nor do I believe that k christian prince ought 
otharwise to be subject to church censures, than our 
gracious queen professes herself to be by the preaching of 

• State Tryals, toI. i. p. 157. 

t Baker*s MS. Collec. yo\. it. p. 105.— Notwithstanding these barba- 
rous proceed in|^, Whitgift is styled a pioos and a prudent prelate, and a 
■lan not given to boisterous things, bat one just and fair io all bis ways.—- 
fTharton'i Troubles ofX^tudy vol. i. p. 80. 


2e word and the adroiii&tlratioii df the Rac'ranients. My 
Nrire ifl) that her majeity mAy be truly informed of every 
thing 1 hold) that I may obtain her gracious farouri 
without which, I do not wish to live/'* 

This declaration of his <liith, Mr. Udal e^nt to Sif 
IValter Rawleigh, requesting him to present it to her 
mai^ty. In the letter enclosing this declaration, dated 
February 32, 1591, I^e earnestly solicits this honouraUe 
person to be a means with the ^ueen in procuring his 
pardon, or changing his sentence into banishment, that the 
knd might not be charged with his blood. In this letter 
he says, <^ I beseech you to be a means of appeasing h^ 
m^esty's indignation, conceived against me from false 
accusation. I^r'God is my witness, that no earthly thing 
wHs ever so dear to me, as to nonour her majesty, and to draw 
her subjects id do the same : and of the truth of this, I tmft^ 
my very adversaries will be witnesses when I am dead.'*f 

Kinj^ James of Scotland wtote, also, to the queen, in 
Ij^haU of Mr. Udal, nioit eamestlv requesting, that, f6r tibe 
sake of his intercemon, the good man mignt be spared^ 
promising the same fatour to her maiosty in any matter shd 
might recommend to fail attention. This letter, dated Jont 
10, 1591, is still pre8erved.t The Turkey merchants, 
about the same time^ offered to send him as chaplain to oM 
of their fiietories abroad, if he might have bis life and 
liberty ; to which Mr. Udal consentra, as appears from fais 
letter to the lord treasurer. He says, '' My case is lamentable, 
having now been above three years in durance, which 
niakds me humbty desire your lordship's favour, that I maj 
be released lirbm my imprisonment, tne Turkey merchalili 
kaving my consent io so llito Syria or Guinea, tikene to 
ranain two years with their factories, if my liberty can ba 
obtained.^' The archbishop, it is said, yieklecl to tliis 
petition ; the keeper promised io furtlier it ; and the £ail 
of Essex had a draught of his pardon ready prefwed, with 
this condition, that he should never return without llm 
queen's license. But her ntajest^ never signed it ; and the 
Turkey ships departing without him,poor unhappy Udal died 
a few months alter, in the Marshals^ quite heart-broken 
with sorrow and grief, towards the close of the year 1592;^ 

Fuller denominates Mr. Udal a learned man, Uameless in 

« Strype*! WhKsift, p. 875, STS.^Baker*! M8. CoUee. Tol. xt. p. 54^ 

+ Srrype*! Whltgift, p. S7S. 

± Poller*! Church HUt. b. fx. u. 90S, 204. 

S 8trype»f Whltgia, p. S77. 

biB lifib^ poweiful \fk pniy^y w4 M 1^ profitable Ihmi 
pawful in preadiing.t This is ceitfiisJy a very hi^ 
cbaraQter from a jie^ilpiis cQpfomust ; w4 vhat a pity it vas. 
tbat so excellent; a aqinLiter of CJirist should meet witk 
such cruel treailtaieot I Ui^ rysmains were decef^lly interred 
in the church-yard pf 8t. George's in SoDthwark, near to 
the grave of the faiinouih Bishop Bonner. |Iis funeral was 
attended by greajt nipibers of the Jj^ndon ministers, whok 
baring yisited hiniL jn prison, ih>w wept over the mortal 
remains of tfiat man, wbose faith and patience were long 
and severely tried, and whp died fat uie testimony of a 
gOio<} conscience^ and stands as a monument of the oppres- 
sion and cruelty pf tt^ goyerproent puder which he surared. 
Upon King Jamie^'s accesi^ion ip the cjrown of England, 
it is said, the first person be iliquired after when he came 
itttp this Qduntry, was Mr. Uda}; and when be found that 
be was dead, be Xf^e^^ ^^ 9y py «^pl then the greatei^ 

scholar m Eufope is 4^."f 

His WoaKs.— I. The Key of die Holy Toasue, witfei a sl^Mjt 
pictionary, and a l^axis on certain Psalms, 1508. — ^2. A Commentiuj 
on the Lamentations of Jeremiah. — 3. Various Sermons. — 4. llie 
State of the Cfiurch of England laid open in a Conference between 
Diotrephes a Bishop, TertuUus a Papist, Demetrius an Usurer, 
Pandoch|i8. ai^ {[fin-keeper^ and Paul a Preacher of fhi^ Word of 

John Greenwood was a laost distinguished puritan^ 
^A a ^reat sufferer for nonconformity. The earliest 
Recount pf him we meet witti, is, tbat be was for 
soHije tin^ chaplaii^ to Lord Rich; but afterwarda 
tenoi^Qed his episcppal orders, and became a rigid 
firownist. 1%^ congregation of Brownists about London^ 
becpqiillg pretty numerous, formed themselves into a 
cbjurch, A^.\Greenwood be^ chosen doctor or tcache^r^ 
^d Mr. Francis Johtison pastor, by the sufferage of th^ 
Jb^tberhoG^.^ Tbis, according to our historians, appeals 
to haye been about the year Ip^, or 1593 ; though it was 
piobably ^ few yeai^ earlier.| 

ypon M^« (jFreenwoodV espousing the opinions of Iba 

• • • • 

« FQller'8 Church |IisC. b. is. p. 288, 8S3. 
f Biog. toritao. toI. tii. p. ixMd. iBdit. 1747. 

^ The first of these articles, Mr. U^al wrote inprison, and he is oalj 
ntppoMil to be the anther of the Iait-^Parf« of a FhgUktr^ p. SS3, 

iFor a circomstantial accooojt of this, see Art. Francii JobUMio. 
Stryjpe*! Anaals, toI. iii. p.' 194; i?, p. 176, 


Brownists, he became intimatelj acquainted with Mir. 
Henry Barrow, a lawyer, and a zealous Brownist. Their 
history is so closely interwoven, that we shall consider them 
in connexion. They were very contracted in their principles, 
and fellow-sufferers in the same cause : yet, with the allow- 
ance of some mistaken notions, they were eminently good 
men, and very zealous christians. In November, 1586, 
having been some time confined in prison, they were 
brought before the high conunission, for holding and pro- 
pagating schisroatical and seditious opinions, as they are 
c^alied ; the most remarkable of which were the following: 
— *' That the church of England is no true church. — That 
its worship is downright idolatry. — That the church admits 
unsanctified persons to her communion. — That the con-, 
formable ministers have no lawful calling. — That the 
government of the church is ungodly. — That no bishop, or 

Treacher in the church, preacheth sincerely and truly. — 
]hat the people of every parish ought to choose their own 
bishop.— That every elder, though he be no doctor or 
pastor, is a bishop. — That all the precise, (meaning those 
puritans who were not Brownists,) who refuse the ceremonies 
of the church, strain out a gnat, and swallow a camel, and 
are hypocrites. — -That all who make or expound any 
printed or written catechisms, are idle shepherds. — That the 
children of ungodly parents ought not to be baptized.— 
And that to use set forms of prayer is blasphemous."* As 
we have this catalogue of schismatical and seditious opinions, 
from those who would not be at all disposed to favour them, 
we conclude that those positions, with their endeavouring to 

Eropagate them, were the worst crimes with which they could 
e charged. Some of their sentiments were, undoubtedly, 
very erroneous and uncharitable ; but others were true and 
important, shewing their views of religious liberty. 

When Mr. Greenwood and Mr. Barrow appeared before 
the high commission, they underwent very close examina- • 
tions ; and it was from these examinations their dangerous 
doctrines were collected. The examination of Mr. Barrow, 
now before me^ is an article so little known, yet so curious, 
that I have given it, though at considerable length, in the 
following note.f It appears that Mr. Ghreienwood was 

• Heylin*t Hist, of Pret. p. 3^, 323.— CoHier't Eccl. Hist. toI. ii. p. 

f November 19* 1686, Mr. Barrow appeared at Lambeth, befbi^ 
Archbialiop Whitgift, bit arcbdeacoa, and Dr. Cotiu. Oo that day,' 
beiDf the Lord's dajr* be went to TMt Bfr» Greenwood, and . the other 
bretiren, imprisoned in the Clink } wiure he had no sooner arrtred than 


imprisoned before Mr. Barrow ; and that, in the numth of 
November, 1586, he was confined in the Clink. How long 
he had been in a state of imprisonment, previouiB to that 
period, it is now difficult to ascertain. We are toU^ 

Mr. Shepherd, the keeper, locked him up in the priton, tayioj^ he bai 
orders from the archbishop so to do. When Mr. Barrow demanded 
a sight of bis warrant, be said be should detain him; and if he were 
wronged,- he might bring an action against him. Upon this, the keeper 
Immediately went to the archbishop at Lambeth, and presently returned^ 
with two pursuivants. Mr. Barrow was then put into a boat, and carried !• 
Lambeth. On their way, Watson, one of the pursuivants, polled oat « 
paper from the high commission court at Lambeth, signifying to Mr. 
Barrow, that he had a long time sought him. " I told him," says Mr. 
Barrow, ** his pains deserved thanks neither of God nor me. I refused 
his letter, and would not read it, being under the arrest of the keeper of 
the Clink, who then sat by me." Upon their arrival at the archbishop's 
palace, after Watson had informed his master of what had passed in the 
boat, Mr. Barrow was brought into his presence, when the followiuf 
conference took place. 

Archbishop. Is your name Barrow ? 

Barrow. Yes. 

A. It is told me, that you refuse to receive or obey oor letter. Know 
yoii what you do ? It is from the high commissioners, and this man It a 

B« I refused to receive or obey that letter, at that time. 

A. Why so? 

B. Because I was under arrest, and imprisoned without warrant, and 
against law ; it was, therefore, too late to bring the letter. 

A. Why, may not a counsellor commit to prison by his bare commandment? 

B. That is not the question, what a counsellor may do ; but whether 
thb man (pointing to the keeper of the Clink) may do it, without warraat, 
by the law of the land. 

A. Know you the law of the land ? 

B. Very little. Yet I was of Gray Vinn, some years. (Here Whitgifl 
msd the two Doctors derided his unskilfulness in the law, when Mr. 
Barrow said,) Let this pass. I look for little help, by law, against you. I 
prey you, why have you imprisoned me, and sent for me in this manner I 

A. That shall yon know upon your oath. Will you swear ? 

B. I hold it lawful to swear, if it be done with due order and circnm* 

A. Reach a book, and hold it him. 

B. What shall I do with it ? 

A. Lay your hand upon it, man. 

B. For what purpose ? 

A. To swear. 

B. I use to swear by no books. 

A. Yon shall not swear by the book, bot by God only* 
* B. So I purpose, when I swear. 

Cosins. Did you never take an oath at the assize, before the jodges ? 

B. No. 

C. Would yon there refuse to lay yonr hand on a book, and swear ? 

B. Yes. 

C. Then yonr testimony would not be taken. 

A. Why, man, the book is no part of the oath : it is but a ceremony. 

B. A needless and wicked ceremony. 

A. Mrhy, know yoa what yoo lay ) Kaow you what book it is ? It ^ 
fha Bible. 



tmkod, tb«( purmiffanto eotoml, 4^ n tot0 homr ^ tbn 
mgf^ Hito an honest cUizen'ft lioose^ in liU^gate-biU $ aii^ 
karing wed tlieir ow» p}c»6ure^ in se^rcbing all pl^cos, 

B. I will swear hy p« SiMe. 
, C. fichieomlin »re Always claiq#fomr» It If |( pfrpcln^ not* to know 
tlwQ by. 

A. Dr. CosiiM saitb true. Soe^ were ^be Pooalistf of old. Ap4 soch 
•rt tboa, aed ail other sphismatics, fpcb pi Iboip ^rt. 
' B. fifty yoar f^leasare^ God ii^gjvf yotp, I am nekber scbifin^lic, ifor 
flaatoroat. I opljr amwer yoyr de^i^nd^. |f you wH), | wiU be •ileot. 

A. Well, will y<Ni lay your band upon tbe Bil^le, and lake aa oath ? 

B. I we t4j»m no creaturet to tbe name of God, in afi o^atb* 

A. Neithef »ball yoa. Tbif ic only a avHom .cofnoiavded by law. 

B. The law ooght not to cooinand a wicked custom. 
A* Why, Is it not lawful to lay yoiw hand on a book ? 
B. Yes, bat not in aa oath. 

A. Will yon lay yoqr baii4 in my hand iu>4 fWf ar ? 

B. No. 

A. Will you lay your hand on the table and swear* 
* B. No. 

A. Will yoB bold «p yovr ban^ tawacds be«Ten aad sweiu* ? 
; B. That Is not amisf . Bnl I will as^ my liberty. 

A. Why, you hold it lawful to lay your hand on the table and fWiear. 

B. Yes, if It be mH commanded ^ad m^de neeessary. 

A. Why, the book is the same. It is no part of the oath,l>l^^ thjog 

B. If it be not •/ ih§ 9gih^ why do 3'on so penemptprily enjoiji^ it I 
And if it be iniiffwenty afi you «fiy it is, then I do well la not using }U 

\ A. N«y, you do not well in refusiiog it. For therein y^n pbew youraelf 
disobedient to tbe bigber powers, set over yoa by God. 

B« You have even now said it is a thing indifferei^. If it be, there ^ U9 
power that can bring my liberty into bondage. 

A. Where find you that i 

B. la i Corinthians. — Here a Tealament was given Him, but the ftrch- 
bishop and the others so interrupted bim> tbat he could f^t fi^d ^e pj^ice. 

A. Your divinity is^ke your law. 

B. The word of God is not tbe worse for my 111 mempi^. 

A. You speak not as yoa think, for yon are pr^ad. 

B. I have small cause to be proud of my memory : yoa see the fynU ^f 
it. But the apostle saith it. And you ha^e no cause to condemn my 
memory, seeing you have all utterly forgotten llUs saying, ** All things jipre 
lawful for me, but I will not be brought under the power of any.'' 

A. I would like it well, if you cited your place in Greek or Latin. 

B. Why, you understand English. Is not tbe word of Qod l|i Eagl||ll> ? 
A. Were yon of Cambridge F 

B* Yes, I knew yon there. 

A. Have you read Calvin, Beza, and othen ? 

B. I have fead more tban enough.. Y^ X knQW not why f |mi 

A. it is reported, that you come not to chnrcb, are di«>pbediciiitto |ier 
majesty, and say there is no true church in England. What^iiy jv^i 
have you no| at any time said this ? 

B. These are reports. When you ba^e ^produced your testimony, I 
will answer. 

A. But I will belter belioTC 90a apoD your XMMbi than .<;i9ther|i . JB^w 
ttiy you ? will you answer ? , 

- : GlUINWOOa flr 

Iritiiovt warrant, Mr. Oiecnwood and Mr. Fnnds Johnsoi^ 
whom they earned, between one and two o^clock at nigiii^ 
to Ae Compter fai Wood-atreet. Mr. Edward Boys, tk* 
•wn^r of the houses lemained a prisoner till the msMt day | 

B. I will know what I swear to, before I swear. 

A. Swear irst; aod theo, if any thins vnlawAillybedeHiaad^, yo« 
•hall not answer. 

B. I have oot learned so to swear. I will first know aod coaiSder of 
the matter, before i take m oath. — Here the archhitbop comnuuided Dr* 
Cosins to record, " That Mr. Barrow refused to swear upon a book.'*' 

B. Tes, and set down that I will not answer that at roadooi ; bat I wiU 
first know and consider of the things I swear to, whether they repairs aa 

A. Well, when were yoa at charch ? 

B. That is aotMog to yoa. 

A. You area schismatic, a recosant, and a seditions person. 

B. Say what you will of me, I freely forgive yasi. 

A. I care not for your forgiveness. 

B. But if yon ofiend me, you ought to seek it, whikt you are ia th« 
way with me. 

A. When were yon at church ? 

B. I have answered that already : it beloogeth not to yon. 

A. Are you in(Ke(ed ? 

B. lam. 

A. It belongeth to us, and I wiH not ooly meddle wHb you, but arraiga 
you before lae as an Mretit, 

B. Toa shall do ao more than God will. Err I a»y i but an heretic I 
m\H never be. 

A. Will yoa hereafter eocne to church ? 

B. Future things are in the Lord's hands. If I do not, you kav« a law« 

A. Have you spoken this of the church of England ? 

B. When you have produced your witaess, I will answer. 

A. Upon year -oath, I wiH Wlieve yoa. 

B. But I will not accuse myself. 

A. You are lawless. 

B. I had •rather yon produced your witness. 

A. What occupation are yau of? 

B. I am a Gbrlstiau. 

A. So are we all. 

B. I deny that. 

A. Are you a minister ? 

B. No. 

' A. Are you a icbeolm»ter ? 
e. No. 

A. Then what trade are yea f 

B. In your letter, you know my trade In the snbscriptiott. 

A. You are then « -gentleman. 

B. After the manner of our oomitry, a jsentleumB. 

A. Do you serve any taan? 

B. No, I am God's freeman. 

A. Have you any lands ? 

B. No, nor fees. 

A> How do you live? 

B. By God's goodness, and my fl'iend's. 
- ^ Where dwelleth be, in Norfolk I 
■ B. liPfes. 

Il; Wierc awm 70a, la Iiofldofi } 


wben, by ihe archbishop and others, they were commiited 
close prisoners, two of them to the Clink, and one to the 
Fleet. It does not appear, however, whether this was Mr^ 
Greenwood's first or second imprisonment. In the year 

B. No. 
^ A, Can yoa find snfficient'secority for yonr good bebaTioir ? 
6. Yes, as safficient as yoa can take. 

A, You cannot have tbe qaeen. 

B. Neither can yoa take her : she is tbe judge of the law. Yet, for my 
good beba? ioor, I sappose, I could get ber word. 

A. Doth she then know you i 
fi, I know her. 

A. Else, were it a pity of your life. 

B. Not so. 

A. Can yoH have any of those who came with yoa, to be bound for yoa ? 

B. I think I can. 

A. Do yoa know them ? 

B. iknow one of them. 

A. What is he ? 

B. A gentleman of Gray Vinn. ' 

A. What do you call him ? 

B. Lacy. 

A. Do you know what bond you are to enter into ? Yoa are to be 
boond to frequent our cbarcbes . 

B. I understood yon of my good behaviour. 

A. That is contained in it, and you had forfeited your bond at firrt. 

B. Now that I know your mind, I will enter into no soch bond. 

A. Will you enter your bond to appear at our court on Tuesday next; 
and so on Thursday, if you be not called ; and be boand not to depart, 
until yoa be dismissed by order of our court ? 

B. No. 

A. Then I will send yoa to prison. 

B. You shall not touch one hair of my head, withoot the will of my 
beavenly Father* 

A. Nay, 1 will do this to rectify yon. 

B. Consider what you do. You shall one day answer for it. 

A. You will not swear, nor enter a bond for your appearance. 

B. 1 will put in bond for my bail in the prison, and for my trne 

A. Nay, that will not serve tbe tarn. Mr. Doctor, enter these things. 
J will send some to confer with you. 

B. That were more requisite before my imprisonment. 

Mr. Barrow was then delivered to the pursuivant, who immediately 
carried him to the Gatehouse, where be remained for some time, aoi 
knowing tbe cause of his imprisonment. November STth, be appeared a 
second time, before the high commission at Lambeth ; upon which, the arch- 
bishop, with a black and an angry countenance, beholding him, inquired 
whether he would thep swear, which introduced the following conference: 

B. I would not refuse to swear on a proper occasion. 

A. Will you now swear? 

B. I must first know to what. 

A. So you shall afterwards. 

B. I will not swear unless 1 know before. 

A. Well, I will thus far satisfy your humour. 

Here the archbishop pulled out a paper, containing many things coo* 
fosedly pot together, according to the malicious liomoar of his- actus^r :< 
As, '^That he denied God to have a tr«e cbttrcfc in £P|l9»d.-TTbat4bc 


1592, Mr. Greenwood and his companion IVir. Barrow, had 
been confined at least four or five years in chse prison, 
with miserable usa^e.* 

Mr. Greenwoo(^ /as well as Mr. Barrow, underwent a 

worship of the established charch is idolatry. — That the mialifry li 
Idolatrevs and aotiGhristiaD.— That the archbishop, and all the bithopt im 
the land, are antichrists. — That all the ministers in the land are thieret^ 
murderers, hirelings, and hypocrites. — That Mr. Wigginton and Mr« 
Cajtwright strain oat a. gnat and swallow a cand. — ^TImU he condemnetJl 
aU writers, as Calvin, Beza, &c and saith, that all catechisms are idolatroni, 
and not to be used.'! 

. Bishop of London. How say yoa, Mr. Dean of Paors, here is for yoi. 
Yoti have written a catechism. 

. A. This fellow deals indifferently, and makes ns all alike. Thus far I 
)iave satisfied you. .Now. yon know what yoir shall swear to. How say 
you ? will you now swear? 

Bp. My lord's grace doth shew this favour to many. 

A. Fetch a book. 

B. It is needless. 

A. Why, will you not swear now ? 

B. An oath is a matter of great importance, and requireth great eon- 
sideration. But I will answer you truly. Mnch of the matter in thi« 
bill is true. But the form is false. 

A. Go to, sirrah, answer directly. Will yon swear? Reach him a 

B. There Is more cause to swear mine accuser. I will not swear. 

A. Where is his keeper ? Yon shall not prattle here. Away with hlau 
Clap him up c/05«, close : let no nmn come to him. 1 will make him tall 
another, tale, ere I have done with him. 

i Mr. Barrow was then immediately carried again to prisoa, where be re- 
maiaed in close confinement till March 24th follow ing ; when he was brougltt 
before the two Lord Chief Justices, the Lord Chief Baron, the Archbithop 
pf C^terbnry, and the Bishops of London and Winchester, and many 
others. Upon his appearance, he was commanded to lay his hand apoa 
the Bible, which led to the following conversation: 

B. For what end must I do this ? 
.A. To swear. 

B. I have not learned to swear by any creatures. 

A. This is the word of God, the Bible. 

B. The book is not the eternal God himself, by whom only I mwt iwear, 
aifd not by any books or bibles. 

A. So you shall swear by God. 

B. To what purpose then is the book urged ? I may swear by nothiof 
lieiides him, and by nothing with him. 

, Bbhop of Winchester. How prove you that ? 

B. It is so commanded in the book of the law, Deut. vi. 10., and to 
expounded by several of the prophets, by Jesus Christ MmMlf, and his 

A. Well, will you swear that you will answer nothing bat the truth, and 
the whole truth, to such interrogatories as we shall denmod of yon I 
' B. I wiU know the matter, before I either swear or answer. 

A. Set down, that he will not swear. 

L. C. Justice. You shall only swear to answer to the truth. If aay 
aalawful thing be demanded of yon, you need aot answer. 

B. My lordy every truth requireth not an oath. An oath requiretJi 

* * • .• 8trypc*t Amals, vol* If . p. 95, 96. 


eb^e farmnHialiop, He appeared ai London palace, before 
the Archbishop of Canteiiiury, the Bishops ot London and 
Winchester, the two Lord Chief Justices, the Lord Chief 
Ustnmy the Massbsr of the Hoik, and others. Upon his 

^rettl itglurd and reverence, sod heiugdtmfped for conSroMitioii, ought t« 
ht tM9 ead of all strife. My lord, if I ilioald err, and deliver k apon my 
^Bik for tmthy it woold be a doable tin. Aad if I thoold either aot koow^ 
not remeBiber,or aot deliver the whole tralh, Ishoaid, by tach a rash oath, 
Ik lorawora. Bot, by God's grace, I will answer Bothiag Irat the trath. 

A. A christiaB aaa's word oag bt to be as true as hie oath. We will 
then proceed with yoa withoatyoar oath. What say yoa to this questioaf 
It it lawful to say the PaUr-n^tttr publicly » as a prayer ia the charch, or 
privately, or not? 

B. I kuow not what you mean by your Pater-aoster, unless yoa perad- 
veatare mean the form of pvayer which oar 8avioar taagfat his dkdplefl, 
coamionly called the Lord's prayer. 

A. So I mean. 

The following articles of ioqairy were then proposed to Mr. Barrow, to 
which he gave the answers annexed. 

1. May the Lord's prayer be used in the charch ? 

Ia my opioioh it is rather a sammary than aa ea|oiaed form ; and not 
fiodiag it ined by the apostles, I think it may aot be constaatly used. 

2. May titurgies or forms of prayer l>e wed ia the cbarch ? 

Imih^ word of God, I find no authority given to any maa to impose them 
apon the charch ; and it is, therefore, high presumption to impose them. 

5. IslhcCUHnmoo Piayer idolatrous, saperstitioas, and po|iish f 
ia my opiiition, it Is. 

4. Are the sacraments of the church of England trve sacraments ? 

As they are publicly administered, (hey are not trae sacmmeats. 

^. Are >the laws and government of tlie charch of Boglaad aalawfal 
aad antiohriglian ^ 

As the decrees oad caaons of the church are ao naaieroas, I can&ot 
jadge of all ^ bat many of them, and the ecdeiiastical courts and govemoM, 
■re onlamrfiil and4Miticbristi8a. 

6. Are such as have l>eeti baptized in the church -of England rightly 
baptized ? or should they be baptized agala ? 

They are not baptized according to the institution of Christ; yet they 
may not need it again. 

7. Is the church of England the true church of Cbrht ? 

4As It 1s<iidwFoTnied,4t isnot; yet there are many exceUeot «hri»tiaos 
in it. 

8. Is the queen supreme governor of the church, and may she make lawr 

The queen is supreme governor of -the whole land, and ovor^be ohupch, 
|>odies and goods ; but may not make any other laws for the chorah of 
Mritft, thati-be Jlatfaileft'in bis word. 

^. ti it^lvwlril Ivrtbe prhree to alter the judicial law of M^ses^? 

I cannot see it lawful for any one to alter the least part of thstiairi 
irWhont il(ili%^li^itry to >the moral km, and opposing the will of God. 

10. May:a<prrate person refbrm'the thuroh,«rf the pvinoe negleot<k ? • 

No private pemms ni»y i*<$form the state, but >tbey ought 'to ^taio -ftom 
all unlawful things commanded by the pi^ince. 

4U Oo|fbt<«very paftivalar church of Christ to hanre a presbytery ? 

The government df ^the 'dhurch «of Christ iwilongethnot to 'Ibefin^^odlgr, 
tMit every panrtioiilar ohorch^ou^ht to-have-en tfldership. 

After giving thesa answers, he was sent back to prison, where he waft 
Alosaly coollned^ i^ fpiiefbfiqg flawed Jko «e« f|ii«i,4»r«peak to hiai. And 


appearance, ceiiain ktettogAtortes Wel« put to hiitt/ as 
follows : 

Q. What is your natte ? 

G. JohnGreeawoodk 

k^Hngh ht ettnmaf rt qticmi a €bfj t>f liii sMweft, Ibe Ikimnr cotldiiol 
be obtAkM^di 

JoDe f a, 1J6T, Mr. ftrttlMr was ^igftHi fcrM^ op, aftd mterwcnt 
kBOther feimniiNrtioa^ httbft Hie AttbaMMl)^, lh« Lord diftttcellor, the 
Loud TreMtrer; Lerd BoeMMinft, tWt Bi«liop ef London, lostlce Yonoi;, 
Dr. Some, aad others. The Lord Treasurer introdated his eaaiDinstion al 
follows : 

Trea^arer. Wky mtt yen la prisM, Battow f 

B. I am id prisoo, my lord. Upon the atatate nade for Micannts. ■ 

T. Why will you oot com^ tib cMftthf 

B. My whole desire is to come to the church of Ood. 
'■ T. Is^dMuaitafiBltfsHealfeilow. Bat^fbynotcometoovtclrarcbes? 

B. My hird, the causes are gt«at «iid many : .as, — 1. Because aH tia 
wricttd la tfte Mad are retHf«d «ato Hkt coamHrafoa.— 4. Yon bare a Wbt 
and an aotichristiaa toiaittry aete^er year chardi. — S, Ton do not wonhlj^ 
Godarighty bat in an idolatrous and a superstitious manner. — And, 4. Tear 
cba^h is sot |;av«raed by the IVstaliKAt df Christ, bat by tlw ftoadsb 
courts and canons. 

T. florfe «i matter etobagb, indeed. I perceiye tboa takcst ddight to be 
an author of this new religion. 

Chaiic€41or. I oeter beard sack Htuff la aH ny life. 

Loadon. Is the Wolrship «f tlite c^uirh idolatrous ? 

B. la tfie Book of CoraaiDa Ptayef, there is little else: as, the saiali'* 
days, eves, fosts, idoUfeadts, ftc. 

Lond. Sfliy there. Is it aet la^l^l to ke^p m taemorial of the laiBti ia 

«. Not aftM* thte aaan^r. it is idbMtry. 

Lond. Baw prove yoe ttet ff 

B. By the first commandment. 

Load. Why, ttat is, *' Thoa thalt %ave no otber Gods bfefora ae." 
What of that ? 

B. The words u^, ** Thou shah hstrt no other Oods btjbre my /kss.'* 
We are, therefore, forbidden to gi^e aay part of God's worship to aay 

Land." Why, ^neither do we^ 

B. Yes, you celebrate a day, and sanctify an cr^, alid call tbcn by the 
names of saints ; and thus younal^e a fpast,aad devise a worship unto tiiem. 

T. Why, may ire not call the day by their names ? Isaot this in our 
liberty ? 

Bk No, toy lord. 

T. How do yoa prove that ? 

6. tn the beginning of the Bible, it iiB written, that God biAidf named 
all the days, the first, the second, &c. 

T. Then we may not call them Sunday, Monday, &c. 

B. We are otherwise taught to call them, in the word of 6Sod« 

T. Why, thou thyself eallesi Sirnday, the Lord^t dag. 

B. And so the Holy Ghost calleth it, in the first of Revelation. 

Lond. We baveiiothSng in our saints'-days, l>nt what is taken forth of the 

B. in that, you say true-; for yon find ifo saints'-days in the «criptiu«t. 

Lond. We find their histories and deeds in the scriptare. 

B. Bm aot theit days aad Csstivals. 

Backhant. Ha !»• praiia s^rit. 


Lay yoBT hand upon the book. You must take aa 
oath. ' 

G. I will swear by the name of God, if there be any 
need ; but not by, or upon, any book. 

T. He has a hot brain. How do you like the collects, and epwtles and 
gospels, for the saints^-days, as they are in the Book of Common Prayer? 

B. I dislike all. We ought not so to use prayers and scriptures. 

Lond. May we not make commemoration of the saints' lives in the cbarch ? 

B. Not after your manner, by giving peculiar days, eves, fasts, feasts, 
und worship, unto them. ... 

1*. What is there idolatrous in this ? 

Bl It is all idolatrous. We ought not so to use the scriptares. 

Lond. What not in commemoration of the saints ? 

B. A's I have said, not after your manner. , 

T. What evil is there in it ? 

B. It is all evil, my lord. For, by thus abusing the scripture, we make it 
an idol. Things in themselves good, thus become evil. As, in the mass- 
iook, whence this stuff is taken, there are sundry good collects and places 
^ scripture, which superstitious abuse renders abominable. 

Buck. He is out of his wits. 

B. No, my lord^ I speak the words of truth and soberness, as I could 
make appear, if I might be suffered. 

T. Here we pray, that our lives may be such as theirs were, void of 

B. So we ought to do. Tet not to use the scriptures in this manner to 
days and times, nor to be so restrained or stinted in our prayers, as to be 
tied to this form of words, time, place, manner, kneeling, standing, &c. 

BueJt. This fellow delighteth to hear himself talk/ , 

A. He is a sower of errors ; and, therefore, I committed him. 

B. Tou, indeed, committed me half a year close prisoner in tht 
Gatehouse, and I never uutil now understood the cause, neither do I yet ' 
know what errors they are. Shew them, therefore, I pray you. 

Bucit. He has a presumptuous spirit. 

B. My lord, all spirits must be tried and judged by the word of God. 
But if I err, my lord, it is meet 1 should be shewn wherein. 

Chan. There must be stricter laws made for such fellows. 

B. Would to God there were, my lord, our journey would then be tlw 

T. You complained to us of injustice ; wherein have you received wrong ) 

B. By being imprisoned, my lord, without due trial. 

T. Too said you were condemned upon the statute. 

B. Unjustly, my lord. That statute was not made for us. 

T. There must be stricter laws made for you. 

B. O, my lord I speak more comfortably. We have sorrows enow. 

T. Indeed, thou lookest as if thou hadst a troubled conscience. 

B. No, my lord, I praise God for it. But it is an awful thing, that the 
tword of bur prince should thus be drawn against her faithful subjects. 

T. The queen's sword is not yet drawn against Mr. Barrow and hit 

B. We have been long confined in close prison. 

T. Have you not had a conference ? 

Lond. Several have been with them, whom they mocked. 

B. We have mocked no man. Miserable physicians are you all. WTt 
desired a public conference, that all might knaw our opinions, and wherein 
we err. 

A* Tou shall have no such conference, you have published too much 
already; and, therefore, I committed you close prisonen. 


Qi We will examine you then without an oath. Are 
jou a minister ? 

G. I was one, aooo^dihg to your orders. 
Q. Who degraded you ? 

B. Bat coBtnury to the law. 

T. On such occa8ioQ9 it may be done by law. Have yoa any leatpiog ? 

B. The Lord knoweth I am ignorant. I have no l^rning to boast oC» 
Bnt this I know, that you are yoid of all true learning and godlincM. 

Buck. See the spirit of this man. 

A« I have matter to call yoa before me as aa ier^He, 

B. That shall yon never do* You know, my former jadfment in that 
matter. Err I may ; but heretic, by the grace of God, I will never be. 

Buck. That is well "said. 

T. Do yon not hold, that it is nnlawfnl to enact a law for piairtert ta 
live by tithes, and that the people be required to pay them ? 

B. My lord, such laws are abrogated and nnlawful. 

T. Thon wouldst have the minister to live upon something. What shoalf 
be live of? 

B. Wholly of alms, as Christ hath ordained,and as he and his apostlct lived. 

T. How if the people will not give ? 

B. Such are not the people of God. 

T. But what shall the^in^sliers do, in the n^ean time? 

B. Not stand as ministers to snch, neither receive the goods of the probne. 

T. Where canst thou shew me, from scripture, that ministers ought not 
to live by tithes } 

B. Heb. yii. 12., Gal. vi. 6. In the one place tithes are abrogated $ ia 
the other, another kind of provision is made for ministers- The words of 
the former text are these : *' For the priesthood being changed, there is 
made of necessity a change also of the law;'* and yoa cannot dei>y, tliat 
tithes were a part of that law 2 as Numb, xviii. 

T. Wouldst thou have the minister tlien to have all my goods ? 

B. No, my lord. But I would have you not withhold yoor goods from 
helping him : neither rich nor poor are exempted from this duty. 

T. Ministers are not now caUed priests. 

B. If they receive tithes, they are priests. They are called priests ia 
the law. 

Load. What is a presbyter, t pray thee ? 

B. An elder. 

Lond. What in age only ? 

B. No. Timothy was a young man. 

Lond. Presbyter is Latin for priest. 

B. It is no Latin word; bnt is deriyed from the C^reek, and rignlAeth 
the same as the Greek word, which is elder. 

Lond. What then dost thon make a priest? 

B. One that offereth sacrifices ; for so it is always used in the law. 

Chan. Do you not know those two men ? pointing al the bishop aad 

B. Yes, my lord, I have cause to know them. < 

Chan. Is not this the Bishop of London ? 

B. I know him for no bishop, my lord. 

Chan. What is he then? ^ ^ 

B. His name is Aylmer, my lord. The Lord pardon my foalt, that I 
iid not lay him open as a wofr, a bloody persecutor, and an apostate. 

Chan. What i4 that man, pointing to the arehbishop ? 

B. He is a monster ; a miserable compound ; I know not what to maka 
•f him. He is neither ecclesiastical nor civil» bat that sccaad baail 
ipoken of la BfvelatiODi 



G. I derailed myself, through God's mercy, by xe^^iM* 
ance. (IVfeaning when he renounced his episcc^pid otaeif^ 
and separated from the established church.) 

Q. Is it lawful to use the Lord's prayer, publidy otipA' 
yately, as a prayer ? 

G. It is a doctrine by which to direct all our prayers ; 
but, for certain reasons, no man ca» use it as a pubuc or 
private prayer. 

Q. Is it lawfiil, or not ? I will hear no prattling'. 

G. From any thing I can see in scripture, it is not la^wftil. 
There is no command to say the very wo^; and Christ 
and his apostles prayed in other words, according to their 

Q. Is it lawful io use any stinted forms of prayer, ih 
purUyLc or private ? 

G. They are apocrypha, and may not be used in public 
assemblies. 'Ithe wordf, and the graces of the spirit of God, 
are only to be used there. 

Q. Answer directly. Is it lawfid to use thetit publicly 
or privately? 

Gf. Paul saith, << The spirit also helpeth our infirmities^ 
for we know not what we should pray for as we ought ; but 
the spirit maketh interces$idn for us. 

Q. What ssLy you } Answer directly^ 

G. It does not appear lawful to use stinted jtfayers, in* 
vented by men, dther publicly or privately, from any thing 
I can see in the scriptures. 

Q. What say you then of the Book ef Common Prayer ? 
Is it suberstitions, popish, and idolatrous? 

G. 1 beseech you, that I may not be urged by your 
law. I have long been a close prisoner, and, therefore, 
desire you will shew me wherefore I am treated thus, and 
not entangle me by your law. 

Q. Is it not youf law, as well as ours ? It is the queen's 
law. You are a good subject, 

G. I am a true.and obedient subject. But I thought we 
wa^e reasoning about your p<^ish canons. 

T. Where is the place ? Shew it. 

Wheu Mr. Barrow tamed to Rev. ziii., with a view to shew the treasurer^ 
the archbishop arose, aod in anger gnashiof; bis teeth, he said, ''^Will 
5oe suffer him, my lords V* Itien by the wardens, Mr. B. was immediataly 
pluclced from «ff his Icne^, and carried away. As he departed, he desirea 
of the treaserer, that, dnrinf his confinement in prison, he might enjoy the 
liberty bf the air, but raeeirea no answer. He was, therefore, carried to 
inriiton, and closely confined for several years, and met with the mest cruel 
usage."— £ara»tjfia^0n9 p/ Bffrrotr. Greenw«oi{, oni Ftnry^ p. S^^l. 


Q. Is not the CammQii Prayer Book established by the 
queen's laws ? 

L. C. Justice. Tell us what you think of the Book of 
Gommoa .Prayer : you shall have liberty to call back .what 
you will. 

G. If it were in a free confer^ce^ as we have often 
desired, I would do it. 

Bishop of Winchester. Have you not used .these words 
a year ago, << It is popidi, superstitious, and idolatrous ?" 

G. xea^ I think I have. For it was taken out of the 
pope's portuis. 

Q. Why would yon not answer thus befiyre ? 

G. Because I see you go about to bring me within the 
compass of your law, by makiog me accuse myself. 
' J. Anderson. What do you say of it now ? 

G. That there are many errors in it; and the fcrm of it 
is disagreeable to the scriptures. 

A. Is it contrary to the scriptures ? 

G. It must neeas be contrary, if it be disagfeeaUe. 

Winch. Do you hold it to be popish, superstitious, and 

G. I have told you what I think of it I hold it is full 
of errors, and the form of it disagreeable to the scriptures. 

Q. What say you of nuucriage? Did you not many one 
Boman and his wife in the fleet ? 

G. No. Neither is marriage any part of the minister's 

Q. Who used prayer } 

G. I think, that I used prayer, at that time. 

Q. Who joined their hands together ? 

G. I know no such thing. They publicly acknowledged 
their consent before the assembly. 

Stanhope. I will make them do penance for it. 

G. There are others who have more need to shew open 
repentance than they. 

Winch. They make such marriages under a hed^. It 
hath been an order long received, to marry by a nunister. 

G. There were many faithful witnesses of their mutual 
consent And if it were not lawful, we have many ancient 
lathers, who, by your judgment, did amiss. 

Q. What say you of the church of England ? Is it a 
true established church of God ? 

G. The whole conm&onwealth is not a church. 

Ander. But do you know any true ertablished church in 
<he land ? 


G. If I did, I woold not accuse it imio ymi. 

Q. But what say you? is not the whole Ittid, as nofr 
ordered, A tmb establmhed church t 

Q. No, not as the assemUies geoMdIy are. If it pkasi 
you, I will shew you the reasons. 

Jus. No, you shall have enough to shew hereafter. It m 
not to be stood upon now. 

Q. What do you say of the church of England, as itJs 
governed by bishqps ? Is it antichristian ? 

G. According to the bislKips,and laws it is now govened 
by, it is not according to the scriptures. 

Winch. Thou hast the scriptures often in thy moutli* Is 
it antichristian? 

G. Yes, I hold it is contrary to ChristVwofd^ > 

Q. What say you then of .the sacraments i Ave iliey« 
true sacraments ? • 

G. No. They are not rightly administered, aceovding ii 
the institution of Christ, nor have they* the pioaiis^ of 
graces because you keep not the covenant. 

Q. Speakplainly. Are they true sacramarts, or not ? 

G. No. For if you have no true church, you can luiv# 
no true sacraments. 

Q. How say you, are we baptiied ? 

G. You have the outward sign, which is washing ; but 
no true sacrament. 

Q. How can that bel 

G. Very well.» * 

Q. Is it lawful baptism ? 

G. Yes. 

Q. Need we then be baptiied again ? 

G. No. 

Q. 'Should we be baptized at all ? 

G. Yes. For if we contemn it, we deny the p o s s es i on 
of grace. 

Q« Do you hold it lawful to baptize children ? 

G. I am no anabaptist, I thank God. 

Q. How far do you differ from them ? 

G. As far as truth is from error. 

Q. You have a boy unbaptized. How old .is be ? » 

G. A year and a half. 

Q. What is his name? 

G. Abel, 

Q. Who gave him that name i 

« Here Mr. Greenwood attempted to aniga reaioiii for wbat Jie laidt bat 
wai not laffered to proceed. 

- 'omsENWoen. at 

G. Myfldf, being fiitber. 

Q, miy hadi he not been bttptUBed ? 

6. Because I have bei» in priacm, and amnot tell irhert 
tp go to a refonooed clHirch^ wbere I iniglit have kim bap- 
tized ac^cording to God's ordinance. 

Q. Will you go to duiich, to St Bridges? 

G. I know of no such church. 

Q. Will you go to St. Paul's ? 

G. No. 

Q. Do you not hold a parish to be the diurch ? 

G. If dl tte pec^e ivere faithful, haying God*s law and 
ordinances practised among them, I do. 

Q. Do you then hold, that the parish doth make it no 
4hureha *. 

G. No. But the profession which the people make. 
• Q. Do you hold that the' diurch ought to be governed 
by a presbytery ? 

G. Yes, eviery coingr^atioQ of Christ ought to be go- 
verned 1^ that presb^ery whieh Christ hath appointed. 

Q. What are those officers ? 
./G; A pastor, teacher, and dder. 

Q. And must the church be goremed by no other 
officers ? 

G. No, by no others than Christ hath appointed. 

Q. May this people and presbytery reform such things as 
are amiss, without the prince ? 

G. They ou^t to practise God's laws, and correct 
vice by fhe censure of tne word. 

Q. What if the prince/or&ttf them ? 

G. They must, nevertheless, do that which God com-' 

Q. If the prince otttaady may the presbytery ezcom*- 
srunicate him ? 

, G. The whole church may excommunicate any member 
of that church, tf the party continue obstinate in open 

Q. May the prince be excommunicated ? 

G. There is no exception of persons ; and I doubt 
not that her majesty would be ruled by the word. For it 
m not the men^ but the zDord j>f Body that bindeth and 

Q. May fhe prince then make laws for the government 
of the church ? 

G. The scripture balh set down sufficient laws for the 


wogdiip of God^ and the goreniae&t of the i^uich; se 
fbt no man may add nnto it, nor diminish from it. 

Q. What MtLj joQ of the prince's snpremacy 2 Is hef 
nsKsty suprane hnd of the church, in all causes^ ai' 
weu ecdeuastical, as civU ? 

G. Sbe is sapreme magistr^ o?er all peiaoni, to punish 
the eyil, and d^end the good. 

Q. Is she over off emcfef ^ 

G. No. Christ is the only head of his chnrch; and his 
laws may no man alter. 

Q. But the pope giyeth this to princes, doth he not ? 

G. No, he cloth not. He setteUi himsdf above princo^ 
and exempteth his priesthood from the magistrate's sword. 

Q» What say Vou of the oath of suprranacy i Do you 
apmore of it ? 

G. If these ecclesiastical orders mean such as are agree- 
able to the scriptures, I do. For I deny all foreign power. 

Q. It means the order and goyemment, witii aD the laws 
in the church, as it is now established. 

G. Then 1 will not answer to approve c£ it.* 

From the above examination, the reader will clearly se^ 
that Mr. Greenwood's judges designed to make him accuse 
himself. Though he positively refused to take the oalh 
ex officio^ they certainly intended to make him an ofiender 
by what they could force from his own mouth. Cruel 
inquisitors I What would they have thought, if the^ them« 
selves had been treated thus, in the Moody days of Qwen 
Mary ? Such shocking barbarities will be a stigma upon 
the ecclesiastical rulers of this protestant counUy, to the 
latest posterity. 

At the close of the abovi examination, Mr. Greenwood 
was carried back to prison, where he remained a lon^ time 
under close confinement. Here he had many companions hs 
bondage, as appears from a paper now before m^ aitifle^ 
^^ The names of sundry faitbfid Christians imprisoned bjr 
the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Bishop of London, 
for the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ." In this paper it 
is obiervea, that Mr. Greenwood and Mr. Barrow had been 
imprisoned thirty weeks in the Clink, for reading a portion 
of scripture in a frierid's house on the Lord's day, but 
were removed by an habeas carpus to the Fleet, where tbeK 
by upon an execution of two hundred and sixty poundb 

« EsMBlBstiooi of Bsrrowi Gret nwoo4, ani Penry, p. 88— 8S. 


ci^iece« Heniy Thompfion and Georee Collier were com« 
mitt^ to the Clink by the Bishop of London, for hearing 
Mr. Greenwood read a portion of scripture as above ob* 
served ; and had remained prisoners nineteen months withoot 
bdhg called* to answer. Jerome Sindiey was sent to the 
.Compter, by his lordship, for refnsing to answer interroea^ 
lories, where he remained Sfteen months. Christopher 
iloper was committed close prisoner by the Bishop of Lon- 
don. fidw^H-d Boys was nineteen months in Bridewell, and 
afterwards close prisoner in the Clink. John Chamber was 
committed to the same prison, for hearing Mr. Greenwood 
read as above, where he died. Roger Jackson was sept 
«lose {Hrisoner to Newgate, where he died. George Bright, 
for commendinff a faithful christian under persecution, was 
committed to Newgate, where he died. Maynard, Roe, 
and Barrow, three aged widows, were cast into Newgate, 
by the Bisjiop of Lpndon, for hearing Mr« Greenwood reaa 
a^rtion of scripture^ and two of them died of die 
infection of the prison. Quintin Smyth was committed ta 
Newgate, confined in a dungeon, loaded with irons, and his 
Bible itaken from him.. John Piurdye was sent to Bridewell 
by the Archbishop of Canteibury, where he was confined in 
a place called LUile Eascy and beaten with CMdgels, for 
xwmng to {^tend the ^emrice of the parish chiUQc]^. There 
are many 4>thers who underwent similar barbarous uswe ;• 
but these are given as a specimen, shewing the q)irit of the 
iiines, and the crael oppressions of the lonilv prelates. 

Suiing these inhuman proceedings, the Bishop of London, 
and others of the high commission, appointed forty-three 
ministers to confer with the same number pf Browni^ con- 
fined in the different prisons in and about London; (the 
names of whom, as well as the prisoners, are now before 
me ;) and delivered unto tbera for their direction, << A Brief 
>of the Positions held by the new Sectaries, being twelve in 
iraiijber.'' These twelve positions, as charged against them 
by their adversaries, are full oi errQniM>i|3. heretical, and 
blasphembus opiiMons ; hut they contl^n uttl^ n^pre than 
misirepres^tatioi^. Therdbre, to these positions they pub- 
lisbea a reply, entitled << A brirf Answer to certain slanderous 
sod ungodly Calumniations spread- abroad by the Bishops 
imd their Adherents, against mvers faithful and true Chns- 
iians,'V 1590. In this piiM^e, they absolutely denied the 
|W4 odious chiuges brought against them, and openly 

• Baker'i Mj^ Co.qsc. Ypl. ziy. P* 911. 


deokred what thej believed in all the twdve particuIaTa; 
and it appears, my autlior adds^ that they held very few or 
none of those false doctrines or positions with which they 
were charged.* 

Mr. Greenwood and Mr. Barrow united with about sixty 
other prisoners^ in laying their case at the feet of the lora 
treasurer. This they did by presenting a petition to this 
honourable person, called <^ The humble Petition of many 

?oor Christians, imprisoned by the Bishops in ^ndiy 
'risous in and about London." In this petition, they 
earnestly beseech this great statesman, either to grant them 
speedy trial, or some christian conference ; or, in the mean 
time, that they might be bailed according to law : or, that 
he would move their cause before the rest of her majesty's 
most honourable privy council. They then state their case 
in the following very moving language : — " May it please 
<' your lordship to understand, th^ we^ her majesty's loyal^ 
^< dutiful, and true-hearted subjects, to the number of three- 
^^ score pers(His and upwards, have, contrary to all law and 
'^ equity, been imprisoned, separated from our trades, wives, 
'< children, and families ; yea, shut up close prisoners from 
<< all comfort : many of us the space of two years and a 
^' half, upon the bishops* sole commandment, in great 
^^ penury, and noisome prisons ; many ending their Iives^ 
<^ never called to trial; some haled forth to the sessions; 
^* some put in irons and dungeons ; some in hunger and 
<< famine. All of them debarred from any lawful audience 
^< before bur honourable governors and magistrates, and 
<< from all help and benefit of the laws : daily defiuned and 
^^ falsely accused, by published pamphlets, private sng^ 
^^ ffestions, open preaching, slanders, and accusations of 
<^ heresy, sedition, schism, and what not. And above aUy 
^ (which most toucheth our salvation,) they keep us from 
'^^ all spiritual edification and comfort, by doctrine, maje^ 
^ or mutual conference'^ This petition, however, did not 
succeed according to their wishes. 

Boring their long and severe imprisonment, varioos 
pamphlets were published against them, whereby tiidr 
characters were foully aspersMl, and their sentiments ex* 
eeedingly misrepresented. In reply, they published several 
pamphlets, in defence of themselves and their opinions^ and 
endeavoured to set forth the truth in its proper liffht. Mr, 
Greenwood and Mr. Barrow were supposed to be we authoQi 

• MS. Chronology vol. ii. p. 4S5. (8) (3.) 
f Strypc't Anuals, toI. It. p. 91*M. 


of ihaie publicatioiiS) in whidi Uiej expressed tlieinsdyet 
with (XMisiderable freed<mi against the bishops, and the 
established church. Therefore, March 81, 1592, thejr, 
together with Mr. Saxio Bcllot, gent., Daniel Studlejr^ 

Sirdler, and Robert Bowie, fishmonger, were indicted al 
le Old BaUey, upon the statute of 23 Eliz. << For writing 
and publishin^r sundry seditions books and pamphlets^ 
lending to the slander of the queen and govemment ;" when, 
in filet, they had written and published only against the 
diurch. Upon their trial, they behaved with great con- 
-itaBcy and resolution, shewing no token of recognition, nor 
prarer fi>r mercy. They protested their inviolable loyalty 
to Uie queen, and obedience to her goyemment : that they 
never wrote, nor so much as ever intended to write, any 
thing against her highness, but only against the bishops 
and the established church ; which was, indeed, sufficiently 
maniiest. The jury, however, savouring too much of tto 
spirit of their judges, brought them all in guilty.* Bellot, 
with tears, desired a conference, and conferaed with sorrow 
what he had done ; and Studley and Bowie being looked 
upon as accessaries only, though they continued firm, 
dedarinsf their unshaken loyalty to the queen, and refusing 
to aisk for mercy, were reprieved, and sent back to prison, 
Studley, after four years' imprisonment, was banished from 
the country, and Bellot and Bowie, not long after, died in 
Newgate.i- In the mean time, Mr. Greenwood and Mr. 
fianow were reserved for public examples.t Accordingly, 
sentence of death was passed upon them March S3d, wnen 
Beva:al divines were appointed to persuade them to recant. 
But remaining steadfast, they were carried, on the last of 
Harelip in a cart to Tyburn, and for some time e^osed 

« 8trype*t Whitgift, p. 414, 415, 

-¥ MS. Remarks on Hist. p. 454. 
. t Abcknt this time, Mr. Barrow presented a petition to the Attoney- 
Q^enX l^rton, in which, after hambly requesting the favour of aa 
iapartial conference, in behalf of himself and his brethren then confined 
Id prifOD, he thus addressed him: — ** I protest to your worship, in the 
*f light of God, at whose judgment I look hourly to stand, that I hold 
*^ not aay thing out of singularity, or pride of spirit; but am certainly 
** persuaded by the grounds of Gnd*s word, the profession and practice 
*' of the reformed churches, and learned men of other countries. I, for 
*f my own part, avow unto your worship, that, through God*s grace, 
** I will utterly forsake any error I shall be proved to hold, and will 
^* hambly submit In all matters .proved by the word of God. — By this 
** charitable act, your worship may pot an end to the present controversies, 
** reduce all wherein we err; and appease many christian souls. — Signed 
'* yoir worship^s humble snppliiUit^ Heicrt Borrow.'* 

Sfnopi't Jmmlif vol. It. p. 171. 



under the gallows before the people, to see whetheif.tbt 
terrors of death would not frighten them. They, neverthcr 
^fis, continued firm even in the immediate prospect of deaths 
and were brought back to Newgate. April 6, 1593, thej 
prere carried to Tyburn a second time, ancl there executed.* 
At the place of execution, they eave such testimonies of 
iheir unfeigned piety towards (lod, and loyalty to thi^ 
queen, praying so earnestly for her long and prosperous 
Teign, that when Dr. Uainolds, whaattended them, reported 
their behaviour to her majesty, she repented of having ccp<t 
jented io their death.f The doctor signified to her majesty^ 
^' that he was persuaded, if they had lived, they would 
Iiuve been two as worthy instruments for the church of God, 
as any that had been raised up in that age.*' The quedn, 
jftfterwards riding by the place of their execution, called to 
mind their sufiering death, and, desirous to obtain some 
further information concerning them, demanded of the Earl 
of Cumberland, who was present at their death, what kind 
of end they made. He answered, " A very godly end, 
and prayed for your majesty, state, &c." Also, Mr. Hiilips, 
a most worthy a;rd famous preacher, having conferred with 
Mr. Barrow, gnd beheld his holy preparatioii for death, 
said, '' IJari'QW, Barrow, my soul be ^itp thine.''t Apd we 
learn from jtoe famous Mr. Hugh Broughton, who liye^ io 
jthe$e times, ^' that though Barrow and Greenwood were 
condemned for disturbance of the state ; this would have 
been pardoned, and their lives spared, if they would have 
prcmiised to come to church."^ Thus Uiey suffered for 
their nonconformity ! 

Their trial for offences against the state, when they had 
)vritten againi^t the bisliops and the chi^rch qnly, was 
undoubtedly the artful pontrivance of Archbishop Whitgift ; 
who, by so doing, cast the odium of their death mm 
himself upon the ciyil magistrate. Indeed, this chargje is 
fiiirly brought against him by one of the sufferers. Ihfr* 
Barrow, having suffered confinement in close prison several 
years, exposed to all the severities of cold, nakedness, and 
famine, at length presented a supplication to the queen, 
earnestly desiring to be delivered from their present mise- 
ries, though it were by death. The paper was, however, 
intercepted by the archbishqp, who ^deavour^ to prevaa^ 

• Heylin'8 Hist, of Presby. p. 324, 325. 

•^ NeaPs Hist, of Puritaps, vol. i. p. 884. Aiti^ Edit. 

1 Peirce's VindicatioD, part i. p. 147. 

( Broughton*8 Works, vol. ii. p. 731. Sd it 1601. 


II knowledge of their sitiiatioii firmn comiiig to the eals all 
the qpeen. Mr. Barrow^ thcfefcHre, exposed his grace's 
behaviour, in the following smart language : — ^< The arch* 
^bishop/' sajs he, << haying sent so many men to diven 
^ prisons, as Bridewell, Newgate^ the two Compters, tho 
** white-lion, and the Fleet, now posted these things to the 
** dril magistrate. He hath destined brother Greenwood 
^ and myself to death, and others to close prison ; their 
^ poor wives and children to be cast out of the city, and 
^ th^ir ^oods to be confiscated. Is not this," says he, '< a 
^ christian bishop ? Are these the virtues of him, who takes 
<< npcm himself the caie and government of the churches 
^ in the IsQoid, to tear and devour Good's poor sheep, to rend 
^ off their ilesh and break their bones, and chop them in 
^ ineces as flesh for the cauldron ? Will he thus instruct 
^ a|id convince gainsayers ? Surely he will persuade but 
^' feipv^ who fear God, to hjs relirion, by this evil dealing. 
^^ Does he consult his own credit, or the hosour of his 
^ prince, by this tyrannical havock? For our parts, our 
'< lives ar^ not dear unto us, so that we may finish our. 
^ testimony with joy. We are always ready, through the 
^ giraoe of Grod, to be offered up upon the testimony of the 
^^ nith that we have made."* When, therefore, their 
wlidle case is impartially considered, we think there was 
Bot much cause for Mr. Strype to call. these passumate 
and angry expressions. These unhappy men undoubtedly 
fdl a sacrifice tp the resentment oi an angry prelate; who 
hf nevertheless, dienominated << a very worthy man."f 

b the mean time, while we condemn the severity with 
3Rr]ucli Uiese men were treated, we do not mean to palliate 
their errOTs. Their rigid and narrow sentiments concerning 
disciplme ; their denying the church of England to be a 
true church; their maintaining that her government was 
so wholly popish and antichristian as to render all hes 
ordinances and sacraments invalid; and their not only 
lenouncing OHnmunion with her, but with all other reformed 
churphes, excepting such as were according to their own 
model, are sufficient proofs how strongly they were tinged 
with bigotry. The true grounds of religious freedom 
wer^ at this period, so little understood, that it b exceed- 
ingly probable, that, if the Browiiists had risen in power, 
they would have exercised it in a very unjustifiable manner. 
The condemnation ^d execution of Mr. Barrow and 

« 8trjpe*f Whitgifl, p. 41 a, 410. 
i Gnuiser*8 B\og. UHU f ol. i. p. SOS. 


Graenwood, were ads of flagiant injiuftice and cnidtjyttid 
will stand as moniiments of diagnce to the leign ol (j^een 
Eliffibetti, as durable as time.* 

. Upon this part of oar English Ustory, the jadiclaos 
Rapin observes, << That the queen hearkened to the mk^ 
gestions of the clergy, who represented the pniilaiis at 
seditious persons ; who rebelled against tlie laws, and, by 
their disobedience, shook the foundations of the gOT^mmeoti 
This is not the only time, nor is England the only state, 
where disobedience in point of rdigion, has been <xm« 
founded with rebellion against the sovneign* There is 
scarcely a christian state, where the prevafling sect wiU 
suffer- the least division, or the least swervitig from the 
established opinions; no, not even in private. Shall I 
venture to sa^, it is the clergy chiefly who support this 
strange principle oi non-tderation, so little agreeable to 
christian charity? The severity of which, from this time, 
began to boiexercised upon the nonconformists in Englaand^ 
produced terrible effects in the following reigns, and occa* 
sioned doubles and factions which ranain to this day/ V 

Mr. Greenwood published <^ A Briefe Refutation of Mn 
George Gifford ;" and << An Answer to George Giffoid^ 
pretended Defence of Read-Prayers and Devised Liturgies;-* 
in the titles of which, he calls himself ^' Christ's poor 
afflicted Prisoner in the Fleet, for the Truth of the 

William Smyth was bom about the year 1563, and 
•dacated, most probably, in the university of Cambridge. 
On his entrance upon the sacred function, he was or- 
dained by the Bishop of Coventry and lachfidd, and 
licensed to preach by the Bishop of Sarum, when bt 
became minister at Bradford in Wiltshire. Having oon* 
tinued in thb situation for some time, he went to Londflo, 
attended the private assemblies of the Brownists* congrega- 
tion, and probably became a zealous and active member of 
the church ; for which he was cast into prison, where he 
lemained a long time. During his confinement, he was 
frequently carried before the inqmsitors of the high com* 
mission and the star-chamber, and after examination, with 
a view to make him confess and accuse himself and his 
brethren, he was sent back to prison. On one of these 

• Biog. Brilan. vol. ii. p. 021. Edit. 1778. 
f Rapin'i Hist, of Eog. vol. U, p, UU 


ooesriotis, April 5, 1598, he was oooTened belbre tbe Deaa 
of Westmin^er, Mr. Dale, Mr. Barnes, and Mr. Youngs 
wluen be underwent an examinatimi, of which the following 
jMurticiilais are preserved : — He said he had been m prisot 
ubmA two months, committed by Dr. Stanhope and othen^ 
on- snqndon of being privy to the matters concerning the 
coffin, (lefening, -no doubt, to the cofEji of Mr. lumx 
Qijicmi,)- carried to Mr. Young's door« He said also uat 
he had been examined first before Mr. Young and Mr. 
Tofwnsend; next before the Bishop of Lmdon and others; 
andlasfly before the Lord Chief Justice and Judge Anderson^ 
but never, to his knowledge, was indicted. He ccmfessea 
that he had been at an assemUy, in the house of Mr. Lees^ 
near Smithfield ; but when he was asked whether he be^ 
longed to that church, of which Mr. Johnson was pastor, he 
lefiwd to answer.^ Also, when it was demanded wheAer 
he had ever any of Barrow's, Greenwood's, or Penry 's books 
in his poGieBsion, he again refused to answer. Heacknow* 
ledged that he came up to Londcm to confer with Mr. 
JomisoB, Mr. Greenwooa, and others, and that he attended 
the assembly in Lees's house, on purpose to hear and see 
theiT oiders in church matters. He refused the oath e» 
officio; and when he was asked whether he would go to the 
parish church, he refused to be bound, but was desirous to 
hare 4 omference^* Great numbers of Brownists were 
BOW confined in the different prisons in and about London, 
many of whose names, and flieir crimes, with their cruel 
iisaee, are now before me. , The two principal crimes with 
idiich they ware charged by their enemies, were, their 
having seen or possessed certain books supposed to hate 
ben published by Barrow, Greenwood, or Pehry ; and 
their having joined the congregation of Brownists, which, 
to avoid me persecution of the bishops, assembled iu 
private houses, in the fields, and in woods. For these sig* 
nifieant dfenoes, ihey were stigmatized as rebels, and com* 
mined to filthy prisons, where many of them died, and 
others, after a' miMrable imprisonment cS fourth fi^ yean^ 
weie banished ftmn the country. Mr, Smyth vras probably 
of this number.f 


• Baker*! MS. Collec. vol. xt. p. Ill, U«. + Ibid. p. 50— UT. 


Thomas Settle was bom about the year 1555, and moil 
probably educated in the naiTemty of Cambridge. He 
was ordained by Bishop Freak, after which he became 
minister of Bo^toi in SimMk, and a sealoosnoDOonfiMmial; 
bat was roughly used by Arohbishra Whitgift. In Maj^ 
1586, being cited before his ^nuse at Lambeth, the fellowi^ 
charges were ezhHiited wamst him : — ^^ That he did aot 
observe the mrder in the Book of Gommon Prayer. — ^Th«t 
he did not use tlue cross, nor admit the promise and rtmim 
baptism.^ — ^That he did not marry with the ring, and aay, 
5 .With this ring I thee wed.'«— That he frequented oonfoi- 
tides. — That he doiied the lawfolness of private bmtim 
by women, and the baptism ot ministeri who could 'M 
preach. — ^And that he denied that the soul of our Saviour 
went into hell, or the regions ot the damned.'' 
* Upon the exhibiticm of these charges against Mr. Settle^ 
iie was first examined upon our LcHrd's descent into hell ; when 
he confessed it was his opinion, that Christ did not desoend 
locally into hell, aikl that Calvin, Besa, and other teamed 
men, were of the same opinion. This put the ardibiaium 
-into so violent a passion, that he called him ofs, dot^fmif 
and added, they are Ban.* Mr. Settle said, <^ Yoo o«^j^ 
-not to rail at me, being a minister of the gospd.*' ^^ Mliat, -' 
replied his lorddiip, << dost thou think it much to be called 
ass and dolt ? I have called many of thy belteis ao.'.' 
f^ True," observed Mr. Settle ; ^< but the question is^ horn 
lawfully you have done that." The loidly archbtabop 
ithen said, << Thou shalt preach no more in my pmvince^v 
'Mr. Settle answered, << I am called to {Hreadbi the goqpdl, 
and I will not cease to preach it" The archbishop, with a 
stem countenance, replied, << Neither yoii, nor any one m 
England, shall preach without my leave ;" and imuMdisriiidy 
commanded him to be carried close prisoner to the Gttb* 
bouse. Before his departure, the Dean of Westminstar 
asking him whether he had subscribed, Mr. Settle replied, 
.^ Yes; I have subscribed, and am ready to subsciibe 
again, to the doctrine of faith and sacraments, being as 
much as the law requires: but to other rites' and ceremof 
Hies, I neither can nor will subscribe.'* << Then," said.tbt 
angry archbishop, << thou shalt be subject to the ecclesiastical 

* This prelate is commeoded as a wortliy aod pradent govaraor of iOm 
charclii and his mild and moderate carriage, it irsaid, was well worthy of 
imitation 1 This good man expired in David's Idlness of days, leaving a 
name like sweet perfume behind him I Ponfe'i Lifi 0/ fTMigiftj JPn/.-^ 
Mumsts Mist, of Eng, yoh II p. t6i. 

•utWoriiy/' Mr. Settle replied, « I thank God, y(m cart 
use no violence only upon my poor body." So Wbitgift 
<)Oitmiitted him close prisoner to the Gatehouse, where the 
gciod man continued about six yeurs;* till the year 1592|f 
whien he was released. 

After hi9 deliverance from this cruel bondage, Mr. Settle 

becttme a member of the Brownists'. congre^tion, whidk 

assembled in private places in and about London. His 

troubles^ however, were not ended : bonds and afflictions 

were still awaiting him. For, towards the close of the 

above year, he was apprehended at a private assembly, held 

in 4ke school-house ^ Mr. Gewge Johnson, in Nicholas* 

lan^ and oonmiitted to prison. After remaining under 

tDonfinemeiit for fifteen weeks, without either examination 

or indictment, he was carried before the high commission^ 

vAfril ^ 159^ when he was required to take tlie oath 

^' offiAt^ but he absolutely lefusexL Though he would not 

iMseilse either fain^elf or his brethren ; yfA.^ during his 

^ cttmin ation, he acknowledged certain things, from which 

m^ have collected the following particulars :i— Me confessed 

that be had held his opinions, and separated himself irom 

Ae' established church, for about a year; but had not 

itMoeived the sacrament in the parish church for three years. 

He acknowledged that he had opposed the discipline of the 

church ftwr seven years; but he refused to say by what 

means he had been induced to imbibe these opinions. 

Wlieit hef>?as commanded to say whether he possessed, or 

had ever read, any of Barrow's, Greenwood's, or Penry't 

liookSi he refused to give a direct answer, but said, he 

^fould not be his own accuser. Being asked how many he 

bad persuaded, and brought over to his opinions, he said; 

lie was firmly fixed in what he professed, and was desirous 

of bringing over as many others as he was able ; but more 

he would not answer. 

' He^ mcHtever, confessed, that he was present at the 
usaembly in a house in Aldgate, when Robert Stokes was 
^excommunicated for his apostacy ; and that he was excom- 
mdnicated l^ Mr. Francis Johnson tlie pastor, when the 
test of Ae omcers and congregation were present, and con- 
^wmted to what was done. He said, also, that he had never 
served in any office in the congregation; but had occa- 
isionatly taught or prophesied in the assembly. He like^ 
wisje.confesi^, that he had received the Lord's supper in 

• MS. Refiiter, p« 79S, f Stope*i Aoaaliy vol. iv. p. 9(1. 


their congr^tito, in a house near Smithfield, but he knew 
not whose the house was. He, at the same time, refused to 
attend the public service of the parish churches ; because^ 
he thought, they had not a true ministry .••^This was the 
rault 01 the inquisition of his spiritual judges; but it does 
not appear how long he remained in prison : most probAMy 
he was released upon the general banishment of 

^OHK Penbt, A.M.w.This distinguidied puritaa was 
horn in Brecknockshire, in the year 1559, and educated first 
at Cambridge, then at St. Albans-hall, Oxford, where he 
took his degree of Master of Arts in 1586. <^ When he 
first went to Cambridge,^' says Wood, << he was as arrant 
m papist as ever came out of Wales, and he would have' 
ran a felse gallop over his beads with any man in Enj^andy 
and help the priest sometimes to say mass at midnighLV 
Admitting he was then much inclined to popery, being only 
about eighteen years of a^e, we need not wonder, espe» 
cially when it is recollected, that the country whence bi 
came was then wholly overspread with popish darkness. 
However, as our author intimates, he soon renounced 
popery ; and, after taking his degrees, became an esteemed 
preacher in both universities, where he was accounted '^ m 
tolerable scholar, an edifying preacher^ and a good man;" 
This, from so bitter an author, is certainly a very high 
character of so rigid a puritan. <^ But," he adds, ^< htwg 
full of Welsh blood, and of a hot and restless bend, he 
.chained his course, and became a notorious anateptisC^ 
and in some sort a Brownist, and a most bitter enemy to the 
church of England."f He was, undoubtedly, an en^y tfr 
the hierarchy, and the persecution of the prelates, wd m 
zealous promoter of a further reformation. 

Upon Mr. Penry's leaving the university, he settled fiir 
some time at Northampton, where he was most probacy 
employed in the ministry. About the year 1587, Iw enteied 
upon nis suffering in the cause of nonconfonnity, betdff 
conveimd before Archbishop Whilgift, Bishc^ Cooper, and 
other high commissioners. The charge brought against 
him was, that in a book he had published, he hu assertecL 
<^ That mere readers, meaning such as could not^ or irouU 
not preach, wor^- no ministers. Reading : homilies onl^i or 

PENRT. 48 

any other boobs/' he said, " was not preaching the word 
of God, and so the ordinary means of salvation was 
wanting.*' During his examination, the Bishop of London 
asking aim what he had to say ngainst nonresidents, he said, 
** Ttey aire odious in the sight of God ; because, to the 
utmost of their power, they deprive the people of the 
ordinary means of salvation, which is the word preached." 
When the bishop demanded whether preaching was the onlu 
means of salvation, Mr. Penry replied, " It is the only 
ordinary means." This he endeavoured to confirm, from 
the fdlo^ing portions of scripture : ^^ How shall they heat 
without a preacher? — It pleased God, by the foolishness 
of preachii^, to save them that beli(!ve. — In whom also ye 
toasted, after ye heard the word of truth." Having, for a 
considerable time, discussed Mr. Penry's assertion, that the 
word is the only ordinary means of salvation, the Bishop 
cf Winchester arose, and said, '' I assure you, my lords, it 
is an execrable heresy." " An heresy !" replied Mr. 
Peoxy, "I th^k God that I ever knew that heresy. It is 
such a heresy, as I will, by the grace of God, sooner leave 
my life than leave it." The bishop then said, << I tell thee, 
it is a heresy ; and thou shalt recant it as a heresy.'' 
'* Never," replied Mr. Penry, " God willing, so long as I 
live. ' Thot^h his lordship ailerwards endeavourra to 
defend himseff against what is here ascribed to him, he 
seends to have been very unsuccessful.* It also appears, ) 
that Whil^nft supported his brother of Winchester in his V 
assertion, that Penry's opinion was an execrable heresy, -^ 
and that he should recant it as such ; adding, ^' that such 
heathenjsh nntruth is to be pitied rather than answered."t :; 
Mn Peary was, therefore, committed to prison ; and, after\ 
about a month's confinement, was discharged without any^ 
fiutim proceeding. But presently after his release, they 
sent their pnrsiiivants with warrants to apprehend him, and 
ccmmiit him to prison. Walton, one or their pursuivants, 
went immediately to Northampton ; and upon enteruie Mr. 
Peniy's house, ransacked his study, and took away all the 
books and papers which he thought proper ; but Mr. Penry 
was not to be foand.t 

Upon the publication of Martm Mar-Prelate, and other 
satincal pamphlets, a special warrant was issued from the 
council, in 1590, under several hands, of which Whit<]rift*s 
was one, to seise and apprehend Mr. Penry, as an enemy to 

• Strrpe*! AdosIi, toI. Hi. p. 57S, 674. t Strype*i Whitgift, p. 806. 
{ MS. Chn>nolos7> vol. U. p. 4ST. (8.) 

TOIi. U. C 



tbc state; and that all the qneen's good subjects iluNdd 
take him so to be. But Mr. Penry, about the same time^ 
urent into Scotland, not merely for safety firom the atonn, 
but as a student in diyinity, where he remained tUI the 
year 1593. While he was in the north^ he made nymy 
observaticms rdatiye to religion, for his own private we ; 
and, at length, prepared the heads of a petition or aaaddieii 
to the queen. This petition was designed to repremt to 
her majesty the true state of religion, and how jlgiigiBiit 
she was of the manv abuses in tte church. LikiewJM to 
intercede with her, that he might, by her aulhprity, liafe 
liberty to go into Wales, and preach the gospel in hianuptife 
country, where, indeed, it was nmch wanted. He iiyteodeJ 
himself to deUyer it to the queen, as he should Sad 
opportunity. The heads of the petition, clothed in plain 
ana smart language, were as follows : 

<< The last days of your reign axe turned rather against 
<' Jesus Christ and his goqpd, than to the maintqiance of 
f^ the same. 

^^ I haye great cause and complaint, madam f fWj ^ 
<< Lord and bis church haye cause to complahi os yo«f 
^ goyanment, because we, your subjects, this day, ave not 
^ permitted to serye our £rod, under your goyenumcnt, 
^^ according to his zDordj but are sold to be bondslaves, not 
<^ only to our affections, to do what we will, so that we 
^^ keep ourselyes within the compass of established civil 
^^ laws, but also to be servants to the man of sm (^ pcpe) 
^^ and his ordinances. 

^< It U not the force, that we seem to fear that wiQ cope 
<^ upon us, (for the Lord may destroy both you for deioyiiig^ 
<< and us for slack seeking of his will,) by strai^ESts : I 
^< come unto you with it. If you will hear it, our jcwpe 
^^ may be eased ; if not, that posterity may knpw tha^ ym 
^ have been dealt with, and that this age may know fbat 
€c there is no expectation to be looked for at your handB. 

<^ Among the rest of the princes under the gospel, that 
^c have been drawn to oppose it, you must think yourself to 
<< be one ; for until you are this, madamy you wst^ not 
<^ yourself; and they are but sycophants and flatjtepen 
<< whoever tell you otherwise : your standi]^ is and has bpcn 
f< by the gospel. It is little beholden to you for any ii^ng 
^^ that appears. The practice of your ffovemment sheifPi 
^ diat if you could haye ruled without me gospel, it woqid 
^ have been doubtful whether the gospel should be estab* 
^JWiclil or not; finr oow that you are established ioe yom 

PENRY. 61 

«< ihroqe by the goqiel, you suffer it to reach no further than 
^ the eii)d of your sceptre limiteth unto it. 
. << If ,^ hadhad Queen IMbiy 's days, I think that we should 
^ haVe had as iBourishing a churcn this day as eyer am ; 
^^ for it is well^ there was then in London^ imder 
¥iiie ^burden, and elsewhere in esUe, more flourishing 
^ churches thw any now tolerated by your authority. 

^ Now, whereas we shouM hftye your help both to joia 
^< oundyes with the true churchy and reject the fidse, and 
{^ all the ordinances thereof; we are in your kingdom per* 
f^mitted to do nothing, but accounted sedUhuiy if we 
^ «flbm either the one or the other of the former points i 
^ and therefor^ madantj you are not so much an adversary 
^^ to us poor men. as unto Jesus Christ, and the wealth of 
^ his kingdom. 

^ If .we cannot have your fiiYOur, but by oiinittinff our 
<< 4Pty to God, we are unworthy of it; and, by uod'a 
i^ grace, we mean not to purchase it so dear. 

I< Bu^ madamy thus much we must needs say, that, in all 
!^ li)»dUhood, if the days of your sister Queen Muy, and 
5^ her persecution, had ccmtinued unto this day, that the 
« chiurdi of God in England had been far more flourish- 
5^im tJ^ at this day it is : for then, madam^ the church 
f^ cjrGqa within this land^ and elsewhere, bei^ strangers, 
>f,q[yoyfi4 the ordinances of God's hdy word, as flu as 
^ then they saw. 

^< But since your nugeUy came unto your crown, we 
f^ have had whole Christ Jesus, God and man ; but we 
<^ inust serve him only in heart 

,^ And if those days had continued to this time^ and those 
.^lights risen therein which by the mercy of God have 
f^ aince shined in England, it is not to be doubted but the 
,« church of England, eren in England, had fieir suifpassed 
/> |dl thejm^ormra churches in the world. 

^ Then, fMdam^ any of our brethrra durst not have been 
'<^ seen within the tents of antichrist : now they are ready 
f^ to de&na them to be the Lord^s, and that he has no other 
^ .tabem)ic|e upon earth but them. Our brethren then durst 
'^.not temporize in the cause of Grod, because the Lord 
,« ruled himself in his church, by his own layrs, in a good 
. <' ,niB|i8uxe ; but now, behdld I tliey may do what they will, 
^<> jRw any sword that the church lias to draw against them, 
'« if they cimtain themsdyes within your laws* 

^^ This peace, under these conditions, we cannot enjoy ; 
^ and therefore, for any thing I can see, Queea Mary's dayi 


lii^om of antichrist can in no wise be whole and Mfiie 
witnout them. And if it be not lawful for the memb^ ii 
Christ to be subject to the ceremonies of the JeWs, -mbith 
God himself once appointed, how can it be otherwise than 
m sreat sin, to snUect oUrselves to the appointments df 
totichrist, the Lord s great adversary ? The Lord hatih 
not delivered us from the yoke o£ his own law, (hat iffi 
miffht be in bondage to the inventions and impcMsifiOi&B of 

F. Would you then have no other oflBces in the chtkMk 
paw in time of peace and prosperity, than were in die days 
of the apostles under persecution ? 

P. There is certainly great reason we should not. ttdt 
if the order left to the church by Moses was ikot to bs 
altered, except by the special command of God ; then ikii^ 
neither man nor anffel, except by the same warraM, aUd 
any thing to that holy form which the Son of God fUSiih 
appointra for his own house : As, Heb. ill. 3., Rev. xzBl it. 

F. I am sure you allow of Luther. What office hB^iti 

P. He wajs first a monk, and so anlember of the kinjjdom 
fit antichrist. He was afterwards degraded and dtepnVra. 
At length, he was, as he called himself, << A preacHeif idf 
Chtist*s blessed truth and ^pel." And I think he had thQ 
pastoral office in the church at Wertembnig ; bulC liheXbili 
ne had, or had not, his example is no law for the chidDCh. 
It is Jesus Christ ahnej whom we must hear and follow. 
We must walk acconling to his will and word ; and if islfli 
angd from heaven would draw us aside, we date ncA ^ie 
car unto him : As, Gral. i. 8, 9. 

F. And what office had you in your church, which ttMfli 
in woods, and I know not where ? 

P. I have no office in that poor congregatixm. Anddf 
to our meeting in woods, or elsewhere, we have (te 
example of Jesus Christ, and his chtirch and servants in flu 
ages, for our warrant. It is against our wills, thai we go 
Into woods and secret places. As we ate not ashanoied of 
the gospel of Christ, so our desire is to profess it opody. 
We are ready, before men and angels, to shew and jnstoj 
our meetings, and our behaviour in them, earnestly detSs^g 
that we may serve God with peace and quietness ; fltadf ttta 
An men may witness our upright walking towards ma Gb^ 
and all the world, especiafly towards onr prinie lUn 
government We know the meeting in woods, ih (^f^ M 
moontains, &c. is apart of the cross of fbegbtM^ d^im^ 
flie iKtoial imm win eanly stnmfde; Bbt tM 1^ 


Ihb mom eifote for the Loid*8 sacred troth. The qnestion 
ihcyiild not so much be^ wkere we meet, as what we do 
at our meetings; whether our meeting and doinj^ntte 
wnranted bj the word of God, and what constnineth ui 
to meet in fliose places* 

P» We will speak of jour unlawful assemblies afterward^ 
What calling have you to preach ? Were you never made 
a minister according to the order of this land ? 

P. Had I been willinjg, I might have been made either 
deaoon or priest; but, rihank the Lord, I ever disliked 
thdae popiui orders : and, if I had taken them, I would 
nttedy refiuie them» I have taught publicly in the church 
€j£ Scotland, bein^ thereunto earnestly desired, and called 
hy the order of &at church. I never had anv charge; 
and, th€9tefi)re, I never bare any office, either there or in 
any o<^ church. 

P. Did ypu not preach in these vpur secret meetings? 
IR^iat warrant had yon so to do^ if you never had anj 
pnbtic ofllce in your chnrchF 

P. Whether I did or not, I do not at present tell you* 
Bkit tbn^ I say, that if tfie same poor cot^re^ation* dewed 
to l|aye the use of my small gifts, for edification and conso- 
Uikt, 1 would, being thereunto prepared, most willingly 
beilQW my poor talent for their mutual edification and 

i^. And mav you teach publicly in the church, having no 
pnUic offioe therein ? 

P. I may, because I am a member thereof, and requested 
Aemniatp bv the church, and judged to be, in some measure^ 
endowed with suitable gifts for handling the word of God, 
The chnrdi or bod v of Christ, ought to have the use of all 
the ^ifla that ate m any of its members, and the member 
cittttM ddiy unto the body the use of those graces with 
ifhififk it ill fiimished, without breaking the laws and order 
of the body, and thus become unnatural : As, Rom, xii«t 

• Mr. Pevfy wmi a aanber of the cinirdi of Browaiiti, acetliy ab««t 
li«aa>«, MMetiMCi Id tlie Aeldt mad woodi in the dead of the aighu to avoid 
IKH fciy of tie prelatci. Daring bii conflnanent in priion, he wrote a moa 
^'- -\ aihcCiooate, and eaooanigiiy letter, to Mr. Fnnicit Johnson, the 
j^and the rest of the brethrea. It h addressed ** Tb the distressed 

lUtbfkil CoiipesatioB of Christ in laadon, aad all the Menbcn 

Hw aa l L whather in bonds or at liberty.*' Aad he condodes by sobscribiiig 
ftilttelf •* lleir lovlnc brother, in the patience and snl^ioss of the 
fo^cl, JoBii PmaT. ▲ witness of Christ in this life, and a partaker of 
Iha jfimy that thUi ba refcaM;"— JTorasiiaatifiittf I^«mi0, QrmtmUt 


ana ft 


F. Then erery one that will, may preach the word in 
your assemblies. 

P. Not so. For we hold it imlawful for any man to 
intermeddle with the Lord's holy truth, beyond the bounds 
of his gifts; or for him who is endowed with gifisy to 
preach or teach in the church, except he be desired and 
called thereto by the body of the church. 

F. May any person then preach, who hath no office so 
to do? 

P. Yes, that he may; and the word of God bindeth 
eyenr one to preach who intendeth to become a pastor or 
teacher in the church of Christ, even before he take upon 
him this office. 

F. What office then hath he all this time i 
P. No other office than the other members of ihe body 
have^ who are bound to perform their several operations in 
the body, according to that measure of grace which they 
have received from the Lord Jesus. And, indeed, it is a 
common practice id our colleges and universities, for those 
to preach who have no office. 
F . Yf s, it is in the schools. 

P. If this exercise, according to your own confemon, be 
warrantable in the schools and colleges, it is certainly much 
more so in the church and congregation. 

F. Well, then, you bear no office in your church. You 
will not tell us whether you taught among them; but you 
say you would if they required you. 
P. True. 

F. But how came it to pass that you were not made an 
officer amoi^ them ? 

P. Doubtless I was desired to take a charge, and to con- 
tinue among them, but I would not ; beoiuse I have alwltyi 
purposed to employ my small talent in my poor counter 
of Wales, where, I know, the poor people perish finr lack 
of knowledge. 

F. You labour to draw her majesty's subjects from their 
obedience to her laws, and from the church of England, 
to hear you, and such as you, teaching in woods. 

P. Nay ; I persuade aU men to obey my prince and her 
laws. Only I dissuade all the world &om yielding obedi- 
enee and subjection to the ordinances of antichrists and 
peffuade them to be subject to Jesus Christ and his 
laws: I know this to be agreeable to the laws, of her 

F. WhatI Is it meet that sulgeds should charge tbeir 


prince to keep coyenant with them ? Where do you find 
this warranted in scripture ? 

P. The subjects are in a most lamentable state, if they 
may not allege their prince's laws for what they do; yea. 
andf shew what their prince hath promised to the Lord, ana 
to them, when this is done to proye their own innocency. 
It IS the honour of princes, so to hold and be in coyenant 
with their subjects, that they will preserye them from 
yiolence and wrong. And I am assured, that, if her 
majesty knew the equity and uprightness of our cause, we 
should not receiye the hard treatment we now sustain. We 
and our cause are neyer brought before her, es^cept in the 
odious names of sedition, rebellion, schism, heresy, &c. It 
is, therefore, no wonder to see the edge of the sword turned 
against us. « 

F. Hath not her majesty, by her laws, established the 
offipes and order now in the church of England ? 

P. I grant her laws haye, but of oyersight ; taking them 
fbr the true offices and order of the church of Christ. 
And because we see this oyersight, we therefore fly to her 
foimer promise and act, by whidi she granteth all the pri- 
▼il^seft of the church of Christ. 

F. Why go you about then to pull down bishops? 
P. Alas! be it far from us, eyer to attempt any such 
thing. We only put her majesty and state in mind of the 
wraUi of God that is likely to come upcm the land, for 
udiolding many popish inyentions. We labour for the 
aalyation of our own souls, and all those who will be warned 
by us, by ayoiding all corruptions in religion, and practising, 
so for as we know, the whole will of God. Further than 
this, we cannot go ; and, therefore, dare not so much as in 
thought, attempt to alter or puU down any thing established 
liy her laws. 

F. Whj then do you meet in woods, and such secret 
and suspicious places, if you purpose no insurrection for 
punine down the bishops ? 

P. I told you the reason already. Our meetings are for 
the true worship of God, and there is not so much as ono 
word or thought about bishops in our assemblies, except 
in praying; for them as we do for our own souls. Wc hold 
odr meetings in secret, because, as I before told you, wo 
cannot haye them in public wiUiout disturbance. We do 
not. wish to withdraw ourselyes from the sight of any 
pnatue; but we are bound to obserye the pure w< 

< ■ • - 


df God, tboDgh it be in mods^ in nfooMaSnl, or in 

F. Then yon are privy to no practice or intent of any 
leditian or commotion affsinst her majesty and the statCy <d 
fbrpnlling down the bishops ? 

P. No, I thank God, I never was. And I protest hcAart 
keaven and earth, that, if I were, I would disclose and 
withstand the same, to the utmost of my power, in all cases 

Young. But what meant jron, Penry, when yon tM mi 
at my house, that I should Uve to see the day when thert 
should not he a lord bishop left in Eosland ? 

P. You, shr, do me great injuiy, but I am content to 
bear it. I said, << because God hath jpromised to overthrow 
and consume the remnants of the kmedom of antichrist; 
you may live to see all the offices, caliings, livings, ana 
works, belonging to tiiat kingdom, utterly overtmowil*'* 
This is what I said, and I beseech and charge you, as yoa 
shall answer in the day of judgment, n^ to miarepoM 
my speech. 

Y. I conceived some great matter erf* your speech, I tdl 

P. In this you did me the gmiter wrong. I pAiy ybiu 
hiereofler, take my words according to my meaning, itnd 
their natural signification. 

F. You say, that these offices and livings, derive^ 
according to your coAceiij from the body c? anfichn^ 
shall be overthrown by ihe Lotd : we would know how thil 
will be accomplished. 

P. The work, I am assured, will be accomplished; 
because tlie Loid hath said it in hb word. But the JDatanntir 
how, and the time when, it shall be done, I leave to &&I 
^' who worketh all things according to the counsel of Ui 
own will," and whose ^^ ways and judgments are past 
indine out" 

F. What you now do, or what you mean to do, in ytfitf 
assemblies, we cannot tell ; but this is suHe, that tliB pajMi 
ieem to taJi^e encouragement by your dealing. Th^ art 
now become very numerous; and they say, that yooir 
separation from the chUiH^h is a great stumUing^Uocli 
to thenu 

P. What w<Bf do in our meetings^ and what are Out pnt^ 
pos^ I Jiave faithfully told you'; and we are ready to 
cppmve otur purposes and actions to be in all good cw^ 

FBNRt. S§ 

ifdoee towanlft tlie L(n^ crar pfince, w Axui 

if the number of ignorant and idolatrous priests greatly 
Inksrtaae, it is notMng wohdisrihl, seeing there are so many 
femnantB of poperj left unbaninhed from the land : these 
are their baits and encoiiragements. 

F. What are the baits that you mean ? 

P. I mean the popish offices and livings of archbiribopai^ 
iMAlrishops, deans, archdeacons, canons, priests, &c. : th^ 
Mn&raance of which, and the popish corruptions belonging 
id them, keepeth the pope and lus sworn subjects in mily 
IkMfe of replanting the airone of iniquity in the land ; but 
I Irast in tibe Lord, they will be utterly disappointed. fiT 
Aiete Giffices and liyings were once removed, the pope and 
Us emissaries would have no hope left, of again setting up 
the staiidard of the man 6£ sin, in this noble kingdom. 1 
weodeir not, that the pat>ists dislike our separation; for 
tfiey know, that of all the men under heaven, we are the 
liveaftest enemies to popery : we would leave them neither 
root nor branch ; but would have the world as much cleared 
ef the mnains of antichrist, as it was on that day when 
fli6 Lotd Jesus ascended up on high, and led captivity 

¥. Bat why do you reftise a conference, that you may be 
id hAilte d in' those things in which you err ? 

P. I reftise none. I most readily and willingly yield io 
imy, as Mr. Yourtg halh it tender my own ham to testify. 
OAj iby desiite and request is, that some equal conditions 
filty be grtMdd to me and my brethren. But if this 
caidauot be obtained, I am ready to yield to any conference, 
tfuMkjdi t&e conditions be ever so unequal. And 1 beseech 
f6%he a means with her majesty and their honours, that 
tky cftse may be weighed in an even balance. Imprison- 
ments, indictments and death, are no proper weapons io 
Cony&iGe mehfs consciences.* 

Heife fhe examination dosed. We leave the reader ti 
ildtje his o\m remarks ubon it, and proceed in the history 
of Ais dbtmEuished suflerer for Christ It was at first 
ditSs^ed to iuffitt Mr. Penry for the books published in his 
name ; bat, by the advice of counsel, he drew up a paper, 
Miich ptovedi the means of putting a stop to the pro* 
eee^Unff. This paptty dated Ma^ 10, 1593, is entitlecl 
^ Hr. FioDihr^s Declaration^ that he is not in danger of the hi# 
ftr t^ books puUUh^i in his name.'* In this declttatioiii^ 

• BxudiHilioBt of Bh^roW, GteaWood, and Penry, p. 85— 88» 


be observes^ that the statute was Dot intended to include 
such as nrrote against tiie ecclesiastical eslablisbment on/^. 
For, in this case, it would condemn many of the most 
learned protestants, both at home and abroad : but that it 
relates to persons who, shall defame her majesty's rojfal 
person. Wlierefis he had always written most dutifully of 
licr person and government, having never encours^j^ 
sedition or insurrection a^nst her majesty, but the con- 
trary. Nor had he ever oecn at any assembly or conven- 
ticle, where any, under or above the number of twelve, 
were assembled, with force of arms or otherwise, to alter 
any thing established by law. Nor vras it his opinion^ 
tliat private persons should, of their own authority, attempt 
any such thing: he had always spoken and written the 
contrary. Nevertheless, if he had been guilty of aU these, 
he ought to have been accused within one month of the 
crime, upon the oath of two witnesses, and have been in- 
dicted within one year; otherwise the ^tute clears him^ in 
express words.* 

When he came io the trial, the court, being apprehensive 
that his declaration would occasion an argument at law, set 
aside his printed books, and indicted and convicted him 
upon the contents of his peiUion and pmaic observations^ 
as already observed. This rendered his case still harder, 
as he himself represented in a letter to the Lord Treasurer 
Burleigh, with his protestation enclosed, immediately after 
his CiHidemnation ; m iivhich he thus expressed himself:-— 
<< Vouchsafe, I beseech your lordship, n^ht honourable, io 
read, and duly weigh, the enclosed writmg. My days, I 
see, are drawing to an end, and, I thank God, an unde- 
served end, except the Lord God stir up your honour, or 
some other, to plead my cause, and to acquaint her majesty 
with my guiltless state. 

^ The cause is most lamentable, that the private obser- 
Tations of any student, being in a foreign land, and wishing 
wdl to his prince and country, should bring his life with 
Uood to a violent end ; especially, seeing they are most 
private, and so imperfect, that they have no coherence at all 
in them; and, in most places, are no true English. ' 

<* Though my conscience may stand me in no stead 
before an earthlv tribunal, yet I know that I shall have the 
leward thereof before the judgment^seat of the great Kiuff ; 
and the merciful Lord, who relieves the widow and tne 

• Slrypc'f Whitsifl, p. 412,419. 

PENRY. 61 

GillieiieBB, will reward m^ desolate orphans and friendless 
iridpWy whom I leave behind me, and even hear their cry^ 
for be is merciful. And being likely to trouble your lord'* 
ship with no more letters, I do with thankfulness acknow* 
Ied|^ your honour's favour towards me, in receiving the 
wniii^pj which I have presumed to send unto you from 
time to time; and in this my last, I protest before the Lord 
Godj that, so fiir as I know, I have written nothing but the 

^ Thus preparing myself, not so much for an unjust 
verdict, and an undeserved doom in this life, as for that 
blessed crown of glory, which, of the great mercy of my 
God, is ready for me in heaven, I humbly commit your 
lordship into the hand of our righteous Lord. In great 
liast^ from close prison, this SSd of the iSfth month. 
May, 1593. 

<< Your lordship's most humble servant in the Lord, 

" John Penry."* 

In his protestation, enclosed in the above letter, Mr. 
Femry declaies, << That he wrote the petition and private 
observatioiis while he was in Scotland. That what he had 
written was. confused, unfinished, and perfectly secret. 
Thet it was the sum of certain objections made by others, 
against her majesty and her government, which he had 
intended to examine at some future period, but had not so 
mmsii as looked into them for the last fourteen or fifteen 
months. And that even in these writings, so imperfecL 
unfinished, and enclosed within his private study, he had 
'sibfeWn his duty and true loyalty to the queen, nor had he 
ever the most secret thought to the contrary." Here he 
also expressed himself as follows :f 

*' TKese my writings" (meaning those from which the 
chaises against him were collected) << are not only the most 
irapmect, but even so private, that no creature under 
heaven, mvself excepted, was privv to them, till they were 
■eiaed. Alin^ I dare not acknowledge them to be, for a 
thousand worlds ; because I should thereby most wickedly 
iin against God and my own conscience, by bearing false 
witness against myself. I never conceived that any man 
would have made any sense of them; especially against 
myself by whomsoever they might be intercepted. 

^^ Now that secret, confused, and unadvised observations 
are brought against me, even to the spilling of my blood; 

•. 8trype*t Whltgift, p. 413, 414. 

f Scrjpe'i WhUiift, Appea. p. 175-181 . 


I hiuiihlj cnye OiMt tbese my papers may abo be looked 
mion, and brought to light, as wdl as the othen, by which 
my adversaries think to impeach my alkyiance; which, I 
thank God, neither man nor angd shalT ever be aUe to 
effect Though I be condemned as a fi||on, or as a traitqp 
to my natural sovraeign, I thank God, t|iat heaven and 
earth shall not be able to convict me of it. I remember not 
the day that has passed over my head^ since, under her 

fivemment, I came to the knowledge of the truth, wherqui 
have not commended her estate to .God. And I thank 
God, that whensoever tbe end of m;^ days comek and f, 
expect not to live to the end of tms week, I shall d^ 
Queen Elizabeth's most fidthful subject, even in the oon<i 
aciences of mine enemies. 

^ I never took myself for a rebuker, much less fc^ f 
reformer of states and kingdoms : far was that firom ine. 
Yet, in the discbarge of my consci^ioe, all the wnld must 
bear with me, if I prefisr my testimony to the truth of 
Jesus Christ before the fitvqur of any crratiue. The pros- 
perity of my prince and the state, was always most dear 
to n^, as HE knoweth, by whom states are pWrved^ 
princes bear rule. An enemy to good order and policy, 
whetiiier in church or commonwealui, I never vras. 1 never 
did any thing in this cause, (Lord ! thou art ifritneaB^) for, 
contention, vai|i-glory, or to draw disciples af^ me. 

<< Whatsoever i have written or made known, co^itaxf 
to the written word, I have warned the world to avoid. Hj 
confession of faith, and allegiance to God and the queen, 
written since my imprisonm^it, I take, as I shall ansirar 
jbefore Jesus Christ and the elect angels, to omtain nothing 
but God's eternal truth. And, therefore, if my blood wero 
an ocean, and every drop were a life to me, I ^ddd, by 
ihe help of the Lord, give it all in, defence .of the same. 
Yet, if any error can be shewn therein, that f. ytSl nqt 

<< Great things in this life I never sought for. Suffidenqr 
I have bad, with great outward trouble ; but tinort content 
I have been with my lot. And content I am and shall be 
.Urith mv undeserved and untimely d^ith, beseeching t^ 
Lord, that it may not be laid to the charge of any person .^ 
the land • For I do, from my heart, forgive all those that Jieq^ 
•my life, as I desire to be forgiven in the day oif strict account; 
praying for tliero as for my own soid, thatthou^ we qanngt 
accord upon earth, we may meet together in heaven, to our 
fternal unity and naf^' *\tm^ And u my lieathica^ prpqure 




an^ quietnesB to the church of God, and the state of mjr 
tinnce and Idngdom, glad I am that I hare a life to bestow 
in this service. I know not to what better use it could bo 
cmplojed, if it were preserved; and, therefor^ in this cause, 
I mure not to spare it Thus have I lived towards the 
jUvd and my ranee; and, b^ the grace of God, thus I 
mean to die. Many such subjects I wish unto my prince; 
tbon^li no such reward to any of diem. My earnest 
ne^pest is. that her majesty may be acquunted with thesa 
tiMlig> befoce my death, or, at least, after my departure. 
. '^ Subscribed with the heart and hand that never devised 
fr wrote any thiiL^ to the discredit or defamation of my 
•overeupo, Queen £lizab^. 

<( This I take on my death, as I hope to live hereafter, 

" John, Penb y.'* 

In his excellent Confession of Faith, referred to in thft 
above piotestatimi, Mr. Penry openly declares his religions 
sentimentB, and most warmly avows his loyalty to the ^ueea 
md government Though the whole is too long for inser- 
(Kod, we cannot forbear transcribing a part of it, rarticularl^ 
that relating to his allegiance to her majesty. Because this 
W9M called in question, ne declares, <^ I am not at this day^ 
^ nor evefT was in all my life, either guilty or privy, in any 
^ purpose, consultation, or intention, of any sedition against, 
^ or dnsb^AMince oi^ her nuijesty's royal state and govern- 
^ ment. And if I were privy unto any such ungodly, undu- 
^ tifid, and wicked actions or purposes, as might any way 
<< impair or disturb the peaceable state of my Drince and 
^ country, I would reveal, disclose, and withstand the same^ 
f^ to the utmost of my power, in all persons, foreign and 
*< domestic, of what prdfession or religion soever they 

^ Her supreme authority, within her realms and dcmii- 
f< nions,! acknowledgeto besuch, over all persons, and in all 
^ oauses, as no person, whether civil or ecclesiai^cal, may 
^ eaumpC himself or his cause ftrom the power and censure 
*< nf her laws and sword. I do also acknowledge, that hepr 
^ nunesty hath fuU authority from the Lord, to establish 
^ and euct by her rojral power, all laws, both ecclesiastical 
^ and civiL among lier subjects: in the making of which 
^ laws, the Lord requireth that those which are ecclesiastical 
f* be warranted by his own written word, which coatajm 
f' whatioevar bekmceth to his worship; and those whijbii 
^ are civil are fonnaed on the rules of justice and equity, 
(< TUs ioveidlgit pieroi^ye «nd » ^hority of her hi^ess, 


^ I am most willing and ready to defend and mamtauiy 
^ aeainst all the persons and states under heaven, to the loss 
<< OT my life ten thousand times, if it were reqbired. Ani 
<< I take the Lord to record, that, to my knowled^ I am 
^ sure that day hath not passed over my head, smoe tho 
<^ Lord, under her gracious rei^, hath brought me to the 
^ knowledge of the trufli, wherem I have not prayed for the 
*^ blessine of God, both external and internal, to be fully 
^ poured forth upon her right excellent majesty's throoei 
<^ government, and dominions : and that he would ccmvcf^ 
^ or speedily overthrow all his and her enemies, with tilieir 
'^ ent^rises, whether they be domestic or foreign : hereof I 
^< call tne S^cher of hearts in witness of the truth against 
^ my soul, if I either dissemble or force in these premises." 

After giving a particular account m his religious opinicwsy 
he adds: <^ E^th, I thank God, I fear not I know ^at 
<< the sting of death is taken away. And < blessed are the 
^^deadtlmt die in the Lord.' Life I desire not,' if 1 be 
•<< guilty of sedition, or defaming and disturUng her majesty's 
*^ quiet and peaceable government. Imprisonments, indict- 
<^ ments, arraignments, and death, are no meet weapons to 
'^ convince the conscience grounded upon God's word. — 
^^ Subscribed with heart and hand, by me John PenbTi 
** now in strict bonds for the testimony of Christ **• 

Mr. Ferny, during his imprisonment, was particularly 
desirous to obtain a conference in the presence- of h^ 
majesty and the council. In one of his petitions, addressed 
to the council, he therefore says, << A conference we are most 
willing to yield unto. Our humble reouest unto her nmjesty 
and your honours, is, that if it so stand with your ;^easure, 
we may have but this equity yielded unto us : — 1. That the 
questions on both sides be set down in writii^, and the 
reasons briefly annexed to them ; that the answers also,' with 
like brevity, be returned in writing, and so every thing will 
be the more deliberately set down, and all other speeches and 
matters be avoided. — 2, That such of us as are scholan^ 
may confer together (having also the use of books) about 
the answers and replies that we shall make. — 3. That tihos6 
of the ecclesiastical state, with whom we are to de^ ma/ 
only be parties in this conference, aiid not judses. Ain 
that some of the civil state may be appointed by youi^ 
honours (if your lordships will not take the hearing of the 
cause yourselves, which we had rather and earnestly craye^l 

* l^tulBalioni of BsrrofTi Greenwood^ and PeBry.p. 39—46. 

PENRY. 65 

to see that both parties do contain themselves within bounds : 
lest otherwise the holy truth of God should not be so dealt in 
as beconreth the same ; or so holy and necessary an action 
slMmld be unprofitable broken up by the infirmities^ ot 
other giteter wants, of either party. "• 

This generous proposal, however, was wholly rejected. 
His wife^ Mrs. Helen Penry, at the same time presented a 
nxMt moving petition to the Lord Keeper Puckering, for 
access ta her poor distressed husband ; but it was attended 
with no better 8uccess.f All Mr. Penry's intercessions, and 
the intercessions of his friends, proved altogether inefiectual. 
It WW, indeed, never known till this time, that a minister 
and a schdar was condemned to death for private papers 
found in his study; nor do I remember, says Mr. N^e^ 
more than one instance since that time, in whose case it was 

Siven for law, that to write has been construed an overt act. 
ut it seems Mr. Penry must die, right or wrong. This 
his enemies appear to nave fully determined ; and herein 
their wishes were soon gratified. Archbishop Whitgift was 
the first man who si^ied the warrant for his execution, 
and after him, Puckermg and Popham. The warrant was 
immediately sent to flie sheriff*, who, the very same day, 
erected a gallows at St. Thomas Waterings, and, while the 
prisoner was at dinner, sent his officers to bid him make 
ready, for he must die that afternoon. Accordingly, he wais 
cained in a cart to the place of execution ; and when he 
came there, was not allowed io speak to the people^ nor to 
make any profession of his faith towards God, or his loyalty 
to the queen ; but was hastily turned ofi^, about five o^clock 
in the afternoon. May S9, 1593, in the thirty-fourth year 
cf his 1^4 He left a widow and four poor children, the 
ddot of which was not more than four years old, to feel 
and bemoan the painful loss. 

h'the preface to Mr. Penry's ^^ History of Corah, 
Dstfaan, and Abiram,'' published after his death, it is said, 
" That Mr. John Penry was a godly, learned, and eealous 
man, and of a christian carriage and courage. That he was 
bom and bred in the mountains in Wales ; and, with all 
godly care and labour, endeavoured to have the gospel 
preached among his countrymen, whose case he greatly 
seemed to pity, wanting all the ordinary means of salvation. 
That, being used by God for a special instrument in the 
manifestation of his truth, he was hardly used, imprisoned, 

♦ Baker's MS. CoHcc. vol. xv. p. 380. f Ibid, p. 378. 

t Wood's AthcDSB Oxon. vol. i. p. 2S9. 


condemned, and executed ; and so suffered martjrrdom far 
the name of Christ. And more particularly, that he waft 
adjudj^d by Sir John Popham, and the rest of the judges, 
on th^25th of the fifth month, and executed at Stl Thoma» 
Waterings, near London, the 29th of the same, in the year 
1593. That he was not brought to execution imme- 
diately, as most persons expected; but, when they iBuA 
looked for it, he was taken while he was at dinner, and 
carried secretly to his execution, and hastily bereaved of 
his life, without being suffered to make a declaration of his 
faith towards God, or his allegiance to the queen, thoogh 
he very much desired it." And in the postscHpt, it is added, 
^< That he was apprehended, adjudged, and executed for 
writing the truth of Christ, whatever other things were 
pretended against him."* He was undoubtedly a man of 
great learning and piety ; but these excellent qualifications 
could make no atonement to the prelates for his. zeal in the 
cause of nonconformity, and for expressing his disapproba- 
tion of the constitution and corruptions of the established 
church. '' By his death, with the condemnation of Jol^p 
Udal and Henry Barrow," says the Oxford historian, ^ the 
neck of the plots of the fiery nonconformists was hroken, 
and their brags were turned into prayers and tears, as the 
only means for christian subjects."f Another author of the 
same spirit, says, '' The pressing of the law thus close, 
struck terror into the party, and made the dissenters of aU 
sorts, less enterprizing against the government, "t These, 
surely, are pitiful triumphs among professed protastants ! 

Mr. Peary was author of several learned pieces cm con*. 
troversy, particularly against Dr. Some. In one of tbem 
he endeavours to prove " that there is no church a^ aD in ' 
popery, and that all popish priests are out of the churdi," 
by a direct appeal to the conduct of all protestants in ibek ^ 
separation from the church of .Rome. '^U there; be a 
church in popery, or if all popish priests be not out cSibt 
church," says he, '' then those ma^strates and their • 
subjects who have separated from the Romish religioii, to. 
say the least, are schismatics. It is schism to make this 
separation from the church. We may detest the corraptkms 
. thereof; but we ought not to make such separation fixmi the 
church, unless we would be accounted schiunatics. But 
those magistrates and their people who made this separation 

♦ Hcylin's Hlit. of Pres. p. 325, 326. 
+ Wood's Athens OxoD. iro1.ii> p. 229. 
t Collier's Eccl. Hist. vol. ii. p, 640. 

PENRY. 67 

lire not schismatics. Therefore the foundation of popery 
k overthrown, and consequently there is no church in 
popery.** To prove that ministers who do not preach, are 
not ministers, he reasons thus : — ^' They are no ministers," 
says he, U because their ministry is evil and profane ; and 
11^ ministry is evil and profane, because there is no 
mention made of it in the word. A ministry not mentioned 
in the word, is no ministry, but a profune constitution. 
The .Lord hath expressly set down every ministry of the 
New Teetoment, that should be in the church unto the 
world's eikl. But he hath not once mentioned the ministry 
of nupte readers; because it is not a preaching ministry, and 
thei«fore no ministry at all."* 

Di:. Some, it is said, wrote with great vehemence against 
him. According to my author, ^^ He called this worthy 
man, proud Penry. Penry had a dignity to which Some 
iirps a stranrar. His dignity stood in a superior habit of 
thinking : Some's in gown, title, and bluster. Some wrote 
like a man who meant to bring Penry into hemp, and 
liimself into lawn.^f 

Mr. Penvy felt deeply concerned for the conversion and 
ralvaticHi of his countrymen ; on which account he was 
ancdonsly desirous to have a learned ministry in Wales. 
His landable desires and endeavours to promote this great 
object, are applauded even by Dr. Some, his great antago* 
nist} He is supposed to have been the first, since the 
commencement of tlie reformation, who preached the 
goqpd in Wales. Some suppose that he laboured in the 
ministry chiefly in his native country, and that he went 
thith» upon his leaving the university. This, however^ 
appears very improbable. Mr. Thomas intimates, that he 
wa^ probably the first, since the reformation, who openly 
and publicly preached adult baptism. '^ And," says he, << I 
am iniClined to think, that he was the first who administered 
ibsai ordinance by immersion, and upon a profession of faith, 
in and dbout Olchon, in the principality. § Though Wood 
dencHninates him a notorious anabaptist^ it does not appear 
from his Confession of Faith, or from any other source of 
infiMmation we have met with, that he ever espoused the 
sentiments of the baptists. Nevertheless, if what the writer 
aboye cited observes, be correct, Mr. Penry was of the 

^ • Some's Defence p. 175, 183. Edit 1588. 
f Life of Aintworth, p. 68. 
t Smne'sGodJyTreatlBe, p. 33. £dit. 1588, 
S Tliofliai*8 BIS. Hiitory, p. 43. 


denomination of particular baptists. Mr. Stiype writes of 
Mr. Penry with very great acrimony.* Mr. Foulis, with 
great injustice and falsehood, says, '' He was a man 'so 
much guilty of his own yillanies, that, with Cain^ he 
feared death firom every man^s hand ; and, therefore^ was 
forced to skulk and ramble amongst bis friends for proteo 
tion.^'f These accounts of so learned, laborious, and pious 
a man, remind us of the case of some of the primitiTe 
christians, who, being dressed in bears' skins, were cast 
among wild beasts to he torn in pieces. Mr. Penry was the 
author of several learned works ; but it was never proved 
that he had any hand in the writings under the title of 
lifartin Mar-Prelate.. Though most of the high churchmen 
ascribe them to him and several others, it is well known 
the real authors were never found out ; consequaitly, the 
charge is without foundation. The following is supposed 
to te a correct list of his writings, though we dare not 
warrant them all to have been his. 

His Works. — 1. A Treatise containing the Equity of an HmnUc 
Sopplication which is to be exhibited unto her Gracious Majesty and 
this High Court of Parliament, in the behalf of the Country of Wales, 
.that some Order may be taken for the Preaching of the CSoroel 
among those People, 1697. — 2, A View of some part of such PaMie 
Wants and Disorders as are in the Serrice of God, withia ha 
Majesty's Country of Wales ; with an Humble Petition to the IHipk 
Court of Parliament for their speedy Redress, 1588.—^. A. Defence 
of that which hath been written in the Questions of the Ignonyit 
Ministry, and the Communicating with them, 15%S. — 4. ExhgrtvlioB 
unto the Gt>vemors and People of her Majesty's Country of WMl 
to labour earnestly to haye the Preaching of the Gospel jpfauntM 
among them, 1688.-76. Dialogue ; wherein is plainly laid open tte 
Tyrannical Dealings of the Lords Bishq>s against God's ChildreD, 
1589. — 6. Treatise, wherein is manifestly proved, that RefcHrmatioD, 
and those that sincerely favour the same, are unjustly chai^ged to be 
Enemies to her Majesty and the State, 1690 — 7. The State of ftm 
Church of England. — 8. Petition of Peace. — 9. His Apology. — Vk 
Of public Ministry. — 11. History of Corah, Dathan, and Abiran, 
applied to the Prelacy, Ministry, and Church-Assemblies of England, 

Thomas Gatakcb, A. B. — ^He was descended ftom ft 
very ancient and respectable family at Gatacre-haU^ in 
Shropshire. His parents, who were zealous papM^ 
designed him for the law ; for which purpose, he was 

uierea a stuaent at the Temple. While in 

♦ Strype's Whitgift, p. 34ff— 360.— Annah, Tol. iii. p. 
t Foulig'a Hist, of Plots, p. 61. 

611-^1 Ob 


he oodisiiHially visited his friends and relations at court, and 
was <^en present at the examinations of the pious confessors 
of truth^ under the barbarous severities of popery. The 
shocking spectacle had the happiest effect on his mind* 
For, while he beheld the constancy of the sufferers, who, 
nith invincible patience, and for the testimony of a good 
conscience, endured the most relentless and cruel usage ; the 
tragic scene proved the happy means of awtikening his 
mind, and of leading him to reject popery and embrcice the 
protestant religion. His parents, apprehensive of the 
4change in his opinions, sent him to Louvain, in Flanders ; 
and, to wean him effectually from his new thoughts about 
religion, settled upon him a considerable estate: but he 
^xmnted all worldly allurements and advantages as nothing in 
•Cdmparison of Christ. His father at length perceiving him 
to be immoveable, called him home, and revoked his grant ; 
.which, however, could not take effect without his son's 
consent. Young Gataker counted the cost. He had 
already learned the hard lesson of self-denial, and of 
fiMBaking all for Christ and a good conscience ; therefore, 
lie voluntarily gave up that which had been the bait of his 
^moBtacj. This was in the beginning of the reign of Queen 

. lor. Gataker being cast off by his unnatural parents, was 
ienabl^ to put his trust in the liord, who, in a very remark- 
able manner, raised up friends, by whom he was sent to 
the. university of Oxford, and supported by their great 
ffeneioglty. After having spent eleven years in that seat of 
kamiog, he entered at Magdalen college, Cambridge, where 
.he oontintied about four years. In the year 1568, he 
entered upon the ministerial function, and was ordained 
both deacon and priest by the Bishop of London ; and, in 
J576,was admitted vicar of Christ's church, London, which 
lie resigned in 1578, probably on account of his puritanical 
princqiles. He became rector of St. Edmunds in Lom- 
tMund-street, June 21, 1573, but resigned it by death, previous 
to June S, 1593, when the next incumbent entered upon the 
benefice.f He was a minister of puritanical principles, 
iniiiished with excellent parts, a zealous preacher, a most 
conscientious divine, firm m his attachment to the protestant 
TeligioQ, and some time domestic chaplain to the Earl of 
.Leicester. Though he left behind him only a small fortune, 
lie left many friends, particularly among the great men of 

• Clark's Lives umexed to Martyrologie, p. 848, 949« 
fiViwmwuttB Sc^ Repert. fol. i. p, 344. 


the law, with whom he had been, iii the earlier part of hu 
life, a fellow-student; and who, on that account, weie 
afterwards ready to testify their respect to his memory, by 
affording their countenance and expressing their kindness to 
.his son.* His son was the celebrated Mr. Thomas Grataker, 
another puritan diyino, who was first chosen lecturer at the 
Temple, then minister at Rotherhithe, near London. 

. Arthur Wake. — This excellent person was son of 
John Wake, esq. and descended from a very ancient and 
honourable family. He was canon of Christ^s Church in 
■Oxford, and a most popular and useful preacher. In the 
year 1565, he was preferred to the benefice of Great- Billing, 
m Northamptonshire ;f and several times he preached tne 
serinon at Paul's cross. In one of these sermons, delivned 
in the year 1573, he boldly defended the sentiments of Mr. 
Cartwright in his reply to Whitgift, and openly declaied 
his objections against the estwlished church. Bishop 
Sandys, of London, the very next day, sent a pursuivant 
to apprehend him ; but he had left the city, and returned 
to Oxford, where his lordship's authority could not reach 
him. The bishop, meeting with this sore disappointment, 
wrote to the Lord Treasurer Burleigh and the ESaii of 
I^eu^ster, the latter being at that time Chancellor of Oxford, 
urging them to take the case into consideration. t It does 
not appear, however, that the two honourable persons were 
at all disposed to comply with his lordship's solicitations* 

Though Mr. Wake escaped the snare of the Bishop of 
London, he fell, the same year, into the hands of Scamoler, 
Bishop of Peterborough, when he received the ecclesiastical 
censure. He was rector of the above place ; and being 
cited before the bishop's chancellor, he was^rst suspended 
for three weeks, then deprived of his living. Mr. Eusebins 
Pa^et,^ cind several other worthy ministers,* were suspended 
and deprived at the same time. They were all laborioiH 
and useful preachers. Four of them^were licensed by the 
university, as learned and religious divines ; and ibi^ of 
them had been chosen moderators in the religious exerciies. 

The reason of Mr. Wake's deprivation, and that of his 
brethren, was. not any error in doctrine, nor any depravitj 
of life ; but because they could not, witli a good ccmscienoe^ 

• Biog. Britan. toI. W. p. 2155, S156. Edit. 1747. 

'f Bridget's Hist, of NortbamptooshiTe, toI. i. p. 407. 

t Str>pe'i Whitgift, Appen. p. 19. S See ArtBoielitas Fttg^ 

WAKE. 71 

subicribe to two forms devised by the commissioners. In 
one of these forms, called forma promissioms^ they were 
leqniised to subscribe and swear, '' That they would use the 
Book of Common Prayer, and the form ot administration 
of the sacraments, invariably and in all points to the utmost 
of their power, according to the rites, orders, forms, and 
ceiemonles therein prescribed; and that they would not 
iiereafter, preach or speak any thing to the degradation of 
the said book, or any point therein contained.^' — In the 
other form, c^eA forma abjuratioms^ they were required to 
subscriber and swear, '' That the Book of Consecration of 
Archbishops and Bishops, and of the ordering of priests 
and deacons, set forth in the time of King Edward Vh and 
confirmed by authority of parliament, doth contain in it all 
things necessary to such consecration and ordering, having 
in it, according to their judgment, nothing that is either 
rapentitious or ungodly; and, therefore, that they who 
•iTere consecrated m^ ordered according to the said book, 
ireteiliily, orderly, and lawfully consecrated and ordained. 
vAnd that they acknowledge their duty and obedience to 
•ihtit ordinary and diocesan as to a lawful magistrate under 
the queen's majesty, as the laws and statutes do require ; 
l^bich obedience they do promise to perform, according as 
the laws shall bind them. In testimony whereof they do 
hereunto subscribe their names.''* 

Mr. Wake and his brethren, refusing to be tied by these 
fetters, offered to use the Book of Conmion Prayer and no 
other, and promised not to preach against it before the meet- 
ing of the next parliament ; but they apprehended both the 
.subscription and the oath to be contrary to the laws of God 
and the realm. In these painful circumstances, being all 
deprived of their livings, they appealed to the Archbishop of 
JDlEaiiterbury, but he rejected their appeal. Upon this, 
having suffered deprivation about two years, they presented 
a supplication to the queen and parliament ; in which, after 
presenting an impartial statement of the tyrannical oppres- 
sione under which they laboured, they give the following 
•seasons for refusing the subscription and the oath : — '^ That 
.th^. should thereby have allowed, contrary to their 
.consciences, that it was lawful for women to baptize 
children: — That they would. have exposed themselves to 
much danger : — ^That any man, though ever so unable to 
preach the word, might be made a minister, according to 

» MS. Hrfiitefy p. 198. 


the said book: — And that they should have given their 
coo^ent to the unlaM^ful form of ordination, wherein are 
these words, Receive the Holj/ Ghost, &c." They crnicludc 
by expressing their concern for their bereaved flocks, and 
how aesirous they were of being restored to their forma 
labour and usefiilQess, earnestly soliciting the favour of the 
queen, and the lords and commons in parliament.* 

Though the case of these pious divines was deserving the 
utmost compassion^ they could not obtain the least rearess. 
They had wives and large families of children, now^ 
reduced to extreme poverty and want, and, as they expressed 
in the above supplication, if God in his providence did ndt 
interfere, they should be obliged to go a begging; yet they 
could procure no relief. The distress of these zealous and 
laborious servants of Christ, was greatly increased by the 
ignorance and insufficiency of tneir successors. They 
<i^i^ld scarcely read so as to be understood, and the peopk 
were left in a great measure untaught. Instead of two 
sermons every Lord's day, which each of them had 
JTegularly delivered, the new incumbents did not preach 
•more than once in a quarter of a year, and frequently not so 
<rften. The numerous parishioners among whom they had 
laboured, signed petitions to the bishop for the restoration 
of their former ministers ; but all to no purpose. They 
must subscribe and take the oath, or be buried in silence.-f- 

It does not appear how long Mr. Wake remained under 
,the ecclesiastical censure, or whether he was ever restored 
to his benefice. He was living in the year 1593, and at 
that time minister at St. John's Hospital in Northampton^ 
He was a divine of good learning, great piety, and a zealous, 
laborious, and useM preacher. He was father to Sir Isaac 
'Wake, a learned and eloquent orator at Oxford, afterwards 
^amba^ador to several foreign courts, and a member ef 

WiLi^iAM Whitakbr, D. D. — This most celebrated 
divine was born at Holme, in theparish of Bundey, in Lanca^ 
•shire, in the year 154:7, and descended from an ancient and a 
respeptable family. His mother was Elizabeth NoweU, 
sister to Dr. Alexander Nowell, Dean of St. Paul's, who 
married Thomas Whitaker, in 1590, and stirvived her 

• MS. Register, p. t02. + Ibid. p. 198, 199. 

1 Bridges's Hist, of Northamptonshire, toI. i. p. 457. 
S Wood's Athensi Ozon. vol, i. p. 491* 


maniage t&e wonderful period of seventy-six yean.* 
"Early in the reign of Qneen Elizabeth, young Whitaker 
ifaasent for to London by the dean his uncle. He was by 
this means taken from his parents, by whom he had been 
nursed in the' superstitions of popery, and trained up in the 
public school founded by Dr. Colet, who was NowelFs 
pious predecessor. There he so profited in good literature^ 
and gave such presages of his excellent endowments^ that 
at the age of eighteen, his pious kinsman sent him to the 
vniversi^ of Cambridge, and he was admitted into Trinity 
coll^fe ; where his further progress being answerable to his 
beginning, he was first chosen scholar, then fellow of the 
lioiiae. He soon procured high esteem and great fame by 
Ins learned diq)utations and other exercises, which were 
performed to the great admiration of the most eminent 
persons in that seat of learning, f He was a person of 
eztiaoffdiiiaiy talents and uncommon application, and it 
wta his general practice, and that of several other eminent 
persons of his time, to stand while employed in study-t 

As a proof of his great proficiency, and as a token of 
.natitude to his generous kinsman, he translated Nowell^s 
tSatecbism into Greek, which he performed with the 
greatest accuracy, and presented it to him. He, at the 
same time, translated into Latin the English Liturgy, and 
Bishop Jewel's Reply to Harding, bv which he obtained a 
distinginshed reputation.^ Indeed, nis great fame was not 
caa&SeA to the learned in Cambridge ; but having taken 
his varions d^ees with great applause in that university, 
he was incorporated doctor in divinity at Oxford. { 

Upon the preferment of Dr. William Chadderton to the 
'bishopric^ of Chester, our learned divine succeeded him in 
•the ^office' of regius professor in the university of Cam* 
bridge* He was, inoeed, very young for such a place; 
yet, on account of his great literary accomplishments, be 
was unanimously chosen to this high office, though s(Hne 

* Charton*! Life of NoweU, p. 64.— Dean NoweU was prolocutor of the 
lower bome ef cooTocation, in 1562, when the articles of rell^oD were 
agreed opon. In 1564, when the debates ran high aboat the use of the 
clerical garments, he discovered great moderation. He consented to the 
ose of them, but with a protestation that he wished them taken away, for 
-the fbUowlng reasons : — 1. *' For fear of the abuse they might occasion. — 
9m To express more strongly a detestation of the corruptions aB4 
.superstitions of the papists. — 3. For a fuller profession of christian 
libelrty.— 4. To pnt an end to the disputes among brethren." — BUg^ 
BrUtmi v«l. ▼.. p. 9268. Edit. 1747. 

f Knight's Life of Colet, p. 397. Edit. 1724. 

t Granger's Biog. Hist. toI. i. p. 99. § Clark's Eccl. Hist. p. 814^ 

I Wood's AthoBK Oxoot toI. i. p. T44. 


were much vexed to see a man, nvhom they deemed unfit 
for the situation, preferred before those who were more 
advanced in years. He no sooner entered upon his official 
duties, in the delivery of public lectures, than he gave the 
most perfect satisfaction to all his hearers. There was in 
him nothing wanting which could be found in the best 
divine, and the most accomplished professor. He al once 
discovered much reading, a sharp judgment, a pure and 
easy style, with sound and solid learning, by which his 
fame spread in every direction, and multitudes resorted to 
Ills lectures, and reaped from them incalculable advantage.* 

To.qualify himself for these public exercises, he directed 
his studies, with uncommon application, to all the .useful 
branches of human learning. He was a great proficient in 
tile knowledge of philosophy. With uncommon diligence 
he studied the sacred scriptures, to which he invariably 
appealed, not only in matters of faith, but in the detemina- 
tion of all doubts and controversies. He turned over mott 
of the modern commentators and faithful interpreters of the 
word of God. With incredible industry, and in the space 
of a few years, he read over most of the fathers, both Greek 
and Latin. He attended to his studies with the greatest 
regularity, and appointed himself every morning what 
exercises he should pursue during the day ; and if he was 
at any time interrupted in his engagements, he always 
protracted his studies to a late hour, and so deprived 
himself of his natural rest and sleep, in order to finish his 
appointed task. By this course of labour and watching he 
very much increased in learning, but greatly impaired his 
health, which he never afiter perfectly recovered. 

In the public exercises in the schools, his great learning 
and singular aloquence rained the admiration of all hu 
auditors. When he read in rhetoric and philosophy, he 
seemed to be another Basil ; when he catechised, anc^er 
Origen ; and when be preached his Conceo ad CUrrnn^ it 
abounded with sanctity and all kinds of learning. In the 
office of professor, he delivered public lectures first upon 
various select parts of the New Testament, then he entered 
upon the controversies between the papists and pio- 
testants. He first encountered the vain-glorious Campian, 
who set forth his ten arguments, proudly boasting that he 
had utterly ruined the protestant religion. Wmtaker so 
learnedly and so completely refuted the haughty Jesnjjt^ 

• Clark's £ccl. Hiit. |p. 8U. 



4hat all his boasting vanished into smoke. Afterwards 
came forwards Duiy, another Jesuit, who undertook to 
answer Wbitaker, and to vindicate Campian. As Campian 
had set {orth his work with great ostentation and youthful 
confidence ; so Dury carriea on the controversy with much 
•railing and scurrility. Whitaker admitted his opponent to 
.lutve the pre-eminence in calumny and abuse; but he 
leluted all his arguments, and discovered all his fallacies, 
nith such good sense and sound judgment, that it is said, 
*^ the truth was never more fully cleared by any man." 
His next antagonist was Nicolas Saunders, who boasted thaf 
by forty demonstrative arguments, he had proved that the 
pope was not antichrist. Whitaker examined these argu- 
ments, and answered them with great learning and solidity, 
letOrtiiig many of them upon the author himselfl After 
this, Rainolds, another apostate, pretended to reply, and, 
with siibtilty and malice, represented the English divines 
iolie at variance among themselves ; and by this means, he 
enddEivoured to expose protestantism to the greater hatred 
and contempt. But our learned Whitaker at once perceived, 
and with great judgment, exposed his crafty insinuations 
andfisdsehoods ; yet, he declared that the book was so vain 
and foolish, that he scarcely thought the author worthy of 
an JEuiswer.* 

Dr. Whitaker was afterwards preferred to the mastership 
of St. John's college, Cambridge, though not without much 
opposition from the ill-affected in the university, of which 
Funer gives the following curious account : — " He was 
appointed by the queen's mandamus; and Dr. Cap-coat, the 
▼ice-chancellor, went along with him, being attended by a 
goodly company, solemnly to induct him to his place, when 
ne met with an unexpected opposition. They could not 
gain admittance. The gates were shut, partly manned and 
partljir boyed against him. The vice-chancellor retreated to 
Trinity college; and after consulting the lawyers, he^ 
according to ^ir advice, created Dr. Whitaker master (n 
SU John s in his own chamber, by virtue of the queen^s 
mandate. This done, he re-advanceth to St. John's, and 
with a POSSE AcADEMiiE, demands admission. The 
Jobniaiu having intelligence by their emissaries, that the 
property of the pierson was altered, and Dr. Whitaker 
invested with the mastership, and knowing the queen would 

♦ CUrk'i Eccl. WnU p. Mh-M. ^ 


maintain tier power from her crown to her foot, took wit im 
their anger, and received hun/'» 

Notwithstanding the above opposition, the new master, 
by his clemency, nis equity, and his goodness, presently 
overcame their exasperated minds, and turned tl^ir enmi^ 
and prejudice into love and admiration* He alwayt 
governed the college with great prudence and moderatiQi^ 
and sacrificed his own interest for the advantage of the 
public, as appeared by his own frugality and the testimony 
of those who lived with him. In the choice of scliolan 
and fellows, he was always impartial and unMameable, aii3 
would never suffer any corruption to creep into the electioiis* 
If he found any who by bribes had endeavoured to buy 
aoffrages, they, however deserving^ in other respects, of afi 
i^ers, should not be chosen.f This account of his great 
integrity, and his particular care in the government of hii 
college, affords a complete refutation of the great n^Ied, 
with which he is charged by the insinuation of another 

Under the mastership of Dr. Whitaker, all worthy 
scholars and fellows received the encouragement due to 
their character and desert. He distributed the rewards of 
learning with an impartial hand; but all indiscreet and 
improper measures were justly discountenanced. There 
was only one way to prefemient, and that was founded upon 
merit and real worth. This made the coU^e flourish in 
sound learning, and swarm in the number of its members. 
There were no less than thirty-eight fellow-conmioners in fte 
house at one time, which, upon a moderate computation, 
are said to have been more than at any other period since 
the foundation, or than probably ever will be a^ain. This, 
for the purpose of their accommodation, led to several 
considerables enlar^ments of the coUe^. His learning was 
not confined to nimself : it was diffusive. It spread 
itself through the whole society ; and, by his example, 
instruction, and encouragement, he raised so much emulation! 
amonff the fellows, as to make others learned as Well as 
liimsdrf. Indeed, die society in his time was looked iipcm 
|M something more than a private college. He himseli^ 
who was no boaster, used to style it a little university.^ 

Bellarmine, tfae Bomish disputant^ growing ^mous 

« FuUer's Hist, of O^b. p. 96, 97. f CUrVi £ccl. Hist. p. 819, 

J Fuller's Hist, of Camb. p. 97. 
Baker*! MS. CoUec. T9l. i. p.lSlT— 819* 


about (his time, and bein^looked upon by his own party as 
an invincible champion, Dr. Whitaker undertook to defend 
the bulwarks of protestantism against the assaults of the 
popish adversary ; and it is observed, ^' that he cut off tho 
head of his antagonist with his own weapons." The first 
pait of this controversy was concerning the holy Scripture ; 
theiir about the Church, the Councils, the Bishop of Rome^ 
the Ministers, departed Saints, the Church Triumphant, the 
Sacraments, Baptism, and the Lord^s Supper; some of 
which lie pubUshed ; but he had not leisure to print them alL 
During tne whole controversy, he treated his Romish 
opponent^ not with keen reproach, or under the influence of 
passion, but as one who sought to promote the truth. 
BeUarmine being completely siknced, Thomas Stapleton, a 
superstitious oldman, and professor at Louvain, undertook 
to answer Whitaker, which he performed in a volume 
sufficiently large, but in most abusive and scurrilous, 
language. Therefore, lest die angry and bigotted old man 
should seem wise in his own eyes, Whitaker answered him 
accotdine to his deserts, and in keener language than usual.* 
Dr. Whitaker was a man of the greatest celebrity, and 
wa% fox many years, concerned in most of the public trans- 
actions in the university of Cambridge. His name is often 
menti<med by historians, especially by an invaluable 
collector of scarce and curious information,^ as taking a 
most flealous and active part in promoting the peace and 
pioq^ty of this seat of learning. In the year 1580, he 
was presented by the queen to Uie chancdlorship of St 
Panl^ -London, which he resiff ned in 1587 ; but on what 
account we cannot learn4 Iii the year 1591, Dr. Goad^ 
provost of King's coU^, Cambridge presented a request 
to Dean NoweU, in beludf of Dr. Whitaker, that he might 
be preferred to some more valuable benefit. The venerable 
deajK anxious to serve his friend and kinsman, forwarded 
Dr. Goad's letter, the day he received it, together with one 
of his own, to the lord treasurer ; reminding his lordship of 
Dr. Whitaker's great learning, well known at Cambridge by 
the producticHis of his pen in Greek and Latin ; and not 
unknown to his lordship, to whom several of his works had 
hem dedicated. His fitoess for presiding over a learned 
society had paitlv appeared, from the quietoess and sood 
order which had been established in St. John's coTl^ 
since he became master ; and as to his circumstances, they 

• Clark'i Ecd. Hist. p. SIS. f Balber'i MS. CoUectioos. 

t Gffmi^er'i Blof . Hilt. fol. L p. SIS. 


were so far from being affluent, that the dean, in considen(« 
tien of his poverty, ha(^ now. for two years past taken upon 
himself the maintenance of one of his sons. Ihisapplica* 
tion, however, in behalf of Dr. Whitaker, whatever might 
be the reason of it, proved unsuccessful.* 
' Some of our historians affirm, that this celebrated divine 
was not a puritan; for which, indeed, they produce very 
little evidence, or rather no substantial evidence whatever. 
That which is commonly pleaded for evidence in this case^ 
is Dr. Whitaker's letter to Dr/ Whitgift, in which he gives 
his s^itiments with great freedom,conceming M r.Cartwrigfat 
and his opinions, as follows : — " I have read,^* saith he, ^^ a 

Seatpart of that book (Cartwrighf s second Reply) which 
r. Cartwright lately published. I pray Grod I live not, if 
ever I saw any thing more loosely and ahnost more childishly 
written. It is true that for words, he hath great store, and 
those both fine and new : but for matter, as Tar as I can 
judge, he is altogether barren. Moreover, he'dotb not only 
think perversely of the authority of princes, in caused 
ecclesiastical, but also flieth into the holds of the papists, 
from whom he would be thought to dissent with a mcurtal 
hatred. But in this point he is nof to be endured : and in 
other parts also he borroweth his arguments from the papists. 
He playeth with words, and is lame in his sentences, and h 
altogether unworthy to be confuted by any man of learning.'* 
Our author adds, that Dr. Whitaker wr€^ this letterabout 
the time that he began to write against Campian.f And 
what does the whole of it prove ? It is designed to reproach 
Mr. Cartwright, his book, and his sentiments, and to prove 
Dr. Whitaker. to have been no puritan, of which it certainly 
contains no suljstantial evidence. For, admitting- the 
letter to be genuine, it only contains Dr. Whitalj^er's 
opinion of mr. Cartwright and his publication, and no 
evidence either for or a^inst the puritanism of the writer. 
But there is some reason to suspect that the letter is a 
forgery, and devised only to blacken the memory of the 
puritans. It rests upon the sole authority of Dr. BaQCipfli 
one of the bitterest and most violent of all their enemies; 
and is said to have been written near the time when Dj. 
Whitaker united with other learned divines in soliciting 
Mr. Cartwright to undertake an answer to the Rhenad» 
translation, in which, among other commend^ticms, they 
addressed him as follows : — " It is not for every one rashly 

• Cborton'sLifeofNowel], p. 322,323. f BMcroft'sSiinr«y,p«S79,38a. 


to be tbilist fbrth into the Lord's battles ; but such captain* 
aie to be chosen from amongst David's worthies, one of 
which we acknowledge you to be, by the former battles 
undergone for the wms of our cUv^ the church. We doubt 
not, if you will enter this war, but that you, fighting for 
cxinscience and country, will be able to tread under foot the 
fiNTces of the Jebusites, which set themselves to assault the 
tower rf David."» 

The former battles which Mr. Cartwright is here said to 
haye undergone for the walls or discipline of the church, and 
for. which he received so high a commendation from Dr. 
Whitaker and his brethren, were the controversies he had 
with Dr. Whitgifl: but when the same controversies are 
described by the unworthy pen of Dr. Bancroft, Dr. 
Whitaker is made to speak the language of keen reproach^ 
both of Mr. Cartwright and of his former battles. How 
can the two things be reconciled ? Shall we conclude that 
Whitaker was guilty of such palpable inconsistency ? Thi» 
was no trait in his character. Did he then completely 
change his opinion of Cartwright and his controversy^ 
during the short interval of joining in the address to this 
divine, and writing the foregoing letter to Whitgift ? This 
would be contrary to numerous facts, as will presently 
appear. Did he address Whitgift, now Archbishop of 
CiBuiterbiiry, merely to flatter him, and procure his favour ? 
He never lost his ravour, and no one was ever less guilty of 

In the year 1589, an assembly was held in St. John's 
coUeae, Cambridge, of which Dr. Whitaker was master. 
Mr. Cartwright and many others were present on this occa- 
sion, and the meeting was designed io promote a purer form 
of discipline in the church. At the same time, ^^ divers 
imperfecti<Hi8 in the Book of Discipline were corrected, 
altered and amended ; and they did not only perfect the 
said book, but did then and there voluntarily agree, that as 
nuuiy as were willing should subscribe the said Book of 
Discipline."f Therdbre, among the learned divines who 
subscribed, was the renowned Dr. Whitaker.t He is also 
said to have united with other puritan divines in promoting 
tbe reformed discipline, and to have assembled with them 
finr this purpose in their private associations.^ 

The year following, this learned divine was charged with 
holding or forming a presbytery in his college, and with 

• See Art. Cartwright. f Bancroft's Survey, p. 67. 

t Nesl'i Poritaiii, toI. i. p. i^. S Baker's MS. CoUec. vol. zv. p. 79. 


other nnjast accusations, when he went up to London^ and 
'wrote the following letter to Lord Burleigh, chancellor of 
the university.* 
^^ My hnmUe duty to your honourable lordship. 

^^ I wiU not complain to your lordship, of those thfit 
<^ have complained of me ; who, seeing me resolved to come 
<< up about my necessary defence, and fearing that the 
** complaint made concerning a preshi/ten/ would be easilr 
<^ disproved, have devised other matters, which eith»^ toucii. 
<<me nothing at all, or else are most frivolous; and ye^ 
<' being thus heaped together, seem to be of Some weirat, 
^< Although I foresee the inconvenience of a new visitatiosi^ 
<^ which is the only thing they shoot at ; yet I fear not any 
^^courseof justice whatsoever; and I do willingly submit 
<^ mvself to what order your lordship shall take for diM 
^^ tnal of these matters. In one thing for a taste, your 
<< lordship may judge of the rest. I am charged that I lay. 
** at my orolher Chadderton's, the night before J came up,. 
<< Indeed the truth is, I lay in the colle^, as I ever do : but: . 
<< this was only a slight to bring in some menticm of joij 
<< brother, whom they hate as much as me. If it may stand 
^< with your honour's good pleasure, to let me have that 
^^ writing that was eiiuibited against me, I will set down 
^< mine answer to every particular point, and return the 
^< same again to your lordship. Thus I humbly take mr 
<* leave. From the Dean of Paul's house, October % 

" Your lordship's to serve in Che Ijord, 

" William Whitaker." 
We have not been able to learn what answer Dr. 
Whitaker gave to the accusations of his enemies, norliow* 
long his troubles continued ; but he most probably obtained' 
his release, and, without much interruption, returned t6 hii 
wonted exercises in the university. He was a divine who 
had a correct view of the genuine principles of protestantism^ , 
and would appeal to the authority of the holy scripttumii 
alone, in the decision of all religious controversy. " We . 
may warrantably enough," says he, "reject all hunum 
testimonies, and insist upon some clear scripture testimony, . 
For this is the constant sense of the catholic fathers, that 
nothing is to be received or approved in religion, which .ir 
not bottomed on the testimony of scripture, and caniiot fie. 
proved and confirmed out of those sacked writinga: and 

• Baker's MS. CoUec. toI. zil. p. 56S. 

1 W. WHITAKER. 81 


1 very deservedly, since the scripture is the absolute rule of 
f iruihJ'** From these generous principles, he was induced^ 
; with several other excellent divines, to write against the 
sujperstitious and ridiculous^practice of bowing at the name 
or Jesns.f Upon the same generous principles, he was no 
frigid to episcopacy, but a decidea advocate for the 
eldership, wnich the puritans sought to have established. 
<« Episcopacy," saith he, " was invented by men as a 
remedy against sin ; which remedy many wise and holy 
men have judged to be worse than the disease itself, and so 
it luUh proved by woeful experience.''^ In his answer to 
Campian^s ten ar^^uments, he says, '^ A presbyter and a 
bishop are by divme right the same ; and if Arius was an 
heretic for saying so, Jerome certainly was akin to the same 
heresy/'^ And m his reply to Dury, he avows the same 
sentiment, saying, " Presbyters being by divine right the 
same as bishops, might warrantably set other presbyters 
€f^et the churches."! He was decidedly of opinion, that 
. all ecclesiastical persons should confine themselves to their 
ecclesiastical functions, without the exercise of any tempo- 
ral iaiithority.l On these accounts, Mr. Strype very justly 
observes, that though he Mas a learned and pious man, a 
public professor of divinity, and a good writer against the 
€hurch of Rome ; yet " he was no friend to the church of 

Br. Whitaker, Dr. Fulke, Dr. Chadderton, Mr. Dod, and 
other learned puritans, held their private meetings in the 
aniyersity, with a view to their own improvement in a 
knowledge of the holy scriptures. Our divine married for 
his first wife, the pious sister of the two famous preachers, ^ 
Mr. Samuel and Mr. Ezeklel Culverwell, and Dr. Lawrence 
Chadderton married another sister. For his second wife, he 
married the grave and pious widow of Mr. Dudley Fenner ; 
and by both of them he had eicht children, to whom he 

EYe a religious education.+t " It must be confessed," say» 
r. Baker, <^ he had somewhat of the old leaven," meaning 
liis puritanism. '^ His marriage into the families of the 
Gulyerwells and Fenners, and his acquaintance with 
Cturtwright, Fulke, Chadderton and Dod, might give him 

.* CalftBy*! DffeDGe of Noncon. vol. i. p. 197. Edit. 170S. 
-t Pk'jme*! Cnnt. Doome, p. 469.— Wood^s Athene Oxon. vol. i. p. 348. 

fLeif^toii** Sioo*8 Plea, p. 18 : fi-om Whitaker. 
FMitioo of Prelates filzamined, p. 15. Edit. 1641. 
n Colmmy's Defence of Noncon. vol. i. p. 71. 
^ BAker*t MS. Collec. vol. xz. Tbii vol. is not paged. 
• • 8Crjpe*i Whitflfl, p. SJUk + + Clark's Eccl. Hlit. p. 817. 

▼OL. II. G 


an insensible bias that way ; jct the meetings he held witli 
these persons, were not intended to introduce 8 new.dii^' 
cipline, but to expound the scripture/'* 

In the year 1595, there were many warm disputes about 
points of christian doctrme. The fire of contention broki; 
out in the university of Cambridgei in which Dr. Whitdber 
was. deeply involved. He shewed himself the sealou 
advocate of the supralapsarian sentiments, and was wannlT 
opposed by Dr. Baro and others of the same party. To 
put an end. to these disputes, the heads of the univeniijr 
sent Dr. Whitaker and Dr. Tyndal up to Lambeth, for the 

Suipose of consulting with the archbishop, and other leaimd 
i vines, upon these points ; when they concluded upon nine 
propositions, commonly called the Lambeth ariides^ to 
which the scholars in the university were enjoined an exact 

Dr. Wliitaker, during his journey to Lambeth, fell i&du 
.occasioned by his unusual fatigue and want of sleep, ana 
died soon aner his return to Cambridge. Throu^ the 
whole of his affliction, he discovered great submission to the 
divine will. With holy and happy composure, he said, 
^' O .Lord my God, though thou kill me ; j^y I am Mune^ 
•that with these eyes I shall see thee ; for in thee do I hope." 
To a friend, who asked him one morning how he dici^ he 
replied, ^' O happy night ! 1 have not token so sweet it 
.sleep since my disease fcU upon me.'' His friend afterwaids 
finding him in a cold sweat, and telling him that sisns of 
death were upon him, he immediately answered, ^' Life or 
death is welcome to me, which Qod plea^th ; for deitk 
shall be an advantage to me. I desire not to live, but only 

* Baker*8 MS. Collec. vol. i. p. 814. toI. xz, 

f These articles were the foUowing : — *' God hath, froa etcntty» 
predestinated certain persons to life ; and hath reprolmted certain p«fiMi 
unto death. — ^Tbc moving or efficient cause of predestination uoto life, h 
not the foresight of faith, or of perseverance, or of good worki, or oftMj 
thing that I3 in the persons predestinated : but only the good will afld 
pleasure of God. — ^There is pre-determined a certain number of the pre*- 
de^tinate, which can neither be. augmented nor diminished. — ^Thoiewbt 
are bot predestinated to salvation, shaU inevitably be eondemDed for thrif 
■ins. — A true, lively, and justifying faith, and the spirit of God JnitifyiBf 1 
is not extinguished, doth not utterly fail, doth not vanish away. In the elect, 
either Snally or totally. — A true believer, that is, one who is ODdusd jrith 
justifying faith, is certain with the Aill assurance of foith, of the renissiofr 
of his sins, and of his everlasting salvation by Christ. — Saving grace 19 BOt 
given, is not granted, is not communicated to all men, by which they Bty 
-be saved if they will. — No man is able to come unto Christ, nofeiB It be 
given him, and unless the Father draw him : and all men are not dimwfi hj 
the Father, that they may come to the Son. — it is not in the will or MWfr 
of every man to be saved.'*-— Furfer'* Church Hist. b. iz« p. i^90-^Htt!. 


so far as I may do Grod and his church service ;''• and soon 
after quietly departed in the Lord, December 4, 1595, ia 
the forty-seventh year of his age, having filled the professor's 
cbair about sixteen years, and that of master almost nine. 

'Dean Nowell, in his last will and testament, made the 
SMomine bequest: ^' To his- cousin. Dr. Whitakcr-of 
CSainbric^e, he gives twenty books of his own choosing •»*. 
bpt Ihe venerable.dean survived him some years.f In the' 
dboye year he was preferred to a prebendary in the church; 
of Ginteibnry. He certainly deserved greater preferment^ 
aqdhe stood in need of it; for he died poor, considering; 
ti^ jgunily he left behind him. It was some reproach to the 
UB&m^ that the two greatest men that ever nlled the pio« 
Soamk^n chair in the university of Cambridge, should have. 
beep no better provided for : these were Dr. Whitaker, and 
tb^' celebrated Martin Bucer, who was forced to borrow 
IBoney with his last breath.^ Dr. Whitaker's. library was 
very dioice and valuable, which the queen designed to obtain 
bi lienel^ and Archbishop Whit^in wished to procure his 
aimierous and valuable manuscnpts. At his death, the 
college Gonfisrred upon him the honour of a public fjoneral^ 
an account of which is still preserved amon^ the recoids ci 
the society, where so much is put down for his funeral feast, 
sp much for his tomb, and so much for the other necessary 
ezpenaesk Mr. Bois delivered a funeral oration at his 

Sve, and the vice-chancellor and public oratqr or his 
nity at St. Mary's church.^ His corpse was, with veiy 
gieat aolemnity and lamentatiqn, carried to the grave, and 
IWiaterred in the chapel of St. John's college. Near th^ 
^ace of his interment was a costly monumental inscription 
elected to his memory, of which the following is a transla- 

, . . , This Monument is erected 

/ to the memory of Doctor Whitaker, 

• fontieriy the royal interpreter of Scnpture. 
' His interpretations were adorned with elegance of language ; 

bis judgment was acute, 

his method beautiful^ 

hb memory strong, 

his labours and perseyeranee invincible; 

and his life most holy. 

With these very rare endowments of raind^ 

his capdouTy virtue^ and humility, 

• ClaikS l^cl. Hist. p. 819. f ChortoD*s Life of Nowell, p. 354, S56. 
i Baker*s MIS. Collec: toI. i. p. 234. h Ihid. p. SSI . 

B KnigbtV Life of Colet, p. 398. < 



shone with the greatest splendour. 
He was a prudent Master of this College 

more than eight years, 

being a firm defender of all that was right, 

and an avenger of whsLteyer was wrong* 

Dr. Whltaker, through the whole of his life, botii is 

Sablic and private, discovered great piety and holines. 
fe was most patient under insults, and easily lecoiiciled to 
those who injured him. He was very bountiful to the poor; 
especially to pious and industrious students. He was 
idways modest in giving his judgment upon mens* optninls 
and actions. Among iiis friends, he was courteous and 
pleasant; faithful in keeping secrets; prudent and grave j 
and always ready to assist them with counadi or inonejr. 
He was of a grave ai^pect, a ruddy complexion, tBLttaaig 
constitution, a. solid judgment, a liberal mind, and 'an 
afiable disposition; but that which added the greakit 
lustre to his character, was his great meekness and hmnifity** 
^< He was one of the greatest men his collie ever prodiuMd; 
and," says Wood, <^ the desire and love of tne preseBt 
times, and the envy of posterity, that cannot bring fortli s 

Sarallel."f « The learned Whitaker," savs Leiffh, " was Uis 
onour of our schools, and the angel of our church ; than 
whom our age saw nothing more memorable. What dear- 
ness of judgment, what Sweetness of style, what jgravity of 
person, what gra!cefulness of carriage, was in the maB!" 
"Who ever saw him without reverence!" said Bnbop 
Hall, " or heard him without wonder ?*'t He iria 
Myled << the oracle of Cambridge, and the mirade of'fte 

It was a maxim with this celebrated divine, ^ Aat 
refreshing the memory was a matter of great importaaoeia 
every kind of learning, but especially m the most asefid 
parts of it. He therefore read over his granunar taA 
logic once every year.§ He was the greatest champion in flie 
cause of th^ protestants, even by the confession or Gatdinal ' 
Bellarmine, who, though he had been so often baffled b^ 
him, procured his picture from England, and preserved it 
in his study. When his friends were introduced to him, he 
used to point to the picture and say, tibat tibough Whiti^ 

« Clark*s Eccl. Hist. p. 819, 890.— FoUer's Abel. Red. p. 406. 

f Baker*8 MS. Collec. vol. i. p. 213.— Wood*! AtlieiUB, ?ol. i. p. 744. 

% Leigh on Religion and Learning, p. 36S» 364; 

S Granger's Biog. Hist. toI. I. p. 813. ^ 

ALVEY. 85 

tvas an heretic, << he was the most learned heretic he ever 

Wm Works.— 1. Translation of "Noweirs Catechism into Greek.--- 
ft. Translation of the English Liturgy into Latin.— 3. Translation of 
Bishop Jewers Dispute against Harding into Latin.— 4. Answer to 
Sdnrand Campian his Ten Reasons. — 5. A Defence of bis Answer 
Maiast John Ihprey. — 6. A Refutation of Nicolas Saunders his 
J^QBonstration, whereby he would prove that the Pope is not 
Awtkihrist— 7. A Collection thereto added of ancient Heresies 
tiked up again to make up the Popish Apostacie. — 8. A Thesis pro- 
ifemioa and defended at the Commencement in 1582, that the Pope 
is*flM -Antichrist spokeiwof in Scripture.«^9. Answer to William 
BMnolds against the Preface to that against Saunders in English. — 
W. A l^sputation concerning the Scripture against the Papists of 
taese times, especially Bella^rn4ne and Stapletopw — 11. ^ Dcfjpnce of 
iSbm Authority of the Scriptures, against Thomas Stapleton his 
IMsBoe of the Authority of the Church. — 12. Lectures on the 
Csptvovefsios concerning the Bishop of Rome. — 13. Lectures on the 
.yoB^innrenie opnceming the Church. — 14. Lectures on the Contro- 
nysie oonceming Councils.-^! 5. A Treatise of Original Sin, against 
Mqpleton's three former books of Justification. The fbur articles last 
'hiSlifiOiied were published after the author's death by John Allenson. 
•*4flk"A liOetftfe on the first of Timothy, ii. 4. read on February 
Mf )fiM; befinre the Earl of Essex, and other Honourable Persons. — 
,^* Leotorcii oonceming the Sacraments in general, and the £u- 
dMurist and Baptism in particular. This last was taken down by 
Iblli AOensoii, and published by Dr. Samuel Ward.t His '< Works'' 
were afterwards collected and pnblbhed in Latin, at Croneya, in 
4lPO Tobimes folio, in ^6l0.{ 

. Hbney Alyet, B. D.<^This zealous puritan was a 
Journcd divine, and fellow of St. John's college, Cambridge^ 
.whene lie most probably received his education. He was 
tator to the celebrated Mr. Thomas Gataker, junior, and 
other excellent divines. During the contention about the 
..vinlation of the university, he subscribed to the following 
npoteitation, dated February SO, 1587, and found in the 
;9'>*bpp of £ly's risgister*office:— ^^ I, Henry Alvey, do 
inwtest^ with autiful obedience, that, in respect to the oath 
which I have taken to the college, I dare not acknowledge the 
jiviwdiction of any but of our appointed visitors : and that 
Dj my personal appearing and answering, I do not renounce 
that ri^t or benefit that I may have by them ; but that it 
may be lawfiUi whensoever just occasion shall be found^ 
to appeal unto them. Which protestation reserved unto 

• Wood'i AthenaB Oxoo. vol. i. p. 303. 

-f- Fanfr^i Abel Red. p. 407, 408. 

t Wood*! AthcDCB Ozon. ?ol. i. p. 744. 


9ie ia all and etery point, I am most ready end 
answer."* — The year following, upon the severe ppoQet^ 
ings against Mr. Francis Johnson, another zealous puritan, 
)se united with upwards of sixty others, all learned mitn and 
fi^llows of the university, in presenting a supplicalion-to 
Chancellor Burleigh, in behalf of this persecuted flervant 
of Christ.f 

Mr. Alvey united with his brethren' in their endeavottfi 
to promote a more pure ecclesiastical discipline ; and when 
they were apprehended and carried before their spiritdal 
judfges, he was one of those who took tlie oath esp offim^ 
and discovered the associations. In the year 1595, wfacii 
Barret was called to an account for his dangerous sentimmt;, 
he was one of the learned divines of St. John's cdlegei 
^ho openly declared their disapprobation of his opiDiOttSi 
and their dissatisfaction with his pretended recantatioD.| 
Towards the close of this year, .complaints were broug^ 
against him and several others of the fellows, concenniig 
their nonconformity. These complaints, or rather slaoder- 
bus and false accusations, were laid before Arcbbiahop 
Wliitgift; against which, he justified his conduct, luia 
vindicated his character, at considerable length.^ Thoiu^ 
}t does not appear what further troubles he endured, he 
probably found it necessary to leave the university ; for he 
wais soon after chosen provost of Trinity college, Dublin; 
in which office he succeeded the celebrated Sfr, Walter 

/ Mr. Alvi^y is calll^d a Worthy benefactor to SL JdBii's 
college, Cambridge. B^ his last will and teslanient, he 
gav(*^ out of a house m Jesus-lane, four nobles^ to be 
annually paid to a Nottinghamshire scholar, living iiiidel"t 
fellow ; and in default of such scholar, the. four nmileB to be 
given to the college one year, and to the tenant another, 
alternately. He also made some other bequest^ of a sinflai 
kind, for the encouragement of learning and the'adviurtq[t 
of learned men in the university .i 

• Baker*! MS. Coliec. toI. lii. p. 92. + See Art. FrtBcii 
1 Baker*! MS. CoUec. vol. ii. p. 97, 88« 
4 Ibid. TOl. ili. p. 810—813. 
I MS. Chroaolo|7, toI. Hi. A. D. 1656. (78.) 
. 1 £aker*i MB, OoUec. vol. ziU. This vol. it not psfcd. 


r 4oHV Peime, B. D. — He vas born at Oxford, received 
jbift'^.gnuniQar learning at Wickham school, and afb^rwards 
ie^ferel at Nev CoU^e, Oxford, where he took his de^rers, 
kfulwaa chosen fellow of the house. Upofi his entrance 
utd the sacred function, he became a zealous and pbpulkr 
taeacher in the city of his nativity,, being much favoured 
py Dt. Cooper, bishop of Winchester. Afterwards^ he 
became vicar of Adderburjr in Oxfordshire, where he was 
mnch followed for his edifying way of preaching. The 
jPzfoicI historian denominates him a noted puritanical 
prefbcher.* He died at Adderbury, in the prime of life, 
Apnl IS, 1596, and his remains were intenm in his own 

Us WonKS.-^l. A short Treatise of Sacraments generally, and 
ftl.. special of Baptism and of the Supper, 1682.— 2. A IVeatise of 
'Matqie and Grace, 1683.-— 3. A Sermon briefly comparing the State 
Jot Khui Solomon and his Subjects, together with the condition of 
l^oeen JBUcabeth and her People, preached at St. Mark's in Oxon* 
NofJ 17, 1685, on 1 Kings x. 9.— 1685. — 4. An Exposition on the 
flahrttin% 1687.— 6. The Consolations of David applied to Queen 
Wnbetlp, in a Sermon at St. Mary's in Oxon. Not. 17, 1688, on 
}f^m vnl 4.--1688. 

\ Richard Allev. — He was minister at Ednam in Lin- 
bplnshiie^ a good preacher, and much beloved, but greatly 
fisufaaBeti for nonconformity. In the year 1583, upon the 
publication of Whitgift^s three articles, he was suspended 
mm his ministerial exercise, for refusing the imposed sub- 
acrii^oh* There were upwards of twenty others, all 
mfnisteiB in Lincolnshire, suspended at the same time. 
Having received the ecclesiastical censure, they presented a 
amplication to the lords of the council, earnestly wishing 
to^procuie their favourable tnediation; but, probably, 
VlfDout any good effect: the ruling prelates usually re« 
dttiiied inflexible. In this supplictition, they express Uiem- 
adves as follows : 

^' For as much, right honourable, as we whose names are 
widerwritteii, whpm the Lord in rich mercy hath placed 
over some of his people in Lincolnshire, as pastors lo feed 
Ihem with the word of truth, do humbly beseech your 
iKNiaurs to r^ard the pitiful and woeful state of our con* 
gte^ionB ill those parts ; which being destitute of our 
miniitiy, by nieans pf the subscription now generally and 

« Wood's Athene Qxoiu vol. 1. p« 847, 


fltricily urged by the bishops, do mourn and lament. Itli 
well known to ail your honoois, that an absolute subaciip' 
tion is required through the whole province of Canterbury, 
to three articles. As to the first and third, relating' to 
her majesty's supreme authority and the articles of religioD^ 
we most willingly offer our subscription, as always herembii 
we have done ; but cannot be accepted without an dbscdiite 
subscription to the other, to which we dare not condesoeodf^ 
being all of us unresolved and unsatisfied in our conscience 
about many points in the Common Prayer. May it faittHr 
please your honours favourably to consider,^that, in refuring 
an absolute subscription, we do it not out of arroganey^-IHr 
singularity, but because we are in doubts about mvers 
weighty matters: and fearing to subscribe as we were 
urged, we are all suspended uom exercising the' funotiqii 
of the ministry among our people, to the great dami^iif 
their souls, and our great injury. Wherefore, being panp 
suaded that our cause is the cause of Christ and his chuic^ 
we humbly beseech your honours, that with favour it mw 
be considered. And seeing we cannot be impeached « 
false doctrine, nor of contempt of her majesty's laws, an 
of refusal to use the book of prayer, nor of breeding con- 
tention or sedition in the church, we crave that we may^be ' 
restored to our flocks ; and that with all peace of con8cieiio& 
we may go forwards in the Lord's work,* in our seveai 
places. Signed by 

" Richard AiiLEN, John Prior, 

John Daniel, Charles Bingham, 

Thomas Tripler, John SuMMBRscAlaUi ' 

Mr. Shepherd, Anthony Hunt, 

Henry Nelson, ' Reinold Grome^ 
Matthew Thompson, William MunninO) 

Thomas Bradley, John Wintle, 

Thomas Fulbeck, Humphrid. Stratbrsji- 

Hugh Tuke, Rich. Housworth, . 

. Joseph Gibson, Rich. Kellet."* 

James Worship, 
Though it does not appear bow long Mr. Allai remaihed 
under the episcopal censure, he was at length restored to 
his ministry,, and was preacher at Louth, in the abovri 
county ; but in the year 1596, he was brought into fresh 
troubles by Judge Auderson. tiaying sometimes omitted 
part of the prayers for the sake of the sermon^ he was 

• MS. Register, p. SSI. 


indictedl at the assizes, for not reading them all. He was 
ofaiiMd to hold up his hand at the bar; when Andersoa 
. ■tanding up, addressed him with a most fierce countenance. 
The angry judge, after insinuating that he was guilty €f 
aoine most grievous crimes, though he mentioned non^ 
•Aentimes called him knave^ ana rebellious knaves and 
ireated him with many other vile reproaches, not allowing 
Ifai to speak id his own defence. Under this opprobrious 
ll«ilment, Mr. Allen behaved himself with all humility and 
aabmisflion ; not rendering railing for railing, but the Con- 
tery. Anderson in his charge said, that he would hunt all 
fbe puritans out of his circuit. 

In Mr. Allen's arraignment, one thing was very re- 
markable. During his trial, some point ccMning under 
consideration, Vfherein judgment in divinity yras required, 
flie good man referred himself to his ordinary, the bishop, 
then sitting on the bench ; but the judge, with marvellous 
MBnation, interrupted him, sayims:, I am your ordinary 
mtdoiihop too^ in this place, and challenged any one to take 
liis part. He was, indeed, so enraged against the good 
iiuin^ that when Sir George Sampol signifira verv softly to 
the judge, that Mr. Allen was an honest man and of a good 
noDvenation, his lordship could not help manifesting his 
displeasure.* It does not appear what followed this pro- 
secution, or whether Mr. Allen was released. We may see^ 
however, from this instance, as well as many others, that the 
puritan ministers were set on a level with the vilest criminals, 
to the jpeat disgrace of their office, and the loss of their 
leputabon and usefulness. 

FftAifcis Johnson. — This celebrated puritan was fellow 
of Christ's college, Cambridge, a verjr popular preacher in 
the university, and afterwards a leading person among the 
Brownists in London. In the year 1588, for a sermon 
which he preached in St. Mary's church, Cambridge, which 
was saia to contain certain erroneous and aangerous 
doctrines, he was convened before the vice-chancellor. Dr. 
Nevfl, and the heads of colleges, and committed to prison. 
The ' varbus proceedings of these ecclesiastical rulers 
engaged the attention of the imiversity for a twelvemonth ; 
torn "while some warmly approved of the rigorous measures, 
others severdj censured them, as reproachml to si protestant 

« Strypc'i Annalii vol. iv. p. 865, S66. 


country. His text was 1 Pet v. 1—^. <^ The elden 
"Which are, I exhort, who am also an elder,'^ ftci. 
That the reader may have a clear and correct view of th^ 
whole proceedings, it will be proper to state those erroneous 
and dangerous positions, said to be collected from his 
sermon, which were the following : — 1. ^^ That the chutch 
of God ought to be governed by elders. — 2. That a 
particular form of churcli government is prescribed in the 
word of God. — 3. I'hat no other form ought to be allowed. 
—4. That the neglect to promote this government is one 
chief cause of the present ignorance, idolatry, and dis- 
obedience. — 5. That we have not this government.— ? 

6. That ministers ought. to live upon their own cures. — 

7. That.there ought to be an equality among ministers^ 
which the popish hierarchy, and all who belong to it, do 
not like. — 8. That we have an Amaziah among us,, who 
forbiddeth Amos to preach at Bethel : they do not ezhprt to 
feed the jQock, but hinder tliose who would."* 

, Admitting that these articles were impartially collected 
from bis sermon, they do not appear to be of any very 
dangerous tendency, and, therefore, not deserving of any 
rerv severe jpunishment ; but of this every candid reader 
will judge tor himself. Mr. Johnson was commanded 
to answer them, and declare what he had deliver^ in hii 
sermon, upon his oath ; which, because he was unwilling to 
ficcuse himself, he absolutely refused. He underweqt 
several examinations, and was cast into prison, where he 
remained a long time. Mr. Cuthbert Bainbrigg, another 
zealous puritan, and prosecuted on a similar accouni, wai 
his fellow-prisoner. These two persecuted servants dT 
Christ, after suffering a long and painful im])risonment, 
laid their, case, at the feet of Lord Burleigh, chancellor 
of the university, a particular account of which is given 
in another placet 

Though Mr. Johnson refused to answer upon his oalh} 
lest, as observed above, he should prove his own accuser, he 
delivered his answer to each of the articles in writing. /Lb 
ihfise articles are now before me, it will be proper to SiVt^yr 
the reader with a sight of them. '^ That which I spake 
in my sermon," says Mr. Johnson, <^ was the following i 
. 1. ^< I proved, by divers reasons, that as the churcJi to 
which Peter wrote, and the other churches tbeia fuU^ 
established, had, for their instruction and govenunenty this 

« Baker's MS. CoUec. Yol. yI. p, 196.-^tr7pe's Whitgifly P* 990»tHI»^ 
t See Art. Cuthbert Bainbrigc. 


^iie unifbnn and prescribed order" of teaching and ruliog 
elders ; so the same, by the word of Grod, are still necessary 
to the right instruction and government of his churches. 
. 8. <' The Apostle Paul having spoken of the ordinancei 
and officers of the church, as of prophesy and others, he 
oancludes^ If any man think himself to be a jorophet^ or 
ipiriiualj let him acknowledge that tne things ttiat I write 
unAoyou^ are the commanaments of the Lord, Uponthis, 
i said) i£ they be the commandments of the Lord, then, 
till repealed, we are to hold them. 

3. " When further speaking of elders, seeing God hath 
fet them, in his church, I asked, Who hath authority to 
put them out, and set others in ? For they were appoir^ed, 
not only for a few years, but to be continued to the end of 
the worvl. This we see in the apostle's charge, 1 Cor. xii. 
88, 1 Tim. yi. 13, 14. Also our Saviour gave his commis« 
fiok fmd promise io all his faithful ministers, to the end of 
^ wprldt Matt, xxviii. \Q^ 20, Acts xiii. 36. 

4. ^ When speaking of the necessity of elders, I said, I 
diKibt not that the want of them, seeing they are appointed 
of; God, is the occasion of ignorance, atheism, idolatry, 
{irqfiinatiQn of the sabbath, disobedience to superiors, &c 
ail we find too lamentably proved by experience. 

5. << I said, it would be objected, that there is not a 
snfficient number fit for this office. To which I answered, 
that many who are fit, are not employed. And inquiring 
where the fault was, I said, it was not in the Lord, who is 
most ready to set watchmen upon the walls of his church, 

'which is his city ; and to give pastors unto his flock, to feed 
it with knowlolge and understanding. Shall we think 
that Grod is not able and willing to qualify men for the 
ministry of. the gospel, as he was Aholiab and Bezaleel fi>r 
the work of tlie tabernacle, and Hiram for the templet 
Doubtless he is the same God, able and willing : but the 
^ult is in ourselves. If you, indeed, desire tnat sinners 
phonld be awakened and arise from the dead, labour by all 
peans of petition to God, and supplication to those in 
enlhority, that Christ Jesus may be heard in our con* 

ol <^ Having proved that elders ought to be with their 

mm flocks, and to feed them, I said, that Christ would call 

ikol^ elders to give an account In the application, I 

.exhorted those who have particular flocks committed to 

tliem, and still live in th^ university, tp retire into their 


chambers, and examine their hearts before the Lord, and t9 
act according as the case required. 

7« << I said, that if Peter had possessed snch anthoritr as 
the papists ascribe to him, he might have commanded these 
elders to do that, which^ as a fellow-elder, he exharU them. 
But he was so fiir frcmi thinking himself the chief of the 
apostles, that he accounts himself a fellouheUer with the 
ordinaiy elders of other congr^ations. Yet the popish 
hierarchy accounts otherwise, both of his superiority oyer 
the rest of the apostles, and of themselves as bishops of 
bishops : but we are to like a godly equality. 

8. ^' I shewed, that as it was the duty of all christians, so 
also of all the ministers of God's word, to exhort and stir 
up one another. And that this practice of the apostle con- 
demned those, who are so far from exhorting others ip feed 
the flock, that they hinder those who would feed them.*> 

His answers, however, gave not the least satLs&etion. 
After repeated examination, and remaining a long time ip 
jprison, he was enjoined, October 19, 15o9, to make the 
following recantation : — << Whereas, January 6th, last post, 
^^ I taught that our uniformity and prescribed order by 
<< teaching and ruling elders, by the word (^ God, hi 
<< necessary for the te^hing and ecclesiastical govennnent 
<< of the church of God, and is the commandment of the 
^< Lord, and to be kept until the appearing <^ our IxmA 
<< Jesus Christ : and seeing God, as the apostle saitb, hatis. 
^ set them to be elders in the church, who hath authoritjr 
<< to set them out or others in ? I therefore being given 'fo 
<< understand, that the said speeches; of mine wane so 
^< construed by some, as though I had thereby greatly 
^ derogated from her majesty ^s authority in causes ecclesi" 
^ astical, do now more |)lainly exjuress my meaning, that I 
^^ do not think, that there is set down by the word oiGcd^ 
<< any stinted and precise form of external government m 
*^ the church, which must of necessity be observed in all 
<< times and places wit)iout exception : but am persuaded, 
<< that, for the better government of particular congregirtioiis, 
*^ her majesty may establish such orders, as, by ner godfy 
^< wisdom, with the advice of her godly and learned jMrekUtai 
<< she shall find most expedient for the state of her couniliTy 
*^ according to her majesty's pre-eminence in the draor^ 
^ established by the laws of the realm, and expreaaed fat 

• 8trjpe*t Aooi^ls, toU ill. Appen* p. 8Q1[-«-SiO% 


*^ ber most just title, which is most agreeaUe to the word of 
f^ Gody and conformable to the example of most anci<?nt 
** diurcbesy which have been ruled by christian magistrates. 
. ^* And whereas I did affirm the want of elders (being the 
^ cwdinary means appointed by God) to be the cause of 
^ ignorance, atheism, idolatry, profanation of the sabbath^ 
<( and disobedience to superiors ; and these words of mine 
^ seeined to some, injurious to the present state of the 
f^ church and conunonwealth of the land and magistrates 
'<^^ of them both, as not having care so to cstabUsh the 
^^ government as might root out such ffreat enormities : for 
^^ the better explanation of my mina on this subject, I 
^ cannot say of my certain knowledge, that these vices are 
^more abounding here in our churches than in such 
^ churches where elders are at this day placed. And I am 
<< of opinion that her majesty, and such as are in authority 
^^ndd&t her, have by wholesome laws provided against 
*J such evils."* 

Ifr. Johnson was required to make the above ridiculous 
lecanlaiioQ in the pulpit of St. Mary's church ; and because 
lie peiffiopned it ^^ in mincing terms, and did not fully 
terolfe his opinions,'' according to the form given him, he 
was, October 30th, in the above year, expelled from the 
nnivendty : and because he did not depkrt from the place^ 
bewasy December the 18th, a^in cast intoprison.f By 
the recommradation of Burlei^ the chancellor, he made 
an appeal to the university against these illegal and cruel 
proceedings, and wrote a long and excellent letter to the 
chancellor, of which the following is a copy : 

^^ To the right honourable the Lord Burleiffh. 

'^ I came hither to Cambridce, as I was by your 

lotdahip advised, to follow my appesS to the university. 1 

.went in a quiet manner to Mr. Vice-chancellor and to Dr. 

Bjinfi. to desire that either some law mi^ht be shewed to 

cut on my appeal, or else my appeal not hindered, further 

ihan was alleged by your lordship ; which I then answered, 

I. there hath been no one clause of law shewed me, sufficient 

'to.ddtxur me from the benefit of appeal. I requested the 

proctor to prosecute my appeal, and to procure delegates to 

^bediosen according to the statute, which was all I could 

here do. And now not only have I profited nothing:, but 

'bring called before Mr. Vice-chancellor and the heads, the 

18th of the present month, I was there, (for any thing I 

• Biker's MS. Collec. vol. ?K p. 187. + Ibid. 


• • 

heard,) by the sole authority of the vice-chancellor^ charged 
the next day to depart the university, except I would theiifc 
desire some longer respite for the ridding away of my stu£ 
Whereunto I making answer, that I waited for the prosecu- 
tion of my appeal made to the university, which depettdin|;'| 
I was by law to remain in state as before. I was agam 
required to answer whether I would depart the next day, or 
ask respite for the removal of my stuff: whereunta t 
answering that I was not so minded to let fall my tfppcia^ 
and was by the vice-chancellor committed to close prison, 
without baU or mainprize, until such time as I would yiela 
to let fall my appeal, and give over my title to the univeraitr^ 
and to my fellowship ; where I did continue three days in 
the Tolbooth, in a close and cold comer, straitly kept, that 
none of my friends might come at me, nor comfort come to 
me from them. And now, because of the extremity of the 
weather, I am removed to the bailiff of the Tolbooth's 
house, with most strait charge, that none at all are suBfeied 
to come unto me. 

^< Neither doth this most violent dealing only fall upon me. 
But I beseech your lordship also to consider, whether Ae 
sovereign authority of our gracious queen (whom G9d long 
continue among us with much glory) be not impugned, by 
making themselves without, nay against law and statute, 
supreme judges and governors not to be appealed from; the 
honourable protection of your lordship over us trampled 
under their feet, by most straitly imprisoning me, for that 
which your lordship permitted and advised me to do ; and 
the express statute of our whole university by all vipIemS 
broken and disannulled, for the maintaining of then" own 
indiscreet and unlawful proceedings. And, touching 
myself and my cause at this time, I most humbly beseech 
your lordship also to consider, what injustice it is to wring 
from me by violence and forcible imprisonment, in more 
strait manner than is usual to felons, and likfe malefectors, 
that which by law I might rightluUy maintain. 

^' To God, who judgeth ri^ht, 1 commit my cause, beink 
in myself persuaded, and rejoicing, that 1 have receivm 
honour to suffer for the truth of the eternal God ; which at 
first and now still, they persecute in me the unworthiest 
of the servants of God. O, my God ! look down from 
heaven : stay the fury of men : strike thy fear into their 
hearts, that they may consider their last end. 

^^ Now to ^""' "*nlship, I, a poor prisoner, overthrow}! 
by Iversaries in a just cause, being put 

p. JOHNSON. 95 

but of doubt that here I shall find no more justice, the 
ptqCtor being checked for dealing in' my appeal, and 
thi^tened to be called to his answer, do most instuitly in 
God*8 behalf,, and for righteous dealing, beg and beseech 
jfou'to take my cause to your lordship's hearing, and to 
fiescae me from this grievous imprisoiunent, Which, un- 
deservedly, the Lord of heaven knowcth, I sustain. I do 
^ppf^l linto your lordship's wisdom, justice and authoritvy 
' tti being honourable chancellor of this our university. The 
Loid give me favour in the sight of your honour, and th^ 
Lord move your honour's heart to have compassion on my 
i6idamity. Unto his will and wisdom I humbly submit 
myself, and my cause, making my humble prayer to 
Aunighty God, to endue your lordship with ^odly wisdom 
and zeal for his ^lory, both in this and all other causes. 

'' Your honour's humble supplicant, 
.* " Francis Johnson. . 

** Cambrid^, December 22, 1589.^ 

Two supplications, subscribed by sixty-eight scholars, all 
^dlows of the university, were at the. same time presented 
to Burleigh^ in behalf of Mr. Johnson and his appeal. In 
the krtier, dated December 33, 1589, they observe, that the 
{privileges granted by the queen's majesty, and the statutes 
of the university, were violently torn from them, by those 
'yfbo ought tQ have shewn them a better example ; and then 
add, — ^ Mr.- Francis Johnson, a man whose cause and 
estate^ bjrreason of his long trouble and other grievances, 
.are w^ll known unto your lordship, being prohibited by Mr. 
Yice-chancellor and some others from presenting his lawful 
appeal to the university, made and intimated to the proctor, 
.according to statute, from the sentence of expulsion given 
.by the late vice-chancellor; and not finding any means 
here to help himself, repaired unto your honour for succour, 
.andwasy as we understand, remitted to the university, to 
.which .he had appealed. Now since his last return, Mr. 
.Tice-chaQcellor that now is, citing him before the head^, 
, charged him to depart the university ; but he still challeng- 
ing the benefit of his appeal, was by the vice-chancellor 
committed to close prison w ithout bail or mainprize. We 
doubt hot that your lordship soon perceiveth how unequal it 
is that the parties, from whom tlie appeal was made, should 
be judges whether the appeal be lawlul or not: as alsohoV 
the statute of appeal is utterly made void, if for appealing 

• BiUcer*! MS. Collec. toI. W. p. 8S, 86. 


the Tice-cbttncellor may commit to prison him that tesMk 
not in his sentence. For of the close prison, withoat bafl. 
Vft say nothing, leaving it to your loroship^s wisdom, aas 
to the laws of the land : we do not deny that our hearts ava 
greatly moved with this strange example of extraordinaiy 
violence and extremity. Our great grief and distress oi 
heart hardly suffereth to make any end of complaining, audi 
what to ask of your lordship we well know not ; but we' 
beseech the Lord our God to affect your honour's heai^ 
with a tender compassion of the great affliction of this Ottf 
dear brother and faithful servant of God, Mr. Johnson."* 

Among those who subscribed the two su{pplication% aip 
the names of William Perkins, Thomas Brightman, and 
Anthony Wotton, all divines of great celebrity in their day. 
Indeed, the most pious and learned men in the univerril^ 
disapproved of the above ill^al and inhuman proceedingss 
and L>r. Goad, provost of King's collqee. Dr. Whitana^ 
master of St JoWs collie, and Dr. Chadderton, maiMr' 
of ESmanuel cdlege, all protested against them.f We ds 
Hot find, however, that time supplications and protestatkiif 
were at all efiectual. How long Mr. Johnson lemaiBeK 
^mder his barbarous confinement, we have not been afak#' 
leani ; but, as he fiiilad to obtain redress, be, being weaikl 
by the fatigue ot the prison, most probably consented la 
leave the university* A divine of his name, and probaU^ ' 
the subject of this narrative, subscribed the ^ Book m 

The tyrannical and cruel persrcnlion of the porilaM^ ' 
instead of bringii^ them to conformity, only drove thai 
further from the eataUished church. They could not in 
conscience comply with such measorvs, nor much kssooali 
(Key approve dP a church fighting with such wcaposk 
TherdAwe^ at this period, many pionB and learned pesna 
w^NN^ driven to a total separation from the ecd rn a ili rt i 
e^tabli^nMnt^amongwhom was Mr. Johnson, who csponssi; 
(he stnliiuents of the Brownkls^ and joined their lougicgi ^ 
ihm whieK assembled DnvatelT in and abosrt Londonr' 
AUmiI (he y«ar 1593; ttke members of thb congicgationi 
haviiiir become rather nuwetons^ fbtmed themselves imia 
a chmchi: when Mr. JohnsMn was chosen pnslor br As 
snieitMee of (he bnithevWwoNL Mr. John Greenwood, docta 
«r lemSMHT^ MewnRk Bansian and Lee^ du s cnns and 
SlMillly and Kinsslon^ teUms. The whole of this 

1 8»Mrf%yiMrtM^^^^».4Ma> 


waft fMiformed in one day, at the house of Mr. Ebx ia 
Nicfaoia^Iane. At the same time, seven persom werer 
l^imtiiedy without godfathers or godmothers, Mn Johnson- 
only washing their faces with water, and pronouncing tto 
fiurm, ^< I ibaptize thee in the name of the FiUher, ftc. 
The liord's supper was also administered in the following 
QMuuiar: five white loaves being. set upon the table, the 
pastor implored the blessing of God ; and after breaking, 
the bp^ead, be delivered it to part of the company, and the 
deacons to the rest, some standing and others sitting around 
the taU^ using the words ol the apostle, 1 Cor. xi. 84^ 
Taie^ eaiy Sec. In like manner he gave the cup, sayings 
Vkis cup is the New Testament^ &c. At the close, they 
Ming an hymn, and made a collection for the poor. Afier- 
waids, when any one entered into the church, he made this 
single protestation or promise, ^' That he would walk witb 
flieniy.splong as they walked in the way of the Lord, and as 
fiif as might be warranted by the word of God."* 

f^bis congregation, of which Mr. Johnson was pastor, 
was obliged, in order to avoid the bishops^ officers, to meet in 
difiinent places, and sometimes in Xhv dead of the night; but 
wps at length discovered on a Lord's day at Islii^ton, in^ 
the very juooe in which the protestant congregation mi^^rm. 
the lei^ of Queen Mary. About fifty-six persons were 
taken mto cu^ody, and sent, two by two, to the different 
piisons about Lonidon, where several of their friends had* 
been confined a considerable time. Upon their examina* 
tion^ they acknowledged that they had met in the fields, in> 
the summer season, by five o'clock on a Lord's day morning,, 
and ia winter in private houses ; that they continued all the 
day in prayer and expounding the scriptures, dined 
togirther, and afterwards made coUection for their food, and 
SG^ the remainder of the money to their brethren in prison ; 
ai|d that they did not use the Lord's prayer, apprehending 
that our Saviour did not intend it to be used as a form, after- 
th&piaring out of the Spirit on the day of Pentecostf Alsp, 
dming their imprisonment, their adversaries having charged' 
them with holding many extravagant opinions concerning 
baptism, marriage, lay-preaching, and other particulars, 
Aey yiiidicated themselves in a very solid and judicious- 
jhr, shewing how fiir they were falsdy accused.^ 
Chough it does not appear whether Mr. Johnson was 
appfdiended and cast into prison at the same time withtht* 


• 8trvpe*i Anoals, vol. it. p. 175. ^ Ibid. vol. UL p. 57S. 

{ MS. RepMer, p. S60--SS6. 



congregation; yet, during the present year, both h^ ttnd 
Mr. Jonn Greenwood, were seized by Archbieiiop Whitgift's 
parsuiyants, without warrant, at a certain citizen's house in 
Ludgate-hill ; and in the midst of the night, after the pur- 
suivants had searched all the chests, boxes, and mier 
private places in the house, they were carried to the 
Compter, and the next day Whitgift and the other high 
commissioners committed them to close prison.* 

Mr. Johnson underwent many examinations before his 
ecclesiastical inquisitors ; and though he absolutely refused 
the oath ex officio^ he confessed, April 5, 1393, " That he 
was first taken in an assembly in St. Nicholas^lane, and 
committed to the Compter in Wood-street; that afterwards 
lie was apprehended in Mr. Boys's house," (as mentioned 
above,) '^ and committed to prison by the Archbishop (^Can- 
terbury and others ; and that he had been twice examined 
before the Lord Chief Justice and Lord Anderacm;" 
Being asked how long he had held the opinions of the 
Brownists, he said, he conld not definitely answer, but 
signified that he had been committed to prison four yean 
bSbre, for a sermon delivered in St. Mary's churdi, 
Cambridge.' He confessed, that he had baptized divns 
(Children in the congregation ; but, as to marriage, he did 
not account it an ecclesiastical service, or at all beloDgiag 
to the ministerial function. He observed, that it was not 
indispensably requisite to use the very words of the Loid'» 
prayer; and that the Lord's supper was not to be confined 
to any particular time, but might be received at any time of 
the day or night, when the congregation is assembled and 
prepared for it. R^ing required to shew in what places 
Uiey had assembled, Jie refused to answer ; and being asked • 
whether he possessed or.had possessed any of Barrow's, 
Greenwood's, or Penry%^ books, be also desired to be excused 
making any reply. WJien he was asked whether he had 
not persuaded others to tihe assembly of the coogregatioa of 
which he was pastor, and how many he had so peisoa^ted; 
he said, he had done, and must do, that whieh God, 
according to his holy wohl, required of him ; but refiiaisd 
any further answer. And toeing asked whciber he woiild 
rdbrm himself, and attend vipon the service of the paiidi 
church, he raised to give i\ direct answer ; but said, he 
could not join in the ecclesiastical ministry and stale of 
archbishops, bishops, parsonsTy vicars, &c. &c.f 

« Strype** Annals, yoI. i? . p. 9C. -^ Baker*i MS. Collec. vol. zv.p. SMi> 


' ' Mr. Johnson, having lain in close confinement fourteen 
months, wrote a letter to Lord Treasurer Burleigh, entreating 
his OMnpassionatc influence to procure for him and his 
fUIow-prisoneis, a friendly conference, that their real 
sentiments might be known, and that all impartial men 
might judge whether they deserved such hard treatment. 
In this letter, he observes, ^' That his brother George had 
been confined eleven months in the Clink.* And," says he, 
*' when our poor old father applied to Justice Youn^, for us 
to have the liberty of the prison, he and the Dean of 
.Westminster, would have sent him to prison, had not 
Justice Barnes interposed and prevented them. — We are 
not ashamed of the gospel of Christ. We suj9er these 
■things only for refusuig to have communion with the 
antichristiau prelacy; and for labouring, in a holy and 
peaceable manner, to obey the Lord Jesus Christ in his 
ministry and worship, as prescribed in his last Testament, 
and sealed with his own precious blood. If we err in these 
things, prisons and the gallows are no fit means to convince 
and persuade our consciences : but rather a quiet and godly 
iXHimence, or a discussion of the matter by writing, before 
•equal and impartial judges. This we have often sued for, 
but could never yet obtain. We now, therefore, in a 
humble manner, solicit your lordsliip to procure this for us. 
Not that we doubt the truth of our cause. We are fully 
persuaded of this from the word of God, and are ready, 
by the grace of Grod, to seal it with our own blood. But 
we desire it, that the truth being discovered and made 
manifest, the false offices, callings, livings, and possessions of 
the prelacy, might be converted to her majesty's use, as 
'were not long since the livings of the abbots, monks, and 
fiiais in these dominions; and that by these means the 
gospel of Christ may have free course, and the peace of 
Uie church be promoted/' In the conclusion, he subscribes 
liilnself) ^^ pastor of that poor distressed church, and still 
m close prisoner tor the gospel of Jesus Christ."f 
-* Indosed in this letter, Mr. Johnson sent a paper to the 
r, signifying, that, for his writings, he was in no 

• Mr: Gmfe JohMoa* mcaber of Uie Brownitt congregMioD, lats 
' ' ia 8L MicholM l>ng, Loe^oa, born t Richmond in Yorkshire, 

~ 'April t» 1SS8, before tbe bigb conmisiioo, when he 

~ IB teko the ooth. Hebadatthat 

■at bad already nnderKone 

iaa aad olben.— JSaifctr'f 



dan^r of the statate of 35 Elic. «< To retun the queen's 
tobjectsin their due obedience/' In this paper, he pro» 
fessedly acquits himself on the following grouixlB : 

1. He had onlj inquired of the prelates and niiiustef% 
whether her majesty, with the consent of parliament, migiit 
not abolish the present prelacy and ministry of the chitfcl^ 
and transfer their revenues and possessions to her own civil 
uses, as her father, Henry YIII., did with abbots, moaks^ 
and others, and their liyings. 

S. His writings are only in defence of such doctrines af 
Christ as are against the canonical function of the popc^ 
and were profb^ed by the holy martyrs of Christ, acconuited 
lellardy and heresy : as, for instance, John Wickliffe held, 
that archbishops, bishops, archdeacons, officials, deans, ftc 
were disciples of anticnrist* 

3. If the statute of 35 Eiii. be against mich writings aad 
books as reprove the ecclesiastical ministry and government 
of archbishops, bishops, archdeacons, deans, ftc. then the 
writing and the printing of the confessions of the refbniied 
t^urches of Helvetia, Tigur, Geneva, &c. wherein tb^ 
write, that archprelates, metropiditans, ardipriests, deaos^ 
snbdeans, and others of the same kind, pass not a rusk 
And the confessions of the reformed French and Belgick 
churches say, that the church ou^ht to be governed b^ 
pastors, elders, and deacons, as Chnst hath appointed* 
. 4. In his writings, he hath jHXived his assertions by the 
.word of God, which her majesty protesteth and defeadeth; 
and they are written in defence of the liberty and privilqfe 
of the church of Christ, which the great charter of England 
granteth and preserveth inviolable. 

5. If all who forsake the communion <^ the estabUdwd 
ehurch, be in danger of this statute ; then any one fonakiag 
the church, and joining the French, Dutch, or ItaUaa 
churches, allowed by her majesty in London, Norwidi^ 
or Sandwich, would also incur the penalty of tUi 

6. He never maliciously persuaded any to abstain fioai 
the church, much less to deny, withstana, or impogahar 
majesty's authoritv. 

7. He never did, obstinatel v, and without lawfal calMr 
but upon conscience, groundbJ upon the word of God, 
and approved by the confessions of the rdformed diucclKa, 
and the faithful servants and martyrs of Christ, rd^aat^lj^ 
hear, and have contmutiion with the miaistQr. ^.yhfijfr^^jfr 
as now established* ". " 


» & He, haTing been a close prisoner a long time before 
tiie said statute was made^ cannot be lawfully convicted 9£ 
haying broken it/'* 

r. Tine reasons, however, prevailed not Whether the 
ticaturer made any use of them, we are not able io learn. 
But Mr. Johnson was brought to trial ; and though his 
crime was merely that of writing against the established 
clrarch and the oppressions of the prelates, and was com* 
niitted even some time. before the statute was made^ he was 
found guilty by the said statute, and condemned to 
perpetual banishment from his country. Messrs. Barrow, 
'Greenwood, Penry, and some others, having suffered 
death on account of their firm attachment to their religious 
sentiments. Archbishop Whitgift and the other ruling 
prdates, who were the chief promoters of these barbarous 
pro o c edings, became, at length, ashamed of hanging men 
for propagating their religious principles, and contrived 
this engine to have the Brownists and other puritans swept 
out of the land. This act, therefore, condemned them to 
iNuiislunent without discrimination ; and the gaols were soon 
(deared of them. Yet the overbearing, tyrannical prelates 
icofc care to have them filled again in the following year.f 

Mr. Jcdmscm being condemned to sufier perpetual banish- 
ineuty tetired to Amsterdam, many of his mends accom- 
iwnying him* There he formed a churoh after the model 
of the orownists, having the learned Mr. Henry Ainsworth 
^ its doctor or teacher. The grand principle on which 
Ihis church was founded, may be expressed in Mr. Johnson's 
mm. words. ^< The church," says he, ^^ pught not to be 

fommed by popish canons, courts, classis, customes, or any 
uman in ventions,but by the laws and rules which Christ hath 
appointed in his Testament.''^ ^' Every particular church, 
HVith its pastors, stands immediatoly under Christ, the arch* 
pastor, without any other ecclesiastical powar intervening ; 
whether it be of prelates, synods, or any other invented hy 
inaa."§ In 1598, Mr. Johnson and Mr. Ainsworth drew up 
m mijfession of their faith in Latin, which they dedicated 
to the universities of St. Andriews, Leyden, Heidelbery, 
Geneva, an4 the other universities of Scotland, Holland, 
Germany, and France. It was afterwards translated into 
^£nfflish, and doe^ not differ much in doctrine from the 
V Hannony oi Confessions."! 

.'. * 9lrypft*t Annab, yol. if. p. 1S7, 138. 

-f AiMWorth'i GpooterpoysoDy p. 40. t 1^S*^'8 Chnrch Go?, p. fill, 
% W^W Wtmmahe^ p. 8ft, | Ufe mf AimwpMi, p. 18. 


Although Mr. Johnson was a learned and religious man, 
he was rigid in his principles ;• and his people cntertaming' 
discordant sentiments, it was not long before they split into 
parties. That which first occasioned this dissention was 
Mr. Johnson's marriage to a widow of competent fortuhe, 
whom his brother George Johnson and his father thought 
an improper match in those times of persecution. George 
Johnson represents her as addicted to luxurious living, 
excess of finery in dress, and a lover of ease. Frequent 
' disputes, therefore, took place from 1594, the tinue of 
marriage, till about 1598, when George Johnson, his father^ 
and some other members who adhered to them, were cut off 
from the church, chiefly on account of their behaviour in 
this affair. The greater part, among whom was Mr; 
Ainsworth,f took part with Francis the pastor. Much 
reproach has, by various, writers, been cast upon them on 
account of this censure.^ Tlie excommunication of a 
brother and an aged father, appears an harsh and unnatural 
proceeding : however, the grounds, circumstai^ces, and ends 
of it, should be examined before we condemn what was 
done. Most probably the censure was by the suffrage of 
the church, and appeared to a majority of its members, to 
be according to the will of God^ and, therefore, they 
preferred the will of God, more than any natural affection^ 
and regarded the spiritual welfare of those whom they cast 
out, more than any temporal ease or advantage. Mr. 
Johnson says, ^^ Those whom we have cast out, it hath been 
partly for revolting from the truth, to the corruptions of 
other .churches, and partly for other sins."^ And Mx. 
Ainsworth says, <^ That George Johnson and his fiither 
were cast out for Iving, slandering and contention.") 

Mr. Neal conrounds this unhappy controversy with 
another which happened many years afterwards, Detweioa 
Mr. Johnson and Mr. Ainsworth, about matters of dis^ 
cipline.i Mr. Johnson placed the government rf the 
church in the eldership alone; Ainsuforth in the ivhole 
church, of which the elders are a part. The event, accord" 

• Bishop Han charges him with saying, ** That the ministry and 
worship 'of the church of England were tal^en out of the whore'f cap. 
He styles onr church, the daughter of Babylon, the mother of whoredoni 
and abominations ; and says, that the constitution, worship, and gofem- 
ment, are directly antichristian." — Jpohgie agaitut Srownhtit p. 7^ 
Edit. 1614. 

f See Art. Ainsworth. j: Bailie's Dissuasive, p. 15. S Ibid. p. Sf. 

B Life of Ainsworth, p. 30. 

t Neal*8 Hist, of JPoritaos, vol. ii. p. 44, 4ft. . 


ing to the opuiion ^{ some,* was, that Jolinson excom- 
mamcatecl Ainsworlh and his part of the church, and that 
^insworth returned the compliment upon the (mposite 
party : butT for the latter charge there appears no founda- 
tiqii.f On the contrary, Mr. John Cotton, who was no 
BiDwnist, but was contemporary with Atnsworth and 
Johnson, and lived among those who had been concerned 
in this affair, observes, ^^ That Mr. Ainsworth and his 
company did not excommuuicafe Mr. Johnson and his 
party, but withdrew, when they could no longer live 
peaceably together.''^ Ainsworth and those who adhered 
to him, held a separate assemblyat Amsterdam, and the two 
congregations were afterwards distinguished as Johnsonian 
and 'Ainsworthian Brownisfs.^ But Mr. Johnson and his 
friends, at length, removed to Embden, where he afterwards 
died, and his congregation dissolved. 

In the year 1599, there was a lons^ controversy carried on 
in print, between Mr. Johnson and Mr. Henry Jacob, con- 
cerning certain tenets of the Brownists. The same year the 
whole was collected and published at Middleburgh, by Mr. 
Johnson, consisting of ninety-one quarto pa^es, entitled,^^ A 
Defence of the Churches and Ministry of England, against 
the reniODS and objections of Maister Francis Johnson, and 
otheiB of the separation commonly called Brownists. In 
two Treatises. Published especially for the benefit of those 
in these parts of the Low Countries." In one of these 
treatises is a recapitulation of all the chief objections raised 
6y the Brownists against the churcb of Kngland ; from 
which we may gather a much more complete account of 
their, tenets and doctrines, than from any thing else ever 
published ; and it is truly authentic, because it was written 
•by one of the leaders of the Brownists. It is called, 
<* Antichristian Abominations yet retained in England,'* and 
enumerates the following particulars : 

<< The contusion of all sorts of people in the body of 

• Bailie^s Dissiasiiae, p. 15. 
+ Life of Ainsworth, p. Si, S3. 

?'CottoD*s Congregational Chnrcbes, p. 6. 
The Johnsonian Broiruists commenced a suit, it is said, afj^inst the 
Alnsworthians, for the meeting-house granted to the Brownists at Amstec- 
dam. The Jolinson ians pleaded that it belonged to them, l>eing che ancioit 
Brownists, to whom it was originally given : but the Alnsworthians, on 
the contrary, pleaded it was theirs, seeing they were the true Brownists, 
Mdii^ the ancient faith of that church, from which the Johnsonians are 
Mid to have apostatized. How far this account is correct, or how this 
Alspete was ended, we are not able to learn. *-<Pa|f«<*f Htrcnogrmjfkjij 


their (the Englkb) church ; even the moBt polluted, and 
iced, beiMg members thereof. — Their ministratioQ of tlie 
word) sacraments, and government of th<* church, by ririmfi 
of antichrist ian officers. — The titles of primate, metrc^Kiii- 
ian, lords, grace, lordship. Sec ascribed to the prelates.-^ 
The interior prelates swearing obediaice to the metropolitical 
sees of Canterbury and York. — The inferior ministei^ 
when they enter into the ministry, promising obedience 
to the prelati^, and their ordinances ; and when they aie 
inducted to beneiic( s, confirming with an oath. — ^Tlie 
deacon's and priest's prt sentation to a lord bishop, by ma 
archdeacon. — Their receiving orders of the prelates, <Mr 
. their suflfragans. — Their pontifical, or book of consecrating 
bishops, and of ordering priests and deacons, taken out of 
the pope's pontifical, where their abuse of scripture to that 
end, their collects, epistles, &c. may be seen. — Their mak- 
ing, and being made, priests, with blasphemy ; the prelates 
saying to those whom they make priests, Receive ye the 
Holy Ghosl^ whose sins ye forgioe^ they areforgrveny fte. 
—T'neir confounding of civil and ecclesiastical offices wA 
authorities in ecclesiastical persons. — Thiir retaining and 
using in their public worship the apocryphal books, whidi 
hav^' in f h«*m divers errors, untruths, blasphemies, and' con- 
tradictions to canonical scriptures. — Their stinted prayefi 
and litur^, taken out of the pope's mass-book, with the 
same order of psalms, lessons, collects, pater-nosten^ 
episdts, gospels, versicles, responds, &c. — The cross in 
mptism. — ^The hallowed font, and questions to the infimli 
in baptii<m. — The godfathers and godmothers pronoisim 
that the child doth believe, forsake the devil and all ins 
works, &c — Women's baptizing ot children ; which maiib 
taineth that heresy, that the children are damned which die 
unbaptized. — Their howseling the sick, and ministerial; 
the communion to one alone. The ministering it, not with 
the words of Christ '^ institution, but with others takes 
out of the pope's portuis. — They sell that sacrament for 
two-pence to all ccHuors. — The receiving of it kneeUD|^ 
which maketh it an idol, and nourishem that heresy, of 
receiving their Maker, of worshipping it, &c. — Their ring 
in marriage, making it a sacramental sign, and marriage ah 
ecclesiastical action ; thereby nourishing the popish heieqr, 
that matrimony is a sacrament. — ^Their praying over tte 
dead, making it als6 a part of the minister's duty, and 
nourishing &e heresy of prayer for the dead. — ^Their 
churching or purifying of women, then also abusvig t|u^ 


■ ^Bcnptasej T%e sun shall noi bum them bjfdm/^ uorthtmom 
by tttgM^r^Thm Gang-week,* and then praying over the 
eon 'and grass. — ^Their forbidding of marriage in Gang^ 
week, m Advent, in Lent, and on allthe £mber-day8 ; wbldi 
&» apostle calleth a doctrine of demts^ 1 Tim. iv. 1 — S.-** 

. Their saints, angek and apostles' days, with their prescripit 
terrioe.— -Their fasts, and abstaining from flesb, on their 

. eves,, on Fridnys, Saturdays, Eimber-<&ys, and all tkedays of 
LenL-^Their dispensations from the prelates' courts of 
fiicuUieB to eat flesh at these times. — Their dispensations to 
waxTj in these times forlndden. — Licenses from the same 

- anthority to marry in places exempt. — Dispensations also 

. from tbace for boys and ignorant fools to have benefices.-— 
Dispensations also for nonresidents. — For haying two^ three. 

' four, or more benefices. — Tolerations. — ^P^tronages of, and 
IHfesenlBtions to, benefices, with buying and selling ad- 
Towsons. — Their institution into benefices by the prelates^ 
their inductions, proxies, &c. — Their suspensions, absoln* 
tioiis, degradations, deprivations, &c. — The prelates, 
ciianoellorB, omunissioiiers' courts, having power to exocHU- 

. jBunicalealone, and to absolve. — Their penance in a white 
dieet.— -Their commutation of penance, and absolving one 
man for another. — The prelate's confirmation, or bishopping 
of ^^Blldito, to assure them of Grod's favour, by a sign di 
man^s devising. — The standing at the gospel. — The puttii^ 
off the cap, and making a leg, when the word Jesus is reao. 
— ^The ring of peals at burials. — ^Bead-men at burials, and 
hired fluoomers in mourning apparel. — The hanging and 
mouniing of churches and hearses with black at burials.— 
Their absolving the dead, dying excommunicate, before 
they can have, as they say, Christian burial. — The idol 
templeB.— -The popish vestments, as rocket, horned cap, 
ti}met, the surpUce, and the cope. — The visitations of the 
kurd^bishops and archdeacons. — ^The prelates' lordly do- 

,BiiiiioD, revenues, and retinue. — The priests' maintenance 

* Gung-week, or rogatioo-week, was that particular season of the 
3fflir, in which, according to popish cnitom, was observed ** the perambn- 
•MUioB of the circuits of parishes.'* Queen Elizabeth retained the same 
pnctkes and eiyoined, *> That the people should once a year, at the 
** accnstoned time, with the minister and substantial men of the parish, 
*^* walk roand the parish as usual, and at their return to church make the 
**lBoawMHi prayers; provided that the minister, at certain convenient 
** placet, ihaU admonish the people to give thanks to God for the increase 
'* aod aboDdance of the fruits of the earth, repeating the 103d Psalm % at 
** which time also the minister shall inculcate this and such like sentences, 
'* GKTMtf H A« UM rem«ostA Ait n^ighbowrU /miil-iiiariir. "--Sparrow's 
Gellecti^t ?• '73. 


hy tithes, Christmas offerings, &c. — The oaths es qi 
in their ecclesiastical courts, making men swear to accuse 
themselves.' — The churchwarden's oath to present to the 
prelates all the offences, faults, and defaults, committed in 
their parishes against their articles and injunctions.— ^Tbe 
prelates ruling the church by the pope's cursed canon law. 
— Finally, their imprisonuig and banishing such as |f- 
nounce and refuse to witness these abominations aforesaid, 
and the rest yet retained among them.''* 

As our author very justly observes, they might well find 
fiiult with the church in the. article last mentioned, since 
they had smarted so severely under it. The foregoing 
particulars contain the general principles of the Brownists, 
or their chief reasons for a total separation from the 
established church, and are undoubtedly the most conipleie 
and correct account of their opinions, that was ever 
published. We forbear making any comments, but leave 
the whole to the reader's own judgment. • • 

His Works.— 1. Certayne Reasons and Arguments, proving that it 
Is not lawful to hear, or have any spiritual Communion with, the 
present Ministry of the Church of England, 1601. This is perhapi 
the same as that of which an abstract is given above. — 2, An Answer 
to Whitens Discoverie of Brownism, 1606.-^3. A Christian Plea, 
1617. — 4. A Tract on Matt xviii. — He also published some other 
pieces on the controversies of the times. 

William Cole, D.D. — This learned divine was most 
probably educated in Corpus Christi college^ Oxford, 
where he took his doctor's degree. Upon the commence- 
ment of Queen Mary's bloody persecution, he fled from the 
storm, and retired to Frankfort. He was there involved 
in the trouUes among the £nglish exiles ; and the firrt 
settlers being excluded from the privileges of the place^ by 
the officiousness of Dr. Cox and his party, he retired, with 
several of his brethren, to Zurich.+ He went aflerwatdsto 
Geneva, where he was highly esteemed by his fellow-exiles. 
He united wth the venerable Miles Coverdale and other 
learned divines, in publishing the Geneva translation of the 
Bible.J Upon his return from exile, he sat in the convoca^ 
tion of 1562, and subscribed the articles of religioa.S He 
was in high favour with Queen Elizabeth, who^ on acconnt 

• Biog. Britan.vol. ii.p. 618, 619. Edit. 1778. 

f Troables at Frankeford, p. 13. 

-f Wood's Athene Oxon. vol. i. p. 153.^See Art. CoTerdalCw 

^ Strype*! AnnalSy vol. i. p. 329. 



of bis great celebrity, preferred him, in 1568, to the 
presidentship of Corpus Christi college, Oxford,* in 
which ijiSiCe he continued at least thirty years. A divine 
of the same name, and very probably the same p('rson,'wa9 
cast into prison for nonconrormity. Though it does not 
appear how long he remained under confinement ; yet, 
upon the earnest intercession of friends, a letter from the 
court at Greenwich, dated April 4, 1574, was addressed to 
the Archbishop of Canterbury, signifying, that, in consider- 
ation of his great years, her majesty was willing for him to 
be released from his present confinement : but that he should 
remain within twenty or thirty miles of London, in some 
honest person's house, as his lordship should think most 
conYenient ; and should obtain sureties, that he would not 
henceforth meddle, by teaching or otherwise^ in matters of 
religion.^ In the year 1599, he exchanged this preferment 
with Dr. John Rainolds, for the deanery of Lincoln ; but 
died at an "advanced age, in the year 16004 Mr. Strype 
denominates him a sober and religious nonconformist ; and 
observes, that being chosen chaplain to the Earl of 
Leicester or some other great courtier, he attended at court 
in his hai and short cloak, and endeavoured to overthrow all 
attempts to enjoin the clerical habits.§ 

John Holland was a minister of great piety, and 
apparently one of the old puritans. But we have very 
htUe account of him till the time of his death, which being 
rather peculiar, we cannot withhold it from the reader's 

The day before he died, having called for the Bible, he 

1, << Come, O come ; death approaches. Let us gather 

soitte flowers to comfort this hour." And having tunied to 

R<Hn. yiii. he gave me the book, says Mr. Leigh, (who 

preached his funeral sermon,) and bade me read. At the 

end of every verse he required me to pause, when4ie gave 

the sense of the passage, to his own comfort and to the 

great wonder and joy of his friends. Having continued 

his meditations on the above chapter, above two hours, he 

suddenly cried out : — " O, stay your reading. What 

brightness is this 1 see ? Have you lighted any candles ?^* 

To which Mr. Leigh answered, " No ; it is the sunshine ; 


* Strype's Parker, p. 266. + Baker^s MS. Conec. toI. ixi. p. 364. 

(Wood's Athene Oxon. vol. i. p. 289, 736. 
StrypVs Fbrker, p. 213, 219, 266. 


being about five o'clock on a clear snmm^'s evaung^ 
^ Sunshine," said he, " nay, my Saviour's shine. Nwr 
ferewell, world : welcom^ heaven. The Day-star from ds 
liigfa hath visited my heait. O speak when I am gane^ a)nd 

J reach at my funeral, God detueth famUiarh wUh m«fk 
feel his mercy ; I see his majesty ; and whether in the 
body, or out of the body, I cannot tell : God knoweth. 
But I see things that are unutterable." In these tranqporti 
of joy, his spirit soared towards heaven ; but afierwaidt 
riirinking down, he sighed and said, ^^ Ah ! it will not be 
yet. My sins keep me back from my God." The nekt 
morning, he closed his eyes in death, using these exptt^ 
sions: — <^ O what a happy change shall I make! from 
^ death to life ! from sorrow to solace ! from a faciioiis 
<< world to a heavenly state ! O, my dear brethren, sisleiiy 
^ and friends, it pitieth me to leave you behind. Yet 
^ remember my death when I am gone ; and what I now 
^ feel, I hope you will find before you die, that God dodi 
<< and will deal familiarly with men. And now, thou fiery 
f < chariot, that earnest down to fetch vcp Elijah, carry meki 
^ my happy home. And ail ye blessed angds, wb6 
*< attended the soul of Lazarus to bring it to heaven, bear 
^ me, O bear me, into the bosom of my best beloived* 
" Amen^ amen. Come^ Lord Jesus ; come quickly. ^^ He 
died about the year ICOO.* 

Henry Smith, A. M. — This zealous and eloquent diving 
was born at Withcock in Leicestershire, in the year 1550^ 
and educat<'d in Lincoln college, Oxford ; where hebecame 
well furnished with useful learning. He was descended 
from a wealthy and honourable family, was possessed of a 
plentiful estate, and was heir to a large patrimony. But he 
resolved to employ his talents to the utmost of hi^ power, 
by labouring for the glory of God and the conversion of 
souls, in the work of the ministry ; and therefore he left 
the rich patrimony to a younger brother, f Upon hit 
removal from Oxford, he pursued his studies under the ctut 
tjf Mr. Greenham, whose principles aiid piety he appeared 
lafterwards to have imbibed. When the Lord Treasurer 
Burleigh applied to Mr. Greenham for a testimonial of Mr. 
%iith's character, this excellent divine observed, << tibat ht 

.• Ambrose's Worku, p. 800. Edit. 1701. 
• -f This younger brother was Sir Roger SBlth of fidmondthorp !■ 
Leicestenhire, wlio died about the rcrtonittea. . 

SMITH. lot 

was veil versed in the holy scriptures, religious and devout 
in his character, moderate and sober in his opinions, discreet 
and t^Qperate in his behaviour, industrious in his studies 
and punuits, and of a humble spirit and upright hearty 
joined with a fervent zeal for the glory of God and tha 
vdfiBune of jk>u1s."* 

Though Mr. Smith was eminently qualified for the sacred 
fitnclio% he was dissatisfied with the subscription imposed 
upon ministers, and the lawfulness of certain ceremonies^ 
lie was loath to make a rent, either in the church or in his 
own* conscience. But, during this perplexity, he resolved 
not (o undertake any pastoral charge, but to content himself 
with a lecturer's situation. Accordingly, in the year 1587^ 
he became lecturer at St. Clement Danes, near Temple-bar^ 
London. He was chosen to this public situation by the 
parishioners, and by the favour of the Lord Treasurer, who 
lived in the parish, and assisted in raising the contribution 
lor his support* Here he set himself to do the work of the 
Lord fiiithtully. He was greatly beloved, and his ministry 
htfhly admired by his numerous hearers. But the year 
fi&minftj complaint being made to Bishop Aylmer, that he 
had Bprnexk in his sermon some words derogatory to the 
Conunon Prayer, and that he had not subscribed to 
Whitffifk's three articles, his grace suspended him from 
preaching. The reasons all^^ by the bishop, with Mr. 
Smith's answers, were the following : 

L ^< That he was chosen by a popular election ; that is, 
by the minister and congregation, without his lordship's 

^< I was recommended to the parish by certain godly 
ministers," says Mr. Smith, ^' who had heard me preach iu 
other places in this city, and thereupon accepted by the. 
parish, and entertained with a stipend raised by voluntary 
<KHitribution* In which sort they had heretofore entertained 
athfln, without any such question or exception. And his 
kidship calling me to preach at Paul's cross, never moved 
any such question to me. Nevertheless, if any enr(» have 
beon committed by me or the parish, through ignorance, 
•or joint desire is to have his lordship's good allowance and 
approbation, for the said exercise of my function in his 
-loraship's diooese." 

. . 8. ^ That he hath preached against the Book of Common 


'^ How^cr his lordship may have been infoimed aganist 
me," observes Mr. Smith, ^^ I never used a speech in any 
cf my sermcMis, against the Book of Comnum Prayer; 
whereof the parish doih bear me witness in this my suppli- 
cation to vonr lordship." . . i *,. 

S. '^ That he hath not yielded his subscription to certain 
articles which bis lordship required at his hands." * . 

" Concerning the third," says he, " I rehise not to 
subscribe to any articles, which the law of the realm dodi 
require of men in my calling ; acknowledging, with all 
humbleness and loyalty, her majesty's sovereignty in all 
causes, and over all persons, within her higlineiB's 
dominions; and yielding my full* consent to all ^articles 
of faith and doctrine, taught and ratified in this cbnrdi, 
according to a statute in that behalf provided, the Idth 
year of her majesty's reign. And therefore I beseiech 'hit 
lordship, not to urge upon me any other subscription than 
the law of God and the laws positive of this realm tk 

' The above charges, with the answers subjoined, Mr. 
Smith presented to the treasurer, accompanied with a 
supplication to his lordship, humbly requesting his fiavonr 
and influence at this painful juncture. This ^eat statesman 
had the highest respect for him ; and, as Mr. Smith ivas 
not long deprived of his lecture, he most probably espoased 
his cause, applied to the bishop, and procured his restoratioii. 
It is, indeed, observed, " that the lord treasurer looked 
very favourably upon Mr. Smith ; and that he was often H^ 
screen to save him from scorching, by interposing hu 
greatness betwixt him and the anger of certain epii^opBl 

In' the year 1589, upon the death of Mr. Harewood, the 
incumbent of Clement Danes, the churchwardens and 
parishioners petitioned the treasurer to bestow the living 
upon our pious divine. In their petition, they, observe^ 
^^ that by his excellent preaching, his exemplary life, and 
his sound doctrine, more good had been done among thefii, 
than by any other who bad gone before, or, as they feared, 
Vi^uld follow him.":( But Mr. Smith, for tiie reasons already 
mentioned, was most probably unwilling to accept the be^ 
neift, if it was offered him. He does not'appear ever to have 
enjoyed any greater preferment than that of his lecturerfiip^ 


* Strype's Aylmer, p. 155, 156. 

+ Fuller's JLife of Mr. Smith prefixed to htljemioof. 

i Strype's Aylmer; p. 167 i 

t)Ei\t. Ill 


Mr* Smitli >vas a preacher uncommonly followed by 
rsoDS of piety, especially those of the puritanical party, 
e. was generally esteemed the first preacher in the nation ; 
and) on account of his prodigious memory, and his fluent^ 
eloquent, and practical way of preaching, he was looked 
upon ae the ve;^ miracle and wonder of the age.* It may 
be truly said ot him^ that he was a man peaceable in Israel. 
F<Hr though he scrupled conformity himself, and utterly 
disapproved the imposition of it on others; still he could 
liye on terms of intimacy with those from whom he dis- 
■en^jed. His fame was so great^ that he was usually called 
ihe sUver^iongued preacher, as if he was second even to 
Chrysostom. His church was so crowded with hearers, that 
peiBons of quality, as well as others, were frequently obliged 
to stand in the aisles; and his wonderful dexterity in 
preaching was such, tlrnt, by his solid reasons, he fastened 
oonviction upon the judgments of his auditory ; by his apt 
similitudes, upon their fancies; by his orderly method, upon 
their memories; and by his close applications, upon their 
consGiences.f He died apparently of a cx)nsumption, about 
the year 1600, aged fifty years. Mr. Smith was author of 
finaay Sermons and Treatises, published at various times. 
They- passed through many editions, and some of them 
were cairried abroad and translated into Latin. His ser- 
mons were so universally admired, that they were for many 
yesurs used as a family book in all parts of the kingdom. 
They aie so solid, says Fuller, that the learned may partly 
admire them ; yet so plain, that the unlearned may per- 
fectly understand, them.t His ^< Sermons, with other his 
learned Treatises," and his Life by Fuller, were collected 
and published in one volume quarto, in 1675. 

Arthur Dent was the learned and pious minister of 
South Soubery in Essex, but persecuted by Bishop Aylitier 
for nonconformity. About the year 1584, he endured 
many troubles from this prelate, for refusing to wear the 
lurplice, and omitting the sign of the cross in baptism.^ He 
afterwaitls united with his brethren, the persecuted ministers 
of Essex, in presenting a petition to the lords of the 
council,' in which, say they, " We ^ have received the 

• Wood*i Athens Oxon. toI. i. p. SSI.— Nichols's Hist, of Leicester- 
tbire, vol. ii. p. 390. 
t Life of Mr. Smith. f. Church History, b. ix. p. 142. 

h MS. Rcf iiter, p. 741. 


charge to instruct and teach our people in the way of life; 
and eyeiy one of us hearing this sounded from the God of 
heaven, fVoe be unto me, if I preach fid the gaspdj we havt 
all endeavoured to discharge our duties, and to apiHroye am^ 
selves both to God and man. Notwithstanding thia, we ara 
in ffreat heaviness, and some of us akeady put to silence, 
and the rest living in fear; not that we have beoi, or cao 
be char^ed^ we hope, with false doctrine, or slanderous Itfb : 
but because we refuse to subscribe that there is nothiiig 
contaii^ed in the Book of Common Prayer contrary to tto 
word o£ God. We do protest in the sight of God, wdio 
•earcbeth all hearts, that we do not refuse from a desire to 
dissent, ^ from any sinister affisction; but in the fen of 
God, and firom the necessity of conscience." A ciicun^ 
stantial account cf this petition, signed by tvoenij^ievm 
ministers, is given in another place.* 

BCr. Dent was author of a work, entitled <^ The Raioe 
of Rome ; or, an Eamosition of Revelation ;" in the dedica* 
tion of which, Mr. Ezekiel Culverwell gives the foUowing 
account of the author :-^<^ To give some public testimony of 
my love towards him, and reverence of the rare grace 
which we all, who enjoyed his sweet society, did oqd- 
tinually behold in him, whose learning his labours do 
shew ; and whose diligence, yea extreme and unwearied 
pains in his ministry, publicly, privately, at home and 
abroad, for at least four and twenty years, all our couatiy 
can testify. AU which being adorned with such specidt 
humility, do make his name the greater, and our km the 
more grievous. I may not leave out this, which I avow t0 
be as certain as it is singular, that,, besides all othen hii 
great labours, he had a special care of all the churchenji 
night and dav, by study and fervent prayer, procuring the 
prosperity of Zion, and the ruin of Rome. And to end 
with his blessed end: his life was not more profitable t9 
others than his death was peaceable to himself; scarcdly A 
groan was heard, though his fever must needs have beat 
violent which dispatchra him in three days. Having mafjb a 
pithy confession of his fiiith, ^ this faith,' said he, ^ have I 
pr( ached ; this faith have I believed in ; this faith I do die 
in ; and this faith would I have sealed with my blood, if 
God had so thought good ; and tell my brethren sp.* Ho 
aflterwards said, ' I have fought a good fight, I have finished 
«ny course, I have kept the faith ; hencdoith them ia 

• See Art. Geoii^e Gifford. 

CHARRE. lis 

vpJbr me the crown of righteousness;' and with his last 
hieath added^ < I have seen an end of all perfection, but 
ttyr law is exceeding broad.' ^ He died most probably 
aome time after the year 1600. 

WiLiiiAM Charke was fellow of Peter-house, Gam* 
brid^.in 1578, where, most probably, he received his 
education; Cambridge, at this time, was a nest of puritans ; 
but Dr. Whitgift, wiSi the other heads of colleges, laboured 
to ezpd the growing faction, as it was called. Many of 
the students and fisUows were disaffected to the ceremooiet 
and. discipline of the church, among whom was Mr. Charke* 
He did not, therefore, remain lon^ imobserved ; for the 
heads of colleges, of whom Whitgift was chief, presently 
brought complaints against him to Lord Burleigb, chan* 
oellorof the university. . 

Mr. Charke, in his sermon at St. Mary's, December S, 
1572^ asserted, 1. ^^ That the states of bishops, archbishops, 
metropolitans, and popes, were introduced into the church 
by Satan.-^Ajid, S. That the ministers of the church ought 
not to be superior one to another." For divulging these 
senthnents, n6 was the very next day cited bdbre Drs. 
Whilgifl, Pern, Howford, Kelk, and Bying, the vice-chan- 
odkir ; before whom he acknowledged the delivery of the 
two propositions, the former directly,, the latter implicitly. 
He wag brought before them a second time, in Februaiy 
fiiUowing, and was often admonished and commanded to 
rewke. his errors publicly at St Mary's, on a Lord's day, 
which he absolutely refused : only he acknowledged that 
there ought to be some superiority among ministers, in 
matters of jurisdiction. Upon which, the vice-chancellor, 
with the consent of the heads, pronounced sentence upon 
him of exclusion from the college, and banishment irom 
the university. He was, therefore, excluded and expelled 
fiovn the place.* Whether his punishment was not greater 
tiuax the crime with which he was charged, is left with the 
candid reader to ddermine. 

Mr. Charke, upon his departure from Cambridge, appealed 
firem the judgment of the vice-chancellor and heads, to 
Bpjrleigh, the chancellor. This he did, says Mr. Strype, 
in, a well-penned epistle, written in a good Latin style, 
iic|dring, by his lordship's means, to be again restored to his 

• Strypt'i Whttfift, p. 43, 44. 


college^ promiring to ccmduct himself quietly and petuf^ 
ably. In this letter, he said, << That he deiiied not himself 
to be one, who, being led by argument taken from scripr 
ture, and the example of fprei^ churches^ thought. some^ 
thing to be wanting, whereby our church, lately rescued 
from darkness, might come nearer the original pattern. 
That when he was aware how his opinion might prove 
dangerous to be divulged among the unskilful multitude^ 
because it appeared something new to the common peopliB^ 
and was different from the ordinances, he kept to himMf 
tJbe knowledge of the truths and had ever studioudy 
avoided the promulgation of it in his sermons ; but that in 
a private senate, and in the Latin tongue, he thought he 
might use greater liberty. He had^ therefore, in a veiy 
learned and wise assembly, explained' his opini<m move 
freely in those matters-. And that, by so doing, he had 
ignorantly fallen into the crime of violating a law ; and so 
,was cited to appear in judgment. And that his judges had 
forbidden him not otdy uie use of water and me, hf 
which men live ; but the use of learning too, by wMcu 
.they live weU. He, therefore, humbly appealed to his 
equity and goodness, as the only hope he had left of 
recovering his place ; praying him to write to the univer^ 
sity for his restoration; and that hereafter he might be 
wholly rejected, if he violated the peace either of the 
church, the state, or the university."* 

The chancellor, knowing him to be a good achdar, 
and that he was treated with tyrannical severity , .upon 
receiving this humble and peaceable supplication, Bude 
intercession for him, by addressing the following letter to 
the vice-chancellor and heads of houses :f 

<< After my very hearty commendations* 

" Whereas you have expelled William Chailiie, h^ 
fellow of Peter-house, for some speeches used in a sermon 
which he lately had ad clerum^ tending to the ^ 
turbing the^ quietness and peace of the churdi, and 
manifestly contrary to the orders taken for the maint^ance 
of the same peace. For as much as the said Charke hatM 
been with me, and partly wisely extenuating his faulty and 
partly very honestly acknowledging that he committed lb 
same by overmuch vehemency of spirit, and promiahjg 
faithfully never hereafter to deal in inis or the like agani 
that may be offensive, hath shewed soine good pait% aAc^ 

♦ Strype'8 Whitgift, p. 43, 44. 

•\ Baker*8 MS. CoUec. toI. xxil. p. aT3e . . 

CHARKE. 115 

tioii,aiid good gifts to be in him, the which, in mine 
opinion, it vf^re great charity and good wisdom, by gentle 
usage and persuasion, to reduce to be profitable in the 
church, rather than by too suddenly cutting him off from 
ihe course of his studies, utterly to lose. These are 
Jieartily to pray you, the rather for my sake, and for proof 
.of him hereafter, to receive him again into the university 
juod his fellowship within the college, upon his like promise 
made to you not to meddle hereafter in such kind of 
jdodrines. Wherein, if you shew some indulgence for this 
time, and rather suppress the memory of his said speech 
pud doctrine^ for it was delivered in the Latin tongue, and 
not popularly taught, in my judgment you shall do well ; 
and so praying you to do, I bid you hearty farewell. 
From my house^ Feb. 90, 1573. 

" Your loving friend, 

" William BanLEiGH.'* 
This intercession, however, was to no purpose. It does 
■ot appear that Mr. Charke was ever restored to his fel- 
lowahqp. He was, about the same time, one of the super- 
added members of the presbytery at Wandsworth in 
Sonejr** In the year 1580, we find him employed, with 
odior Jearned men, in a omference with Campian, the 
[bmaa^ perish priest. He was engaged in the fourth day's 
dispute, when the subjects of discussion were, — 1. ^^ Whether 
th e scri ptares contain sufiicient doctrine for salvation. And^ 
SL \¥btkba faith alone justifieth." These conferences were 
odlected and published, by the c<Mi8ent of both 

Upon Mr. Gharke's banishment from the university, he 
coontenanced and entertained by several of the nobi- 
litjTy and patroniied by persons of learning and real worth. 
He was domestic chaplain first to Lord Cheiny, then to 
Ae Dncheas of Somerset, at Chelsea, and was with her when 
died. In the year 15S1, he was chosen constant 
to the society of Lincoln's-inn. But, to succeed 
in their choice, the society applied to the 
of LoBdoo, for his approbation smd allowance. 
bsalhoii, knowing Mr. Charke's great abilities, and that 
eminently qualified for a situation of so much 
Ij did not refuse; bat signified that applio 
first made to the lords of the council, for 
Thb was accordingly done, and the lords 

'i XSS. p. 3».— F«»cr'9 Choreh Wm. b. is. p. lOK. 
Ito^t Aaaaliy f«L ii. p. «|6. 


• ■ 

signified their fiill approbation ; so that he was cIuMfea and 
a£nitted.* He afterwards united with his brethren ib 
subscribing the " Book of Discipline."+ 

In the above respectable situation, Mr. Charke, by the 
favour of his learned .patrons, was protected some yesrv 
from the tyrannical oppressions of the times ; and thoudi a 
zealous nonconformist, he enjoyed his lectiue at LincohiV 
inn till the year 1593. The period at length arrived- whfs 
they could no longer screen him from the fory c^ tlie 

E relates; for in that year, it appears, he was liknoeji 
y Archbishop Whitgift.| Notwithstanding the treaAfQcat 
he met with, be was greatly admired and commended^- evoi 
by rigid conformists, on account of his distinguished lem^ 
ing and great moderation. After his suspension, pleaoiK 
his cause befoj'e the archbishop, that he ccmducted himsdT 
peaceably, &c. his grace replied, ^' This is not enough. If 
is not sufficient, that you do not preach against the b^bops: 
you do not preach /or thera."^ .1 

Mr. Strype denominates him a man of eminent ^pot^ 
and a chief leader among the puritans.) Dr. ifoffA 
styles him a person of great learning and gpdliness.f Tir 
Oxford historian, speaking of the various books of Hoo^t% 
« Ecclesiastical Polity,*' obsenres, *< That the three bobfa^ 
(meaning the three last,) which Hooker completed befere-lni 
death, were, with the consent . of his unlucky widiMT; 
seized upon in his study^soon after his decease, by.WjIliaiB 
Charke, a noted puritan, and another minister thivt UyisK 
near Canterbury; who, making the silly woman bcjUeve 
that they were writings not fit to be. seen, did either ham 
them in the place, or carry them away."** Admitting tlui» 
statement to be correct, the whole, it seems, was doM'by 
the permission of that sitfy womany the unlitckv wUmj 
and if Mr. Charke and his companion persuadecl hat^ tlutt 
the papers were notJU to be seen^ all this might be perfecdJF 
just and true. But our histqrian^s. sole authority is fUb 
letter of Dr. Kin^, bishop of Chichester, dated Npvemto 
13, 1664, above sixty years after the event; and he w 
made considerable additions to it. ft Mr* Chaifce inb 

* Strype's Annak, toI. Hi. p. 55, 56. 
f Neal's Paritaos, vol. i. p. 423. 

t MS. Chronology, vol. i. p. 3)3. (4.) 

^ Minifter's Reasons agaiost Subscrip. part ii. p. 173. £dit.lfi08L 

B Sfrjpe*s Wbitgift, p. 4S.~Annals, vol. ii. p. 533. 

H Churton> Life of Nowell, p. 278, note. 

* * Wood's Atbenae Oxon. vol. i. p. gfiS. 

f f King's Letter, prefiied to the Life of Hooker, j^it. rSSS* 


liiring towards the close of the year 1600 ; but when he died 
we &ye not been able to learn. He published several 
piebes.against the papists* 

John Darrell, A. B.^^He was minister at Nottingham^ 
biA a person in some respects of rery peculiar sentiments* 
PEb belieyed, that by fasting and prayer evil spirits might 
hie cast out ik persons possessed. Dr. Heylin, defaming his 
DQemary, saprs, thatiie set up the trade of lecturing at Not- 
tnigbam, without any lawful calling; and, to advance his 
mmtation, pretended to cast out devils.* Mr. Strype, also, 
mdi a desiffn \xi reproach the puritans as a body, observes, 
(bat when ue open practices of the puritans for setting up 
Ebm discipline did not prevail, some of their ministers 
had recourse to a more secret method, by' doing something 
which looked little less than miraculous. They pretendec^ 
tgr fai^ng and prayer, to cast out devils; by which the 
hcdtilade became so amazed, and were led so to venerate 
fheoa^ that they were the more readily inclined io submit to 
fbeir opinions and ways. This was a practice borrowed 
Gpom toe papists, to make their priests revered, and to 
eonfina the laity in their superstitions.f From these base 
DMinuations, we might be led to suppose, that some plot of 
poj^^iderable magnitude was laid by the puritans, to 
DOQittre the ignorant multitude into a belief of their dis* 
^pune^ and the practice of nonconformity: but all this 
fBpour and smoke at once vanishes, and we only hear of 
Qie principles and practice of a solitary individual, in 
eminexion with two or three others of less note, but of 
pmilar sentiments. 

- -What we have to say is not intended as a defence of Mr. 
Danreirs peculiarities. He appears to have been a weak, 
llid zealous and honest man ; and, therefore, undeserving of 
fbe^^ruel usage which he received from Archbishop \Vhit- 
gifi and others. But because he was a puritan, and a 
■offerer for nonconformity, it will be proper t^ give au 
impartial statement of facts. 

The learned historian observes, that, in the year 1586, 
Mr« Darrell professed to cast a devil out of one Katharine 
Wright, a young woman about seventeen years of age, 
living in Derbyshire. But tlie evil spirit afterwards re.- 
luniing into her^ he cast out eight other devils, with which 

• HejUn's Hilt, of Prcs. p. 348. f Stripe's Whitgift, p. 492. 


she pretended to have been possessed. Also, he wrote W 
account of these thmgs at some length, and communicated! 
copies of his performance to persons of distinction ; and/ 
among others, to the excellent and pious Lady Bowes: 
^' hoping hereby," says our author, " to obtain applause^ 
and to accomplish other ends."* There is not, howen^, 
the least shadow of evidence, that Mr. Darrell sought after 
any human applause. This does not appear to. haY)e. 
formed any part of his character, or at all to have entered 
into his designs. And what other ends he meant to jaccom- 

Slish, we arc left to conjecture. If the historian here 
esigned to iiisinuate, that he intended to promote puri-. 
tanisiti, and overthrow the church of England, it may be. 
confidently affirmed, that his prospects were not the mcMt 

In the year 1596, Mr. Darrell pretended to cast oirf 
many more devils. Among the persons who were on thia 
account indebted to his piety, was one Thomas Darling, ^ 
boy about fourteen years of age, at Burton-upon-TrenL. 
This occasioned a person ot the town to publish. an 
account of it, entitled " The Book of the Dispossession ol( 
the Bdy of Burton ." Thiis greatly increased his populanty '; 
and caused his fame to spread so much abroad, that he 
was sent for into Lancashire, and there cast out inany other 
devils. Afterwards, upon his return to Nottingham, tone 
of the ministers of the town, and several of its inhabitants,^ 
urged him to visit one William Somers, a boy who was so 
deeply afflicted with convulsive agonies, that they were, 
thought to be preternatural. When Mr. Darrell bad seen 
the boy, he concluded, with others, that he was certainly 
possessed, and, accordingly, reconunended his friends io 
obtain the help of godly and learned ministers, with the 
view of promoting his recovery, but excused himself from 
being concerned ; lest, as he observed, if the devil shoiiild 
be dispossessed, the common people should attribute toliini 
some special gift of casting out devils. At length, .how- 
ever, by the urgent solicitation of the mayor of Nottingham, 
he complied; and having agreed with Mr. Aldridge.and 
two other ministers, together with about one hundred and 
fifty christian friends, they set dpart a day of fasting and 
prayer, to entreat the Lord to cast out Satan, and itelivec 
the young man from his present torments. Having con** 
tinued in their devotions for some time,' the Lord is said to 

• Strype*s Annals, vdl. iii» p. ASS, 


lMCTe'':l)eeii entreated, and to haye'cait ont Satan, for 
which thejr blessed his holy name, Xbis was in the year 

In a few days after this event,, the mayor and several of 
the aldermen began to snspect that Somers was an impostor ; 
and, to make him confess, they took him from his parents, 
and committed him to prison ; where, by the threatenings of 
his keqier, he was led to acknowledge, that he had dis« 
aembled and counterfeited what he had done. Upon this 
confessicMi, being carried before a commission appointed 
to examine him, he at first owned himself to be a qounterf 
felt, then presently denied it; but being so exceedingly 
firi^tened, he fell into fits before the commissipners, which 
put an end tp his eicamination. After some time, being 
still kept in custody, and further pressed by his keeper, he 
returned to his confessing, charging Mr. Darrell with having 
trained him up in the art for several years. Mr. DarreU 
vras then summoned to appear before the commissioners, 
when sufficient witnesses were produced to prove that 
Somers had declared, in a most solemn m^mner, that he had 
not dissembled; upon which he was dismissed, and the 
commission was dissolved. 

This affiiir becoming the subject of much conversation 
in the country, Mr. Darrell, in 1598, was cited before 
Archbishop Whitgift, and other high commissioners, at 
Lambeth. Upon his appearance, after a long examination, 
he was deprived of his ministry, and committed close 
prisoner to the Gatehouse, where he continued many 

J earn. Mr, Greor^e Moore, another puritan minister, for 
is connesdon witn him, was, at the same time, committed 
close priscmer to the Clink. The crime with which Mr. 
Darrell was charged, and for which he received the heavy 
sen^ce^ wa^ '' his having been accessary to a vile im* 

. Indeed, Bishop Maddox highly commends the conduct 
of these ecclesiastical judges, in this unchristian censure. 

* Dr. He^rUq, contemptuously speal^ing of S|r. DarreU's pretensions, 
obeenreSf ^ that whenever the conformable ministers visited these demo- 
-BiacB* and used the form of prayer according to the established liturgy, 
tl|e devil was as quiet as a lamb, there being nothing in those prayers to 
dlstorb his peace. But when Mr. Darrell and his nonconformist brethren 
afiproachea, who used to faU upon him with whole volleys of raw and 
andigested prayers of their own devising, then were the wicked spirits 
extremely troubled and perplexed ; so that the puritans, lest the papists 
should io any thing have the start of them, had also a kind of holy tooftr, 
with which to frighten away the devil,''— /f^j/aVs MiictU Tracts^ p. 156. 

f Strype's Whitgift, p. 492—494. 


^' Any one," says he, " who considers the state of HbB 
town of Nottingham, will applaud the proceedings of the 
high commission." Then, in the words of Mr. Strype, he 

fives an account of the state of the town, as if Mr. Dandl 
ad prompted the people to quarrel one with another ; or, 
as if his deprivation and severe imprisonment were lijcely 
to allay the diflference. " By this time," says he, <^ it came 
to pass, that the people of Nottingham were become violent 
against one another, and the whole town divided as tbgr 
stood affected. The pulpits rang of nothing but devib and 
witches ; and men, women, and children, were so affri^led^ 
that they durst not stir out in the night ; nor so mucii as a 
servant, almost, go into his master's cellar about his busiflen^ 
without company. Few happened to be sick, or ill at ease^ 
but strait they were deemed to be possessed. It was hkh 
time," adds the leanied prelate, ^' to put a stop to w 
practice of dispossessing, whether the authors were knuves^ 
or eiithusiasts, or both.'^ And couki neither the JEtishop of 
Worcester, nor yet the high conunissioners at Lambeth^ 
think of a more equitable method of punishing the con* 
tentious inhabitants of Nottingham, than by indlicting^ td 
heavy a sentence upon Mr. Darrell ? But Mr. Danell was 
H puritan ; therefore, right or wrong, he must needs be 

Somers and Darling were also brought before the high 
^mmission. During their examinations, though the fonner 
returned to his accusation of Mr. Darrell, declaring that 
he himself had, in what he had done, been guilty m dis- 
simulation, the latter stood firm ; and, notwimstanduig flio 
entreaties, threatenings, and fair promises of the archbiahq^ 
and others, he could not be prevailed upon to accusie him^ 
but maintained to the last, that the evil spirit had been cast 
out of him. It does not appear, however, tiiat either* of 
them were cast into prison. + 

The prosecution of Mr. Darrell led to a new controvmy, 
whei^ Mr. Harsnet, chaplain to Bishop Bancroft, and 
afterwards Archbishop of York, published a work, entitled, 
" A Discovery of the fraudulent practices of John Dandl, 
Batchelor of Arts, in his proceedings concerninjr the pre* 
tended possession and dispossession of William Somers of 
Nottingham : of Thomas Darling, the boy of Burton at 
Galdwall : and of Katherii\e Wright at Mansfield and 
Whittington : and of his dealings with one Maiy Couper 

• YhidicBtioD of the Chovcb, p. 360. , ' 

f Clark's Lives annexed to Marty rdogie, p. 32» 


at Nottingham, detecting in some sort the deceitiul tfade in 
then latter days of casting out devils," 1599. This 
Indilbed Mr. Darrell to publiA a reply, entitled, <<A 
Detiection of that sinful, shamful, lying, and ridiculoi'is 
Discours, of Samuel Harshnet.* Entituled : A Discoverie 
of the fraudulent practices of John Darrell. Wherein is 
manifestly and apparently shewed in the eyes of the world. 
Not only the unlikelihoode, but the flate impossibilitie of the 
pretended counterfayting of William Somers, Thomas Darl- 
ing, Kath. Wright, and Mary Couper, together with other 7 
in Lancashire, and the supposed teaching of tbem by the 
saide John Darrell," 1600. The same year, Mr. Darrell also 
published, ^^ A true Narration of the strange and greyous 
Vexation by the Devil, of 7 Persons in Lancashire, and 
William Somers of iVotfingham. Wherein (he doctrine of 
FdssessicMi and Dispossession of Demoniakes out of the word 
of God is particularly applied unto Somers, and the rest of 
the piersbns controyertea : together with the use we are to 
make of these workes of God." Mr. Greorge Moore, his 
intimate friend, and fellow-sufferer in the same cause, likewise 
published a reply to Harsnet, entitled, " A true Discourse 
concerning the certaine Possession and Dispossession of 7 
persons in one familie in Lancashire, which also may serve 
as jpart of an Answere to a fayned and false Discoverie 
which speaketh very much evill, as well of this, as of the 
rest of those great and mightie workes of God, which be of 
the like excellent nature," 1600 a 

Mr. Darrell, upon his imprisonment, published another 
work paiticnlarly in his own defence, entitled, ^' The Trial 
of Joan Darrell, or a Collection of Defences against 
Alligations not yet suffered to receive convenient Answer, 
tencung to clear him from the Imputation of teaching 
Somers and others to counterfeit Possession of Devils," 1599. 
Also, whQe he was in prison, he published '' An Apology 
or Defence of the Possession of William Somers, &c. 
Wherein this work of God is cleared from the evil name of 
counterfeiting. And thereupon also it is shewn, that in 
these days men may be possessed with devils; and tliat 
being so, by prayer and fasting the unclean spirit may be 
cast out'* At the close of this work, Mr. Darrell made the 

* Hunet waff one of the principal perwcaton of Mr. DarreU, and wai 
advaaced to the bishopric of Norwich, ah the jnst r«*ward of this meritorioas 
service. Bat oar antbor, by mistake, calls Mr. Daireli st popish prieit. — 
BUomJUid't Hist, of Norfolk^ toI. li. p. 40S. 

i Bio^. Britaa. toI. i?. p. 8M7. I:;dit, 1747. 


following protestation : — << If what I am accused of be 
true, even that I have been accessary to a vile impostune/ 
with a design to impose on mankind, let me be registered to 
my perpetual infamy, not only for a notorious deoeiyeri 
but such an hypocrite as never trod cm the earth befoie,. 
Yea, Lord ! for to Thee I direct my speech, who knoweth 
all things, if I have confederated morp or less, with Soimei% 
Darling, or any others ; if ever I set my eye upon them 
before they were possessed, then let me not only be made a 
laughing-stock, and a by -word to all men, but raze my 
name ako out of the book of life, and let me have mj^ 
portion with hypocrites."* » 

While Mr. Darrell was suffering in close prison in the 
Gatehouse, the productions of his pen were spread through 
the kingdom. His books found their way to the two 
universities, particularly Cambridge, where many of them 
were purchased by the learned coUegians. This priesently 
roused the attention of the ecclesiastical governors ; when 
the bookseller' was convened before Dr. Jegon, the vice- 
chancellor, as will appear from the following letter, addressed 
<< To the right Rev* Father in God, the Lord Bishop <^ 
London :"+ 

" Right reverend, my very good lord, my duty mosi 
humbly premised. May it please you to be advertised, 
that certain books of Darrell's, in two volumes, the one 
^^ A Detection of the shameful, lying Discoverie," &c. tlie 
other " A true Narration of the strange Vexation," &ci 
have been sold underhand, by a taylor, since Christmas 
last, to the number of sixty books, as the party before me 
hath confessed. To whom he hath sold them in partiddar, 
he will not confess : whereupon I have bound nim here, 
with surety, to be forth coming untiM know your lordship's 
pleasure, thinking it my duty io signify the same, knowing 
that Darrell hath been censured for a dissembler, ana 
supposing that such books come not out with allowaace 
and privilege* The examination I send here inclosed. 

" Jegon, Vice-chancellor of the 

" University of Cambridge/' 

What further prosecution the poor man underwent, or 
when Mr. Darrell was released from his cruel imprisoninenl^ 
it is very difficult to ascertain. 

• Strype*8 Whitgiflt, p. 495. + Baker*8 MS. CoUec. toI. xzTii,<^. 11.- 


" CH&iSTOPfttiR Goodman, B. D. — This distinguished 
{nufitan was born in the city of Chester, about the year 
IS 19, and educated in Brazen-nose college, Oxford. After 
taking' his d^rees in Arts, he was constituted one of the 
acnior students of Christ's Church, then newly founded by 
H«ify VIII. Towards the close of the reign of King 
Edward, he was admitted to the reading of the sentences, 
and chosen divinity lecturer in the university. But upon 
the accession of Queen Mary, and the return of popery 
and . bloody persecution, he withdrew from the storm, and 
went into exile. He retired, with many of his brethren, to 
Frankfort, and was deeply involved in the troubles of that 
place, occasioned chiefly by the officious interference of Dr. 
Cox and his party. Here, when it was proposed to make 
choice of officers for the church, Mr. Goodman gave it as 
his opinion, " That they ought first to agree to some godly 
drder for the church ; and, in agreeing to this order, to 
obtain the consent of the congre^tion, whereby it might 
appear that they contemned not the rest of their brethren r 
and further, to proceed to the election, which he thought, 
dso, ought not to be attempted without the consent of the 
whole church." In neither of these proposals, however, 
did Mr. Goodman succeed. For it was replied, that they 
should have no other order than the English Book of 
CcMnmon Prayer ; and Dr. Cox had assembled the ministers, 
at his lodgings, to make choice of a bishop and other 
officers.* Upon the separation at Frankfort, Mr. Goodman 
went to Geneva, where he and Mr. John Knox, the famous 
Scotch reformer, were chosen pastors of the English church, 
and there remained till the death of Queen Mary. While 
at Geneva, he assisted Mr. Knox in composing ^' The 
Book of Common Order," which was to be used as a 
directory of worship in the protestant congregations.+ 
Upon receiving the news of the queen's death, Mr. Goodman 
and his brethren at Geneva, wrote a most affectionate, 
healing letter to their fellow-exiles at Frankfort. This 
letter, with the answer, is still preserved.J 

It will be proper here to observe, that during Mr. 
Gopdman*s exile, and some time before the queen's death, 
a report came to them that she was dead. The rumour 
occasioned him to write to Mr. Bartlet Green, a lawyer, a 
pious professor of the gospel, and his former acquaintance 

* Troobl«8 at Frankeford, p. 39, 40. 

-f Scott's Lives of Reformers, p. 250. Edit, 1810. 

t Troablet at Franl^eford, p. 100—163. 


at Oxford, inquiring whether the report was true. Hii 
worthy friend replied, The queen is not ytX dead. The 
letter, however, being intercepted, Mr. Green was appifw 
hended^ committed to the Tower, and, after lying a loii; 
time in prison, condemned and committed to the flames, 
under the cruel severities of Bonner, bishop of London.* 
While our divine remained at Geneva, he took an activt 
part, with several of his learned brethren, in writing and 
publishing the Geneva translation of the Bible.f 

On the accession of Queen Elizabeth^ Mr. Groodma% 
after finishing. the Translation, returned from exile, but did 
not immediajtely come to England. He went to Scotland ; 
and, for several years, was actively employed in promoting 
the reformation, and preaching the gospel, in that oountiy. 
in the year 1560, having preached for some time at AjTr, the 
committee of parliament, wjio nominated the ministers for 
the principal towns in Scotland, appointed him to be 
minister at St. Andrews, where it was thought expediqit 
that the officiating minister should be a man of established 
leputation.t KSovX the same time, he was onployed in a 
public disputation at Edinburgh, betwixt the papists and 

Erotestants. Those on the side of the papists were.Dr^ 
lesley, Dr. Anderson, Mr. Mirton, a^d Mr. Stracouin ; who 
disputed with Mr. Knox, Mr. Willock, and Mr. Uoodman. 
The points of disputation were, ^^ The holy eiicharist and 
the sacrifice of the altar." In the conclusion, thdugh the 
papists gave it out, that the protestants were com^etdy 
Imffled, and declined the contest in future, the nobilitVy 
who attended the dispute, were certainly of another iliina.i 
As minister of St.. Andrews, Mr. Goodman was present 
in the assembly, December 20, 1560, with the assistant 
elders, David Spens and Robert Kynpont, who accompanied 
him. In 156S, he and Mr. John Uow, minister of Perth, 
were appointed to assist John Erskine of Dun, in the 
visitation of the sheriffdoms of Aberdeen and Banff. And 
in 1563, he argued in opposition tp Mr. Secretary Lething* 
ton, that tlie tithes ought to be appropriated to ihe cleigy, 
Lethington was on this occasion much chagrined; and un- 
generously said, that it was not fit that a stranger should 
meddle with the affairs of a foreign commonwealth. Mr« 
doodman calmly, but firmly, replied, ^< My lord secietary, 

* Fox's Martyrs, vol. iii. p. 523 — ^526.— Srrype's Cranmer, p. 3T0« 

+ See Art. Coverdalc. 

X HiRt. of Chorch of Scotland, p. 853. Edit. 1644. 

S CoHier's £ccl. Hiit. yol. ii. p. 476. 

> 600DMAK. 129 

thoiu^ in Tcmr pdicy I be a fstran^r, yet I am not so in 
the jDik of Goa ; and, therefore, the care thereof apper** 
tainoCh no less to me in Scotland, than if I were in the midst 
of England*''* 

In toe year 1564, he was appointed to preacb for the 
space of a month, at Edinburgh, in the absence of Mr. 
John Craig, one of the ministers of that city, who had been 
oommissicned to visit some of the southern parts of the 
kingdom. Also, the assembly, June 25, 1565, laid many 
appointments upon him, some of which be did not fulfil ; 
for, before the assembly again met, December 25th, in the 
same year, be had left the kingdom ; which is thus noticed 
in the church-register : — ><^ Conmiissioners from St. Andrews 
appeared, who requested that Mr. John Knox should be 
transplanted, and placed at St. Andrews. The assembly 
lefnsed their request, and desired them to choose a minister 
out of their own university, in the room of Mr. Christopher 
Croodman, who had lately departed into England. "f 

Dr. Heylin, with his wonted peevishness and slander, 
says, ^ it cannot be denied, tliat Goodman, Gilbyi 
Whittingham, and the rest of the Genevean conventicle, 
wete very much grieved, at their return from exile, that 
they cxrald not bear the like sway here as Calvin and B^za 
did ai Geneva. They not only repined and were envious 
at the lefonnation of the 'English church, because not fitted 
to tfadr fiuicies, and Calvin's platform ; but laboured to sow 
those seeds of heterodoxy and disobedience, which brought 
forth those troubles and disorders that afterwards followed. "( 
So much reproach, misrepresentation and falsehood, is 
sddoin found within so small a compass. • 

About the year 1568, our celebrated divine became 
chaphun to Sir Henry Sidlney, in his expedition against the 
nhdB in Ireland, and shewed his great diligence and faith- 
iidneaB in that service.^ And in 1571, he was cited before 
Archbishc^ Parker, and other high conmiissioners, at 
Lambeth. He published a book, during his exile under 
Queen Mary, entitled, << How Superior R>wers ought to be 
obeyed of their Subjects, and wherein they may be lawfully, 
by God's Word, obeyed and resisted : Wherein a}so is 
dieclared the Cause of all the present Misery in England, 
and how the same may be remedied,'* 1558. In this work, 
he spoke with some freedom against the government of 
women, but especially the severe proceedings of Queen 

• Scou'f Uweg of RcfoBBCTt, p. 251 . ^ Ibid . p . 252. 

X Hejlia't Hiit. of Pres. p. 25. < Troablcs at Fnokeford, p. ISS. 


Maij. From this book, the archbishop, after iso "saaaif: 
years, collected certain dangerous and seditious arttcles^-a^' 
they are called ; and required Mr. Goodman to revoke hiif 
opinions.* Though he refused for some time, yet^ befoie 
his release could be procured, he was obliged to. subscribe 
ihe following recantation : 

<< For as much as the extremity of the time, wheiein I 
did write my book, brought forth alteration of leligion, 
setting up of idolatry, banishment of good m«i, muidering 
of saints, and violation of all promises made to the godly; 
I was, upon consideration of present grief, moved to wnte 
many things therein, which may be, and are, offenshrdijr 
taken, and which also I do mislike, and wish ihey had not 
been written. And notwithstanding the book, by me so 
written, I do protest and confess, ^ That good and godly 
women may lawfully govern whole realms and nations; ana 
do, from the bottom of my heart, allow the queen's majesty's 
most lawful government, and daily pray for the long 
continuance of the same. Neither did I ever mean to aflbm, 
that any person or persons, of their own authority, ^ught 
or miffht lawfully, have punished Queen Mary with derai. 
Nor that the people, of their own authority, may lawfidly 
punish their magistrates, transgressing the Lord's pieceptft 
Nor that ordinarily God is the head of the people^ and 
giveth the sword into their hands, though they seek Hnt 
accomplishment of his laws.' Wherefore, as many <tf these 
assertions as may be rightly collected out of my said book, 
them I do utterly renounce and revoke, as none of mine; 
promising never to write, teach, nor preach, any such 
offensive doctrine. Humbly desiring, thatit may please yoor 
lordships to ^ve me your good and favourable allowanoei; 
whereby I shall, by God's grace, endeavour to labour ii 
furthering the true service of God, and obedience to hs 
majesty, to the utmost of my power, during my whole lift; 
to the satisfaction of all good men, and to the contentment 
of her majesty and your good lordships. 

<< ClIRISTOPHEE GrOODlf Alf.''f ' 

^^ This is a lame recantation," says one of our kaned 
historians. ^^ For Goodman founds the queen's title upoii 
her moral J and not upon her ctt»7 qualifications. Chd^ 
women," he says, " may lawfully govern. By this dodxinti^ 
where there is no virtue, there can be no claim to authority ; 
and when their godliness is at an end, their govomment murt 

•.Strype'i Parker, p, S2&, 336. f Slrype'i. Annals« v«K I. p. ISO. 

GooDMAif. lar 

lie BO too : this is fouiding dominicm on grace. And when' 
the prince has so precarious a title, and the subjects are 
made judges of the forfeiture, peace and public order must 
be weakly established. The next part of the recantation is 
not one jot bett^. For by only denying that prvoate people 
Hoav estecute their princes, he seems to aUow that ms^istrates 
Hid parliaments may do it. And by saying, that GoA does 
not vtdSnanhf put the sword into the hands of the people, 
what can be inferred, but that in some cases it is lawful for 
(he people to rise against their sovereign, and reform the 
dmrch and state at discretion."* How much better would 
tfie learned writer have ordered this recantation, if he had 
faftoniUely been one of the high commissioners at Lambeth ! 
If the form of it was really faulty, surely this attaches 
BO evil io Mr. Groodman. He only complied with the im- 
positions of his ecclesiastical judges. In this, as in numerous 
other instances, we see the extreme madness of any man, or 
any body of men, attempting to impose their own opinions 
vpon their fellow-creatures. 

When Mr. Groodman was cited before the archbishop 
and otiier commissioners, he was required to subscribe, n^ 
01^ the above recantation, but the following protestation 
of his loyalty to the queen and government : 
' ^ I, Christopher Goodman, preacher of God*s word in 
this realm of England, have protested, the day and year 
above written, before the reverend fathers aforesaid, and in 
this present writing, do unfeignedly protest and confess 
before all men, that I have esteemed and taken Elizabeth, 
by -the grace of God Queen of England, France, and 
Ireland, defender of the faith, &c. ever smce her coronaticm, 
as noW) and shall during life, and her grace's government, 
for my only liege lady, and most lawful queen and sove- 
nign. Whom I truly reverence in my heart, love, fear, 
and obey, as becometh an obedient subject, in all thin^ 
Iftwftil; a^d as I have at sundry times in the pulpit^ 
9rillingly and of mine own accord, declared in great audi- 
ence, who can and will bear me sufficient record, exhorting 
and persuading all men, so far forth as in me did lay, to the 
like obedience to her majesty. For whose preservation, 
an^ prosperous government, I have earnestly and daily 
prated to God, and will, being assisted by his holy spirit, 
aiiring my Ufe. In witness whereof, I the said Christopher, 

* OoUier'f Eccl. Hist. vol. ii. p. 440. 


Maij. From this book, the archbishop, after so muuij^ 
years, collected certain dangerous and seditious articles^w 
they are called ; and requirra Mr. Goodman to revoke his 
opinions.* Though he refused for some time, yetj before 
his release could be procured, he was obliged to subscribe 
ihe following recantation : ... 

<^ For as much as the extremity of the time, wherein I 
did write my book, brought forth alteration of religion^ 
setting up of idolatiy, banishment of good men, murdering 
of saints, and violation of all promises made to the godly ; 
I was, upon consideration of present grief, moved to write 
many things therein, which may be, and are, offensively 
taken, and which also I do mislike, and wish ihey had no^ 
been written. And notwithstanding the book, by me so 
written, I do protest and confess, ^ That good and godly 
women may lawfully govern whole realms and nations ; and 
do, from the bottom of my heart, allow the queen's majesty's 
most lawful government, and daily pray for the long 
continuance of the same. Neither did I ever mean to aflton, 
that any person or perscms, of their own authority, ought 
or miffht lawfully have punished Queen Mary with deatti. 
Nor that the people, of their own authority, may lawfidly 
punish their magistrates, transgressing the Lord's preceptei 
Nor that ordinarily God is the head of the people^ and 
giveth the sword into their hands, though they seek iht 
accbmplishment of his laws.' Wherefore, as many of these 
assertions as may be rightly collected out of my said book, 
them I do utterly renounce and revoke, as none of mine; 
promising never to write, teach, nor preach, any such 
offensive doctrine. Humbly desiring, that it may please your 
lordships to give me your good and favourable allowance.; 
whereby I shall, by God's grace, endeavour to labour ia 
furthering the true service of God, and obedience to her 
majesty, to the utmost of my power, during my whole life; 
to the satisfaction of all good men, and to the contentiiieiit 
of her majesty and your good lordships. 


^^ This is a lame recantation," says one of our learned 
historians. <^ For Goodman founds the queen's title upte 
her moraly and not upon her ctz7t/ qualifications. CMUf 
women," he says, " may lawfully govern. By this dootrini^ 
where there is no virtue, there can be no claim to siuthority^; 
and when their godliness is at an end, their government must 

•.Strype's Parker, p, S2&, 336. f Sirype'g. Annals« v«K i. p. IM> 

GOODMAir. Itt 

be 80 too : iiiis is founding dominicm on grace. And when' 
the prince has so precarious a title, and the subjects are 
made judges trf* the forfeiture, peace and public order must 
be weakly established. The next part of the recantation is 
imt one jot better. For by only denying that private people 
Hiay e:stecute their princes, he seems toaUow that magistrates 
and parliaments may do it And by saying, that (Sod does 
not etdbmrify put the sword into the hands of the people, 
what can be inferred, but that in some cases it is lawful for 
ibe people to rise against their sovereign, and reform the 
church and state at discretion."* How much better would 
the learned writer have ordered this recantation, if he had 
fortunately been one of the high commissioners at Lambeth ! 
If the form of it was really faulty, surely this attaches 
no evil to Mr. Goodman. He only complied with the im- 
positions of his ecclesiastical judges. In tnis, as in numerous 
other instances, we see the extreme madness of any man, or 
any body of men, attempting to impose their own opinions 
upon their fellow-creatures. 

When Mr. Goodman was cited before the archbishop 
and otiier commissioiiers, he was required to subscribe, n^ 
odty the above recantation, but the following protestation 
of his loyalty to the queen and government : 
• ^ I, Christopher Goodman, preacher of God*s word in 
this lealm of £ngland, have protested, the day and year 
above written, before the reverend fathers aforesaid, and in 
this present writing, do unfeignedly protest and confess 
before all men, that I have esteemed and taken Elizabeth, 
by the grace of God Queen of England, France, and 
Ireland, defender of the faith, &c. ever since her coronaticm, 
as noW) and shall during life, and her grace's government, 
for my only liege lady, and most lawful queen and sove- 
reign. Whom I truly reverence in my heart, love, fear, 
and obey, as becometh an obedient subject, in all thin^ 
lawftil; a^d as I have at sundry times in the pulpit^ 
mllingly and of mine own accord, declared in great audi- 
ence, who can and will bear me sufficient record, exhorting 
and persuading all men, so far forth as in me did lay, to the 
like obedience to her majesty. For whose preservation, 
an^ prosperous government, I have earnestly and daily 
pfayra to God, and will, being assisted by his holy spirit, 
aimng my life. In witness whereof, I the said Christopher, 

* OoUier'f Eccl. Hist. vo]. ii. p. 440. 


have subscribed this protestation i^ith mine own hand, the 
S6th day of April^ 1571, by me, 

" Christopher Gtoodman.*** . 

In the year 1584, Mr. Goodman, we find, lived in his 
native county, where he was most probably silenced ficNr 
nonconformity. During that year, Archbishop Whitgift 
haying pressed subscription to his three articles, upon the 

lly ministers in those parts, Mr. Goodman wrotis to the 
!ajrl of Leicester, informing him how the papists in Cheshire 
and elsewhere, rejoiced at the proceedings and severities of 
the archbishop. This the archbishop, indeed, resented and 
denied, and charged Mr. Goodman with perverseness, in 
refusing subscription, and an exact conformity to the estab- 
lished church.f 

We have not been able to obtain any further account'of thii 
excellent divine, till the pious and learned Mr. James Usher} 
afterwards the famous archbishop, came to England to pur* 
chase books for the college library at Dublin, nvhen ho 
visited him on his death-bed. Usher was so deejAw 
impressed with the holy conversation of this venesiUe 
divine, that, when he himself became an old man, and the 
Archbishop of Armagh, he often repeated the wise aiid grtTtt 
speeches which he had heard from him.J Mr. GoodmaD 
died in 1603, aged eighty-three years, and his reml^ 
were interred in St. Werburg's church, in the d^ (tf 
Chester. Fuller denominates him a leader, of the nerit 
nonconformists.^ Wood says, he was a most violoit non- 
conformist, and more rigid in his opinions than^ hii 
friend John Calvin, who speaks of him in his epu ~ 
Mr. Leigh calls him a learned, good, and holy divin 
Dr. Bancroft says, that he, with the rest of the Geneva 
accomplices, urged all estates to take up arms, and -bjr 
force to reform religion themselves, rather than to liaOeii 
superstition and idolatry to remain in the land.** 

Mr. Thomas Merburie of Christ's coU^, Cambridge 
in his last will and testament, dated December 1, 1571, an 
proved the same month, appointed <^ his well-beloveidi. :n 
Christ, his father-in-law, Mr.Christopher Goodman, preacher 

• Strype*8 Annals, toI. i. p« 95, 96. f Ibid. toI. Hi. p. 946, Mti' 
X Bernard's Life of Usher, p. 42. Edit. 1656. 

S Fuller's Church Hist. b. ix. p. 77. , , i' 

jl Wood's Athens Oxoo. vol i. p. 273. 
1 Leigh's Religion and Learning, p. 811. 

• • Bancroft's Dangeroui Positions, p. 62. Edit. 1640, 


of GocVs word," one of the supervisors of his wiU.» Mr. 
Goodman publish* d the two tbilowing -irticles : ^< How 
Superior Powers ought to be obeyed of their Subjects, and 
wherein they mfiy be hwfully, by God's Word, disobeyd 
and resisted,"^' 1548, — " A Commentary on Amos." Wood 
ascribes to him, << The first Blast of the Trumpet against 
the Monstrous Regiment of Women," 1558 : But it is well 
known that Mr. John Knox, the celebrated Scotch reformer, 
was its aothor : our divine only itrote the preface to that 

William Perkins was bom at Marton in War- 
wickshire, in the year 1558, and educated in Christ's 
college, Cambridge. For some time after his going to 
the university, he continued exceedingly profile, and 
ran to great lengths in prodigality. While Mr. Perkins 
was a young man, and a scholar at Cambridge, he was 
much devoted to di unkeuness. As he was walking in the 
skirts of the town, he heard a woman say to a child that was 
froward and peevish, " Hold your tongue, or 1 will give 
^* you to drunken Perkins, yonder." Finding himself, 
b^ome a by-word among the people, his conscience smote 
hiin^ and he became so deeply impressed, that it was the 
first step towards his conversion. After he was called by 
divine grace, and become a preacher of the gospel, he laid 
pp«n the working of sin and vanity in others, exercised a 
spirit of sympathy over perishing sinners, and upon their 
repentance and faith in Jesus Christ, led them to the enjoy- 
ment of substantial comfort. He gave, at the same time, 
strong proofs of his great genius, by his deep researches into 
nature^ and its secret springs oi operation. When the 
Lord was pleased to convert him from the error of his ways, 
he immediately directed his attention to the study of divi- 
luty, and applied himself with such uncommon diligence^ 
tiiat in a short time, he made an almost incredible profici- 
^cy in divine knowledge. 

At the age of twenty-four, he was chosen fellow of his 
<^l%e, when he entered upon the sacred function. Having 
Umaelf freely received, he freely gave to others ; arid in 
uiiitation of our Lord, he went and preached deliverance to 
^ptives. Feeling bowels of compassion for the poor pri- 
' *^er8 confined in Cambridge, he prevailed upon the jailer 

* Baker's MS. CoHec. toI. lii. p. 314. 


to colleet them together in one spacious roonii nrhere he 
preached to them every sabbath, -with great power and 
success. Here the prison i^as his parish; his lore to souls, 
the patron presenting him to it ; and his work, all the wages 
he received. No sooner were his pious labours made 
known, than multitudes flocked to hear him from all 
quarters. By the blessing of Grod upon his endeavours, 
he became the happy instrument of bringing many to the 
knowledge of salvation, i^d to enjoy the gibhous liberty of 
the sons 6f God, not duly of the prisoners,' but others, who, 
like them, were in captivity and bondage to sin. His great 
fame, afterwards known in all the churches, was soqd 
spread through the whole university ; and he was chosen 

i>reacher at St. Andrew's church, where he continued a 
sdborious and faithful minister of Christ, till cdUed to 
teceive his reward. * 

Mr. Perkins being settled in this public' situation, Ui 
hearers consisted of collegians, townsmen, and people from 
th6 country. This reqtiired those peculiar mmisteiial 
endowments which providence had richly bestowed upon 
him. In all his discourses, his style add his subject Were 
acconunbdated to the capacities of the conunon people^ 
while, at the same time, me pious scholars heard hud with 
admiration. Luther used to say, << that ministers who 
preach the terrors of the law, but do not bring forth gospel 
instruction aiid consolation, are liot vf^ise masfer-builderB : 
they pull down, but do not biiild up again.'' Bat Mr. 
Perkinses sermons were edl laWy and alt gospel. He was a 
rare instance of those opposite gifts meeting in so emmeirf 
a degree in^the same preacher, eVen the vehemoice and 
thunder of Boanerges^ to awakisn sinners to a sense of their 
sin and dan^r, and to drive them from destruction; and 
the persuasion and Goitifoit of Barnabas^ to pour the ynut 
and oil of gospel consolation into their wounded spirits. 
He used to ^pp& the terrors of the law so direcfly to the 
consciences of his hearers, that their hearts would ofien 
sink under the convictions ; and he used to pronounce the 
word . damn with so peculiar ail emphasis, that it left a 
doleful echo in their ears a long time after. • Also his 
wisdom in giving advice and comfort to troubled con- 
sciences, is said to have been such, <^ that the afflicted in 
spirit, far and near, came to him, and received milch com' 
fort from his instructions/' ' 


• FDl]er*8 Abel RediTiTas, p. 431 -434.--Clark'ft Marrow of Bed. 
Hist. p. 851. 


Mr. Perikins had a surprising talent for reading books. 
He perused them so speedily, that he appeared to read 
Bothiog; yet so accurately, that he seemed to read all. In 
addition to his frequent preaching, and other ministerial 
duties, he wrote num«r6tis excellent books ; many of which, 
on account of their great worth, were translated into Latin, 
wd sent into foreign countries, where they were greatlj 
adnured and esteemed. Some of them being translated into 
Frenqh, Dutch, and Spanish, were dispersed throush tiie 
various European « nations. Voetius and other foreign 
divines, have spoken of him with great honour and esteem. 
Bishop Hall said, << he excelled in a distinct judgment, a 
Tare dexterity in clearing the obscure subtleties of the 
schods, and in an easy explication of the most perplexed 
subjects.'* And thoi^h he was author of so many books, 
being lame of his right-hand, he wrote them all with his 
left. He used to write in the title of all his books, ^^ Thou art 
a Bfinister of the Word : Mind thy business.'" 

This celebrated divine was a thorough puritan, both in 
principle and in practice, and was more than once con- 
vened before his superiors for nonconformity ; yet he was a 
man of peace and great moderation. He was concerned 
for a purer reformation of the church ; and, to promote 
the daired object, he united with his brethren m their 
wivate associations, and in subscribing the << Book of 
Discipline."* Complaint was, however, brought against 
him, that he had signified, before the celebration oif the 
Lord's supper, that the minister not receiving the bread and 
'tine from the hands of another minister, but from himsdf^ 
was a corruption in the church:— that to kneel at the 
sacrament was superstitious and antichristian ; — and that to 
tnin their faces towards the east, was another corruption. 
Upon this complaint, he was convened before Dr. Penie, the 
vice-chancellor, and heads of colleges; but refusing to 
answer, unless he might know his accusers, it was thought 
eapedient to bring certain persons who had heard him, wd 
examine them upon their oaths. Therefore, Mr. Bradcock^ 
Mr. Osborne, Mr. Baines, and Mr. Bainbrigg, were pro- 
doced as witnesses against him, and required to answer 
the three following interrogatories: — 1. ^^ Whether Mr. 
Ferldns, in his conunon place, made at the time before 
mrntMHied, did teach, that it was a corruption in our 
^oicb, that the minister did not receive the oommnnion at 

• 2rcal*t FultMm, vol. i. p. AtS. 


the hands of another minister, because that which is naedm 
our dhurch is without warrant of the word ? — 9. Whethei^ 
he did name kneeling when we receive the sacrament, as' 
superstitious and antichristian ?— 3. Whether he did not 
denominate kneeling towards the east to be a cormption }** 
-—The witnesses mostly answered in the affirmative; bat, in 
several particulars, they could not give any testimony. 
Mr. Bambrigg closed the evidence by obMrving, -friah 
respect to bieeling at the sacrament, << He thought oar 
Saviour sat, and," in his opinion, <^ it was better to come 
near to that which He did, than that which was done in' 
time of popery.*' He thought also that it was better not 
to kneel towards the east. 

After the examination of the witnesses, Mr. Perkins was 
allowed to speak in his own defence, when he addressed his 
spiritual judges as follows : — ^' As this doctrine c^ faith and 
a sood conscience is to be applied to the congregation, so 
it is by Grod's providence come to pass that I must apply it 
to myself. I am thought to be a teacher of erroneoos 
doctrines. I am enjoinra to satisfy, and, in trutii, I am now 
williqg with all my heart to do it. — ^Of ministering (ho 
communion to a man's own self, this. was my cMpinion, that 
in this place it was better to lieoeive it from another, because 
we are thirteen ministers ; and, by this means, the minister 
would not only receive the sacrament, but also the approba* 
ticm of his brother, that he was a worthy receiver. It itf 
observed, that I said this action was unlawful, and a onrnip" 
tion of our church. I said it not; and truly, I protoC 
before God, if I had said it, the same tongue whidi had 
said it, should unsay it ; that God might have the gtoary, 
and that shame and confusion might be unto me. 

<< I said not that kneeling was idolatrous and antichrii^ 
tian.. I do remember it. My opinion was this, that of die 
two gestures which we used, sitting and kneeling, sitting ii 
more convenient, because Christ sat, and the pope knadethi 
as Jewel observes against Harding. And in things in- 
different we must go as far as we can from idolatry. Mr. 
Calvin taught me this, in his sermon on Deut. yii. I 
think a man may use it with a good consdence; for I am 
far from condemning any. And I beseedii vou how. can 
. we altogether clear ourselves, who, sitting before, &U down 
on our knees when the bread cometh, and, having recdVeB 
it, rise up again, and do in like manner with the wine. 

^^ I hold looking unto the east or west to be indiflfeient, 
and to be used accordingly : but this I marvel at, wh/ tiis 


crofls fltill jBtimdeUi in the window, and ^hy we turn our« 
fidrcB toward the end of the chapel, at the end of the 
first and second lesson. We are commanded to flee from 
e?ei7 appearance of evil. — ^These things I have said to 
satisfy every man in the conurbation, audi to shew that I 
deqpise not authority : which, if this will do, God be 
maued ; but if not, God's will be done. I confess most 
h^y this thing. I did not seek the disquiet of this con- 
gregation; yet I might have spoken these things at a 
more convenient time.''* 

It does not appear whether Mr. Perkins's defence gave 
satisfiEU^on to his ecclesiastical judges, or whether he suffered 
^ome particular censure or further prosecution. This, how- 
ever, was not the end of his troubles. lie was apprehended, 
with many others, and carried before the star-chamber, on 
account of the associations. Upon his appearance before 
this high tribunal, he took the oath ex officio^ discovered 
ithe asiiociations, and confessed that Mr. Cartwright, Mr. 
finape, and others, had met at Cambridge, to confer about 
ma^iB of discipline.f He was once or twice convened 
befivre the high commission; and though his peaceable 
bdhaviour, and great fame in the learned world, are said to 
Jiave procured him a dispensation from the persecutions of 
]iis brithren,t he was, nevertheless, deprived by Archbishop 
Whitgifl.^ Mr. Perkins, writing at the above period, in 
1582, when many of his brethren were cruelly imprisoned 
for nonconformity, styles it, ^^ The year of the last patience ' 
§£ the saints.'*! 

Towards the close of life, Mr. Perkins was much afflicted 
:vnth the stone, the frequent attendant on a sedentary life, 
which he bore with remarkable patience. In the Inst fit of 
Ids complaint, a little before his death, a friend praying for 
the mitigation of his pains, he cried out, '' Hold, hold ! do 
not pray so; but pray the Lord to give me faith and 
patience, and then let him lay on me what he pleases.'* 
At length his patience had its perfect work. He was finally 
deliv^d from all his pains, and crowned with immor- 
tality and etem^ life, in the year 1602, aged forty-four 
^rears.f He was bom in the first, and died in the h\^ year 
^ the reign of Queen Elizabeth. He left the world rich 

• Biker*i ]lil8. CoUec. ▼o1. zzx. p. 992, 893. 

•f Strype*t Whitgift, p. S34, S7 1 , 378. 

1 Ncal'i Paritam, vol. i. p. 509. 

S Granger's Biog. Hist. toI. i. p. 819. 

I Cbwtoa'f life of Nowdl, p.S83. f FuUer^f Hist, of Qm. p. IBT. 


in grace, and in the love of God and good men ; and 
instrumental in making nidny rich. His ministerial laboim 
were signally blessed to multitudes, both townsmen and 
collegians. His remains were interred in St. Andrew'« 
church wi<h great funeral solemnity, at the sole expense of 
Christ's college ; the university and the town striving which 
could shew the warmest gratitiTtfe for hiS faithful bbours, 
and pay the greatest resjx*ct to his memory. Dr. M'jntague, 
afterwards successively Bishoi) of Rath and Wells, and (^ 
Winchester, preached his funeral sermon from Joshua, i. 9. 
Moses my servant is dead ; and spoko in high commenda- 
tion of his learning, piety, labours, ond usefulness.* • 

Mr. Perkins was so pious and exemplary in his life, 
that malice itself was unable to reproacli his character. A% 
his preaching was a just commeul upon his text ; so his 
practice was a just comment upon his preaching. He was 
naturally cheerful and pleasant; rather reserved towards 
strangers, but familiar upon their further acquaintance. He 
was of a middle stature, ruddy complexion, bright hairy 
and inclined to corpulency, but not to idleness.f He was 
esteemed by all, says I^'uller, as a painful and faithfid 
dispenser of the word of God ; and his great piety pro^ 
cured him liberty in his ministry, and respect to his person, 
even from those who difiered from him in other matters. 
He is classed among the ft^llows and learned writers of , 
Christ's college, Cambridge, t Churton styles him "tfce 
learned and pious, but Calvinistic Perkins;" as if hii 
Calvinism was a considerable blemish in his character^ 
Toplady, on the contrary, applauds him on account of hii 
Calvinistic opinions, and denominates him ^' the leame^ 
holy, and laborious Perkins."| The celebrated Aiehbifiluioi 
Usher had the highest opinion of him, and often e xpics B e i 
his wish to die as holy Mr. Perkins did, who ezpivd 
crying for mercy and forgiveness. Herein he was, iDmed^ 
gratified; for his last words were, << Lord, eqpeciafly 
forgive my sins of omission.*'! 

The works of this excellent divine are numeioiu and . 
highly esteemed, especially in foreign countries. Thcf 
were published at various times, but were collected aid 
printed in three volumes folio, in 1606, entitled << His 

• Strype*8 Whitgift, p. S7 1. 

f FuUer*! Abel. Red. p. 436.— Clark's Eccl. Hist. p. 851. , 

FnUer's Chnrch Hist. b. iz. p. 211.— Hist, of Caoi.'p. 98. 

Churton^s Life of NoweU, p. 323. 

Toplady*8 Historic Proof, toI. ii. p. 179. 
i Bernard's Life of Uiberj p. 100. Edit. 1656. 


Warkes of that Famous and Worthie Minister of Christ, 
in the Uniyersitie of Cambridge, M. W. Perkins." Mr. 
Job Orton had an high opinion of him and his writing, 
and gives the following account both of the author and the 
productions of his pen : — '' I am now reading the works 
of Mr. William Perkinu, an eminent tutor and divine at 
Cambrid^, in Queen Elizabeth's reign. They arc three 
▼(dumes folio, and I have got throu^^h one of them. What 
led me more particularly to read him was, that his elder 
brother was one of my ancestors, from whom I am in a 
direct line, by my mother's side, descended. I think him 
an excellent writer : his style is the l^'st of any of that age^ 
or the next, and niafiy passage^ in his writings are equal to 
those of the best writers in modern times. He is judicious, 
clear, tiill of matter, and deep christian experience. He 
wrotei all his works with his left hand, being lame of thp 
rijB^ht, and died about forty-four. I could wisfi all ministers, 
especially youn^ ones, would read him, as they would 
find large materials for composition. He hath some tracts 
a^nst the papists ; and appears to have been a pretty 
high Calviiiist; but he hath many admirable things in 

CriMfu'o/ divinity. His works are little known in EWland, 
at they f^re still in estimation in CJermany, many of them 
being written in elegant Latin, and others translated into 

Mr. Perking made his last will and testament a little 
before his death, dated Cambridge, October 16, 1602, and 
it was in substance as follows :— First, he bequeaths to the 
poor of thp parish of St. Andrews, where he then dwelt, 
the sum of forty pounds. Also to his worshipful and 
loyii^ friends, Mr. Edm. Barwt-11, Jam. Montague, D. D; 
Mr. Law. Chadderton, master of Emanuel college. Rich. 
Fozcrofl and Tho. Cropley, M. A. and Nath. Ciudock his 
brother-in-law, all the messuage or tenement wherein he 
then dwelt, with the houses, yards, &c. adjoining thereto^ 
in the town of Cambridge, to be sold, aiid the monev 
divided into three equal parts, on^ part to eo to his wiie 
Timothye, the other two amongst his children, bom or 
unborn. He also wills that the price of all his moyeable 
goods and chattels be divided amongst Jiis wife and 

<< He appoints his wife Timothye his sole ezecotriz, oc 
in case of failure by death, then he makes Nath. Ciadqpl( 

» 9io(. Biilaa. f •!. T. p. SlSi Ediumf. i 


aforesaid, e;xecutor. He also bequeaths to his father^-Tlia* 
Perkins, and his mother, Anna Perkins, ten pounds a piece, 
and to every of his brethren and sisters, fiye^ pounds a 
piece, and to his son-in-law, John Hinde, his Elnglish 

JosiAS Nichols was a worthy minister of the i^ospeL an 
humble servant . of Christ, and a man of distinguisaed 
eminence in his day. Certain writers in defence of the 
church and its ceremonies, having c^.harged the puritans 
with bemg as factious, seditious, and as great enemies^ to 
the queen, as the papists ; Mr. Nichols, in answer to these 
malicious imputations, publislied a book, entitled <* A Flea 
for the Innocent; or, a Defence of the Puritans/' 16Q2. 
The author proves that the charges against the puritans 
were malicious and false. He, fully answers all the calum- 
nies and slanders cast upon them, and, with great impar- 
tiality, blames both parties in those things wherein they 
were culpable. The book is written with great modesty, 
humility, and temper, and with great reverence of the 
bishops ; in soft and gentle language, with good stroigth of 
argument, liveliness of affection, and a deep sense of the 
common danger then threatening both the church and the, 
state, f In this work, he observes, in defence of himself and 
his brethren, " We subscribe willingly to the book of 
articles, according to the statute in that behalf provided: 
viz. to those articles which only concern the confession of 
the true faith, and the doctrine of the sacraments, as tfe 
iMAtuto expressly commandeth and limiteth.''^ Mr. NichcdB 
subscribed the " Book of Discipline."^ 

Thomas Cartwright, B. D. — This most celebiated 
person was born in Hertfordshire, about the year 1535, and 
educated in St. John's college, Cambridge. He possessed 
excellent natural parts, applied to his studies with uncooi* 
mon assiduity, and made amazing progress in the varioos 
branches ot usejful literature. He allowed himself only i^ 
hours' sleep in the night, to which custom he closdy 
adhered to the end of his days. Having been about three 
years at the university, upon the death of King Edwaid, 

• Baker*8 MS. Conec. vol. ii. p. 644. 

f MS. Reinark«, p. 535. 1^ Pleafbr the Iiuoceot, p. 91. 

S Neal's Furitiuis, yol. i. p. 423. 


4Uid the return of popery, he quitted that seat of learning, 
and became clerk to a counsellor at law. This employ- 
ment, however, did not prevent the prosecution oi h^ 
^rmer pursuits. The study of divinity, and those branches 
of knowled^ most calculated for usefulness to a divine^ 
were his chief deligbt ; and to which he still directed the 
closest application. In this situation he remained till the 
accession of Queen Elizabeth, when he returned to St. 
John^s collegtu and in the year 1560, was made icUow of the 
Louse. In about three years, he was removed to Trinity 
college, where, on account of his great learning and worth, 
he was chosen one of the eight senior fellows. 

In the year 1564, when Queen Elizabeth visited the 
university of Cambridge, uncommon preparations were 
made for her entertainment, and the most learned men were 
selected for the public disputations. Among these was 
Bir. Cartwright, whose performance on this occasion dis- 
covered such extraordinary abilities, as gave the greatest 
Batisfaction, both to the queen and the other auditors.* But 
laaaay writers have asserted, that he received neither reward 
nor con^mendation ; and that he was presumptuous of his 
own ^ood learning, but deficient in a comely grace and 
behaviour. Indeed, it is added, that he was so vexed by 
hex majesty ^s neglect of him, that he immediately began to 
wade into divers opinions relative to the new discipline, and 
to kick at the government of the established chtkrch; 
girowing conceited of his own learning and holiness, and 
beeoming a great contemner of those who differed irom 
him.'l' That this is a most notorious slander, appears partly 
fiom the account already given ; but especially from the 
words of another learned mstorian. From the relation of 
the queeiTs reception at Cambridge, says he, there appears 
no clear ground for any such discontent, as that which is 
charged against Mr. Cartwright; for, as this relation 
informs us, the queen approved of them aU4 

In the year 1570, Mr. Cartwright was chosen Lady 
•Haigaret's professor of divinity. It is particularly men* 
ti<med, that he delivered lectures upon the first and second 
pUapters of the Acts of the Apostles ; which he performed 
with such acuteness of wit, and such solidity of judgment, 
that they excited the admiration of those who attended. 
He was also become so celebrated a preacher, that when it 

* Clark*8 Lives annexed to bis Martyrologie, p. 16, 17. 
t Fteile*s Life of Whitgift, p. 9, 10. 
i 8trype*8 Annals, voL i. p. 403. 


was his tnra to preach at St Mary^s, the sexton^ on accoonl 
of the multitudes who flocked to hear him, was oblJMf, 
for their accommodation, to take dowa the windows or the 

Mr. Cartwright took occasion, in his lectures, to deliyer 
his sentin^.ents concerning church discipline ; and becaiiso 
they were uni'ayourable to the hierarchy, public accusatioiB 
were soon exiiibited against him.f Archbishop Grindai 
wrote a letter, dated June 24, 1570, to Sir William Cecily 
chanc-ellor oK the university, urging him to take some 
course with Mr. Cartwright ; alleging, that in his lectures 
he constantly spoke against the external policy, and tho 
various offices ot the church; in consequence of which, 
the young men of the university, who attended his lectures 
in great numbers, were in danger of being poisoned by his 
doctrines. He, therefore, reconunended to the chancellor 
to silence Cartwright and his adherents, and to reduce 
them to conformity, q^r expel them from the coll^, 'or 
from the university, as the cause should require. ' IJ^ alsa 
urged that Mr. Cartwright might not be allowed to take his 
degree of doctor in divinity, at the' approaching cbm^" 
mencement, tor which he had made application.^ - Dn 
Whitgift also zealously opposed Mr. Cartwright, and 
wrote at the same time to the chancellor, communicatiitff 
not only what Mr. Cartwright had openly taught, bin 
also what he had spoken to him iq private conversation.^ 

Mr. Cartwright vindicated his conduct in a letter to Sir 
William Cecil ; in which he declared his extreme ,aveni<^ 
to every thing that was seditious or contentiou&i ;' and 
affirmed, that he had taught nothing but what naturally 
flowed from his text. He observed, uuit he had cantiourij 

« Clark*! Lives, p. 17. 

-f Itli said, with a design to reproach Mr. Cartwright, that he aod hk 
mdhereots having delivered three sermons iq the col^e chapel» on o# 
Ijard*s day, they spoke so vehemently against the ceremonies anid c^ «8f ^ 
the surplice, that, at evening prayer, all the collegians, except three, citf 
off their surplices, and appeared in the chapel without them l-^Fmil^f 
Hfe of Whitgift, p. X^.—FulUr's HUU of CM9^Mdg9, p. 140. 

'^ Strype's Grindal, p. 168. 

^ It is observed, that what Mr. Cartwright delivered In his leraMM M 
one Lard*s day, Whitgift, in the same place, lUways refuted the Lwrd^ 
day following, to his great commendation and applause. How ftu* ikk 
WV to bis commendation or applause, we do not determiaei but i|owt9 
retoncile Whitgift's practice, in this case, with his own coodoctx after* 
wards, when in the most cruel manner he censured the excellent l|^r. 
Walter Travers for the very same thing, will be found, we think, eztrenyly 
difficult.— S/r»p«*s Whitgift, p. 10» 11,— Potil^'t fFkUgifl, p, 19.r-:0e« 
Art. Tra99n, 


wroided.^feakiiiff against the habits ; but acknowledged his 
haivini^ tmght, that the ministry of the church of England 
liad declii^, in some points, from the ministry of the 
apostolic church, and that he wished it to be restored to 
gmler puriQr. But these sentiments, he said, he had 
oriivered with all imaginable caution, and in such a 
maimer as could give offence to none, excepting the 
igtiorant, die malignant, or those who wished to catch at 
something to calumniate him ; of which things, nearly all 
■the university, if they might be allowed, would bear 
"witness. He, therefore, entreated the chancellor id hear 
and judge the cause himsi^lf.* Mr. Cartwright had, indeed, 
numerous friends, ornaments to the university, by whom he 
was exceedingly admired, and who now stuck close to him. 
They came forwards f^t this juncture ; and declared in their 
testimonial sent to the chancellor, '' That he never touched 

Xthe controversy of the habits ; and though he had 
need somc^ propositions respedH^ the ministry, accord^ 
iog to which he wished things might be r^ulated, he did 
it with all possible caution and modesty.'^ This was signed 
lyy fifteen hands; and other letters of commendation were 
written in his favour, signed by many naines, some of 
irimn 'afterwards b<!came bishops ;t but all was to no 
pQipdse. It was too obvious, that his adversaries were 
Ksolved to make him a public example. 

Chancellor' Cecil was, indeetl, inclined to treat Mr. 
Gartwright with candour and moderation ;i but his oppo- 
-nents were determined to prosecute him with the utmost 
ifeour and severity. He was cited before the vice-chan- 
cellor. Dr. May, and other doctors, and examined upon 
sundry {urticles, which, he was said to have delivered. The 
points alleged against him, they affirmed to be contrary to 
the religion established by public authority; and, there- 
fore, demanded whether he would revoke his opinions, or 
abide by them. Mr. Cartwright desiring to be permitted 
to commit his sentiments upon th( se points to writing, was 
allowed the favour. He tfien drew up his opinions m six 
propositions, and presented them to the vice-chancellor, 
who admonished him to revoke them ; and, upon his refusal, 
deprived him of his stipend, but allowed him to continue 
Ins lecture.^ 

During this year. Dr. Whitgift was chosen vice-chaUr* 

• Strype*! Annals, vol. ii. p. 3. + Ibid. p. 2—4. Appen. p, i— 4. 

1 IbM. vol. I. p. 566, 6^. 

f Clark'i LiTe8,p. n.*-S(r7pe'i Whitgift, Appen. p. lU 


eeUor, when Mr. Gartwright was mesently convoied befont 
liim. Upon his appearance, Whiteift required him- to 
revoke those opinions contained in his six pvopositionsy to 
which he had subscribed; and upon Mr. Gartwri^t'i 
refusal, he pronounced upon him the following defimtive 
sentence : — ^' That seeing no admonition would hd-jK bat 
that he still persisted in the same mind, he did theie* 
fore pronounce him, the said Mr. Cartwright, to be 
removed from his said lecture ; and by his final decree or 
sentence, did then and there remove him, and declare the 
said lecture void ; and that he minded, ficcordin^ to the 
foundation thereof^ to proceed to the election of a, oeir 
reader. And further, he did .then and there, by virtue of 
his office, inhibit the said Mr. Cartwright from preaching 
within the said university, and the jurisdiction of the 

The six propositions which Mr. Cartwright delivered 
under his own hand to the vice-chancellor, and which 
were said to be both dangerous and untrue, were the 
following :— 

1. That the names and functions of archbishcqps and 
archdeacons ought to be abolished. 

2. That the offices of the lawful ministers of the^chordi, 
viz. bishops and deacons, ought to be reduced 4o their 
apostolical institution : bishops to preach the Word of God 
and pray, and deacons to be employed in taking care of 
the poor. 

3. That the government of the church ought not to be 
entrusted to bishops' chancellors, or the officials of arch- 
deacons; but every church ought to be governed by fti 
awn minister and presbyters. 

4. That ministers ought not to be at large, but ^verf 
one should have the charge of a particular copgi^ 

. 5.. That no man ought to solicit, or to stand as a candi- 
date for the ministry. 

6. That ministers ought not to be created by the iok 
authority of the bishop, but to be openly and fiiirly choM 
by the people.t 

In addition to these heterodoxies and misr€presenlifti0h 
as the learned historian is pleased to call thenl,t otbtf 
^Ifticles were collected from Mr. Cartwright's lectures; and* 
as they were accounted both dangerous and seditious^ ii wA 

• Clark's Livea, p. 17 — Strype's Whitgift, Appen. p. l|. , 

^ Ibid. i ColUer'a hccU Hkt. foU ii. p. M» 



be proper to give the substance of them, which was as 

L That in refomiingthe chnrch, it is necessary to reduce 
all thiDjn io the apostolic institution. 

S. That no man ought to be admitted into the ministry^ 
who is not capable of preaching. 

3. That popish ordinations are not valid. And onlj 
omonical scripture ought to be publicly read in the 

4. That equal reverence is due to all canonical scripture^ 
ind to all the names of God ; there is, therefore, no reason 
why the people should stand at the reading of the gospel^ 
or bow at the name of Jesus. 

5. That it is as lawful to sit at the Lord's table, as to 
heel or stand. 

6. That the Lord^s supper ought not to be administered 
m private; nor should Imptism be administered by women 
or lajr-persons. 

7. That the sign of the cross in baptism, is superstitious. 

8. That it is reasonable and proper, that the parent 
should oflfer his own child in baptism, without being obliged 
k> say / iJDill^ I mil noty I believe^ &c. 

9. That it is papistical to forbid marriages at certain 
tunes of the year ; and to give licenses for them at those 
times, is intdlerable. 

10. That the observation of Lent^ and fiEusting on Fridays 
and Saturdays, is superstitious. 

11. That trading or keeping markets on the Lord's day^ 
is unlawful. 

18. That in ordaining ministers, the pronouncing of those 
woids, Recehe the Holy Ghost^ is both ridiciuous and 

These were the dangerous and seditious doctrines, which 
Mr. Cartwright occasionally touched upon in his publio 
lectores, but evidently without the least design of promoting 
discord. However, those who sought, his ruin, having 
already deprived him of his lecture and professorship^ 
piDcured his expulsion from the university. This was 
undoubtedly a short and easy method pf refuting his 
opinions ! The pretended occasion of his expulsion was, 
indeed, looked upon as a crime of no small magnitude. 
Mr. Cartwright, a senior fellow. of the college, was only in 
deacon's orc&rs. Whilgift was no sooner informed of this, 

• Strype^f Annals, vol, i. p. .589. 


and that the statute required such to take upon.them the 
order of priests, than he omcluded he was perjured ; upon 
which, withoirt any further admonition, he exerted his 
interest to the utmost among the masters, to rid the place 
of a roan whose popularity was too great for his ambitidn, 
declaring he could not establish order in the uniyenity, 
while a man of his principles was amonc^ them.* 

The friends of Mr. Cartwright complained of this hard 
usage. They looked upon it' as extreme severity, and 
savouring too much of antichrist, for a man to be thus oeo' 
sured, without beiri^ allowed to have a conference before 
impartial judges. Whitgift and his friends, therefore^ to 
tas^e their case appear plausible, signed the following 
testimonial, signifying, ^< That Mr. Cartwright never 
ofiered any disputation, only on condition that he m\^ 
know his opponents and his judges; nor was this kuid 
of disputation denied him, oidy he was required to obtain 
a license from the queen or council ;"f which his ad- 
versaries knew he could never procure. Here it is 
evident Mr. Cartwright did not stand on equid ffround. 
The reader will easily perceive, that his .pixiposw of a 
public dispute, even according to the statement of Ins 
enemies, were most equitable and just; but thdrs were 
inequitable, and not within his power to observe. 

After Mr. Cartwright's expulsion from the rmiverntf, 
<^ Wliit^ifi accused him of going up and down idly, and dmg 
no good, but living at other mens' tables.''^ How ungeDcnoi 
was this i After the doctor had taken away his bread, and 
stopped his mouth from preaching, how unkind was it 1o 
reproach him with doing no good, and wiA depending (A 
his friends for a dinner! Mr. Cartwright himself says, 
'^ After he had thrust me out of the college, he accused oe 
of going up and down, doing no good, and living at otlier 
mens' tables. That I was not idle, I suppose, he knowelfc 
too well. Whether well occupied, or no, let it be judged. 
I lived, indeed, at other mens' taUes, having no houae^ nor 
wife, of my own : but not without their <ksire^ and with 
small delight of mine, for fear of evil tongues. And 
although I were not able to requite it ; yet towards some I 
went about it, instructing their children partly in the prin- 
ciples of religion, partly in other learning."^ 

Mr. Cartwright being expelled from me university, aid 

• Strype's Whiigift, p. 4T. + Paale'i WhlteifL p. 14^18. 

1 Strype^s Whitgift, p. 64. 

h Bios. Britao. toI, iiU p. S8S. Edit. 1778. 


out of all employment, if ent abroad, and settled a corre* 
4Mndence.witn some of the most celebrated diyines in the 
|ore^;n protestant universities. During his abode on the 
coQtiiient, he was chosen minister to the English merchants 
at Antwerp, th^i at Middleburg, where he continued about 
two years, the Lord greatly blessing his labours. But by 
the importunity of his old mends, Messrs. Deering, Fulke^ 
Wybum, Lever, and Fox, he was at length prevailed upon 
to return home.* Several of our historians affirm of him, 
even before his troubles at Cambridge, '' that he might the 
better feed his humour with conceited novelties, he travelled 
to jGeneva ; where he was so enamoured with the new dis- 
cipUne^ that he thought all churches and congre^tions 
were to be measured and squared by the practice of 
Geneva.''^ I^or this reproachful insinuation, however^ 
there is ho sufficient evidence. It is pretty certain he 
never went to Geneva till afler his expulsion from the 
university. ^ 

About the time of Mr. Cartwriglit*s return to Endand, 
was published, ^^ An Admonition to the Parliament, ror the 
Reformation of Church Discipline f to which were an- 
nexed Beza's' Letter to the Elarl of Leicester, and Gaulter's 
to Bishop Parkhurst. Mr. Cartwriffht was not the author, 
as many writers have asserted ; but Mr. John Field, assisted 
hy Mr. Thomas Wilcocks, for which they were both com- 
mitted to Newgate, where they continued a long time.f 
Upon the imprisonment of these two excellent divines, Mr. 
Cartwright was induced to publish a '^ Second Admonition, 
with an humble Petition to both Houses of Parliament, for 
relief against Subscription.'^ The first Admonition was 
answered by Dr. Whitgift. Mr. Cartwright then pub- 
lished a Reply to Whitgift's Answer ; which he is said to 
h^ve done so admirably well, that his very adversaries com- 
mended him for his performance.^ In 1573, Whitgift 
published Ids Defence against Mr. Cartwrighfs Reply. 
And in 1575, Mr. Cartwright published a Second Reply 
to Whitgift's Defence, in two parts. But the second 
part did not come out till 1577. Fuller is, therefore, 
mistaken, when he says, that Whitgift kept the field, and 
|iecc|ivi9d no refutation ; for it is certain Mr. Cartwright had 
€he last word.f 

. « Churk'i Li?et, p. 18. 

4- Piftvle't Whhgift^p. 11.— Heylin^f Hiit. of Pr«t. p. «02. 

t See Arte. Fidd and Wilcocks. h Clark*i Li?et, p. 18. 

I StiTpe'i Whitf ift; p. 50--e9.^Charch Hist. b. iz. p. 108. 



It was impossible for these divines to settle the cent ro- 
yersy ; because they were not agreed about the standard or 
rule of judgment. Mr. Cartwright maintained, that the 
holy scriptures were the only standard of discipline and' 
^yemment, as well as of aoctrine ; and that the church of 
Christ in all ages ought to be r^ulated by them. He would, 
therefore, consult the Bible only^ and reduce all things, as 
near as possible, to the apostouc standard. The less our 
religion was incumbered with the inventions of men, in biV 
opinion, the more it would resemble the simplicity that is 
in Christ. " We mean not," said he, " to take away the 
authority of the civil magistrate, to whom we wish all 
blessedness, and for the increase of whose godliness we 
daily pray: but that Christy being restored to his king- 
dom, may rule in the same by the sceptre of his word.* 
Whitgift, on the other hand, maintained, that though the 
holy scriptures were a perfect rule of faith, they were not 
designed as the standard of church discipline.; but that thib 
is cnangeable, and may be accommodated to the govern- 
ment under which we live. Therefore, instead of reducing' 
the external policy of the church to the simplicity S 
scripture^ the doctor took in the opinions and customs of 
the fathers, in the four first centuries, f 

These points were disputed, as might be expected, with 
some degree of sharpness. While Mr. Cartwnght thought 
he had reason to complain of the hardships which he luid 
his brethren suffer^ ; Whitgift, having the government oil 
his side, thought he stood im higher ground, and migU 
assume a superior air. When Mr. Cartwright and his 
friends pleaded for indulgence, because they were brethren; 
Whitgift replied, " What signifies their being brethmi : 
anabaptists, arians, and other heretics, would be accounted 
brethren. Their haughty spirits will not suffer them to 
see their error. They deserve as great punishment as tte 
papists; because they conspire against the church. If 
they be shut up in ]Newgate, it is a meet reward for their 
disorderly doings; for ignorance may not excuse libeb 

* Bishop Maddoz warmly censnres Mr. Cartwright for maintaiaioK, that 
the supreme magistrate is only the bead of the commonwealth, not of the 
cborch ^ and that the church may be established without. him.— ITtedf?' 
cation of the Churchy p. S71. 

f The words of Ballard, a popish priest, before Sir Francis Knolhrif 
concerning Whitgift's writings, are remarkable. '* I woald deilre M 
** better boolcs," said he, *' to prove my doctrine of popery, than Wiiitgift'i 
** against Cartwright, and his ininuctions let forth in her aajetty*! ~— ^ " 
^Strypc'B WhUgift, p. S66. - ^ . . 


agaiort a private man, much. less when thej slander the* 
mole church."* How would (he doctor have liked this 
\ummge in the mouth of a pamst sixteen years before ? 
U lias too often been the method of warm disputants,* 
when they could not untie the knots with their filers, to 
qit them with the sword of the civil power. 

In this controversy, the two parties complained of each' 
other. Whitgift thus observes to Cartvmght: << If you 
should have written against the veriest papist in the world,' 
the vilest person, the ignorantist dolt, you could not have 
med a more spiteful and malicious, more slanderous and' 
reproachful, more contemptuous and disdainful kind q£ 
vdtinff, than you use throughout your whole book." On 
the ouMHT hand,^ Cartwright says to Whitgift, << If peace 
had been so precious to you, as you pretend, you would 
not have brought so many hard words, bitter reproachei^' 
eaemy-like speeches, (as it were sticks and coab,) to double 
and treble the heat of contention." Mr. Stiype, speaking 
of Cartwright's reply, says, " Great was the opinion, both 
pf the man and. of his book, at this time in London, as 
well as at Cambridge : many of the aldermen of London^ 
openly countenanced him. He was secretly harboured in 
the city, and had a great many admirers and visitors there, 
and wanted not for presents and gratuities."f Whether, 
theiefore, Mr. Cartwnght got the better of his adversary, 
or not, in sound learning and strength of argument, 
Whilgijfit assuredly got most by it : . for he was soon 
afier made Archbishop of Canterbury, while Cartwright 
was persecuted from place to place, as if he were not fit to 

The chief of the puritans, bein^ now deprived of the 
liberty of preaching and publishmg, wish^ to obtain a 
poUic disputation with their adversaries. Though this 
Privilege had been allowed the protestants in the days of 
Qaeen Mary, and the papists at the accession of Elizabeth, 
^be queen and council took a shorter method, and summoned 
tbe disputants to appear before the ecclesiastical rulers, to 
answer such articles as should then be exhibited against 
^hem. Mr. Cartwright was summoned by a special order 
ftooi the high commission, addressed, "To all mayors, 
sheriffi^ bailiffs, constables, headborougbs, and to all the 

* Wfcitgift ackDowIedged, that» by the word of God, the ofllce of 
b'kbopi and prietts were theiame ; yet. Id his controversy with Cartwright, 
^ made it heresy to believe and teach thh doctrine. — NtaVi Puritant,. 
*•>!. i p. teO.—HuntUifB Prelates* Uturpations, p, 124. 

t fiiog;. Britan. vol. iii. p. 9S4. fidit. 1778. 


queen^s majesty's officers, unto whom it may come of 
appertain/' The order itself^ dated London, Deceabet 
11, 1573, ifas as follows: — ^< We do require you, and 
<< therewith straiiiy command you, and every of you. 
<< in the queen's majesty's name, that you be aiding ana 
<< assisting to the bearer and bearers hereof, with all the best 
<^ means you can devise, for tlie apprehension of one 
^ Thomas Cartwright, student in divinity, wheresoever h^ 
<^ be, within the liberties or without, within this reabn. 
<< And jrou having possession of bu body by your gooii 
<< travail and dilig^ice in. this buoncss, we do likewito 
^< charge you, (for. so is her majesty's pleasure,) that he bd 
<< brought up by you to London, with a sufficient number 
^ for his' safe appearance before us, and other her majesty's 
^< commissioners in causes ecclesiastical, for his unlawnif 
^^ dealings and demeanours in matters touching religion^ atidl 
<^ the state of this realm. AAdfiiilyonnotsotodo,eveiydM 
<^ of you, with all diligence, a& you will answer- to the- 
<' contrary upon, your utmost peril." This order way 
signed by the Bishop of London, and eleven others of the 
high commission.* 

Afr. Cartwright, however, wisely concealed himself, tiH 
he found an opportunity of leaving the kingdom. And God, 
who provides for the young ravons when they cij) 
pfovided for his persecuted servant in this glocNEby season.- 
For at this critical juncture, he was- unexpectecQy invHed^ 
together with Mr. Snape, to assist the ministers* in fle 
islands of Jerse;^ and Guernsey, in framing the reauisita 
discipline for their churches* This was a mvoursMf;' &^ 

Ensation to Mr. Cartwright ; who, being forced to abandba 
s native country^ foura there a refuge from t£RS strain. 
These two islands were the oi|ly places within the Britiiif 
^fominions, where the out-stretched anns of the high con* 
SHssioners could not reach him. During Mr. Carttrrifflit]i 
abode here, besides attending to the special object dr Uf 
mifirion., he laboured. in his pdblic ministiTv particularly at 
Castle^Comet in Guernsey. It appears that he aftdrMidb 
went again to. Antwerp^ and a secmd' time beoHSM^ 
I»eacher to the £i^li9h merchants.^ 

Mr. Cartwn^t continued at: Antwerp several yesffj 
bat his health haying ^^eatly deeUned, the physidaai 
recommended hiin, as the most likely means of nis lestor- 
ation, to tiy his. native ain His comidaint at laogA 

• Strype'f AamIs, vol. IS. |kS8{i. f JU^om*! lf«. CollecPraf. p. 93^ 


iticrca8iii^4o so great a degree that his life was thought to 
be ill danger, he wrote to the lords of the council, the Eaii 
#f Iieicester^ and the Lord Treasurer Burleigh, for permission 
to come home. These two noblemen made honourable men- 
thM of him in Parliament. They also interceded with the 
qtteeu, but could not procure her favour and consent. 
JNeyertheless, he yentured to return once more to his native 
oountrj. But it was no sooner known that he was landed^ 
thali he was apprehended by Bishop Aylmer, and cast into 
l^riiion.* When he appeared before Whitgift, now made 
Archbishop, he behaved with so much modesty and 
respect, as greatly softened the heart of his adversary ; who^ 
Upon the promise of his quiet and peaceable behaviour, 
suffered him, after some time, to go at large. For this 
ftyour, both the E^rl of Leicester and Mr. Cartwright 
thanked the archbishop ; but all the endeavours they used 
eoald not obtain him a license to preach.f The eiarl did 
every thing for him in his power, and made him master of 
the hospital at Warwick; where, for some time, he preached 
without a license, being exempt from the jurisdiction of 
Uib prelates.} This noble earl, and his brother, the Earl 
of Warwick, were his constant friends and patrons as long 

Mr. Cartwright was so celebrated, that King James 
of Scotland offered him a professorship in the university 
of St. Andrews ; but he modestly declined it. Afterwards, 
Ifr. Cartwright, in the dedication of his <^ Commentary 
o^ Ecclesiastes" to that king, made thankful acknowledg- 
BMnt of the royal favour. The Archbishop of Dublin 
itiyited him into Ireland, offering him considerable prefer- 
nient; and it is said he went into Ireland, but soon 
letumed to England. || Indeed, such Was his distinguished 

i^utation, that the most celebrated divines, both at 


• The bishop, to rast the reproach of this from himself, proceeded 
a^iut Mr. Cartwright, not in his own name, but in the name of theqaeeo ; 
with which her majesty no sooner became acquainted, than she was greatly 
bRCDsed against him. Aylmer, poor man ! to make up the breach, wrote to 
ibe treasurer, entreating him to use his utmost endeavours to appease tha 
qi»CB*B IndigDSLtion.—Strype's Whitgift, p. 295.—Strype'i jiylnur^p. 117. 
■ + Strype's Annals, vol. iii. p. 340, 841.— Strype's Whitgift, p.2»5, «86. 

i Clark's Lives, p. 19. 

S The Earl of Warwick, who died of an ampotatioa of his leg, wte a 
fMMNi^of "great sweetness of temper, and of unexceptionable character. 
He waa aActioaate to his relations, kind to his domestics, and gratefal 
to hit fHendi. He was called by the people, long before and after his 
dcatli, Tbb good Earl of Warwick.— JUiog. Britan, vol. r. p. 448> 444; 
Edit. 1TT8. 

f Ki4pte»*s-MI. QoUw. Pi«f. p. 33. 


borne and abroadi, frequently sought his adyioe in thi^^ 
most weighty matters.* 

In the year 1583, Mr. Cartwright was eamesUy pressed 
by many learned persons, to publish a refutation of the 
<^ Rhemist Translation of the New Testament.'* Thit 
translation being looked upon by all true protestants^ as a 
work of a very dangerous tendency, designed to promote 
the errors and superstitions of popery, most persons 
wished it to be answered by the ablest pen that could be 
found. And no man was thought so suitable to undertalDe 
the laborious work as Mr. Cartwright. Indeed, the qaeei 
applied to the learned Beza of Geneva, solicitiuff him to 
undertake the answer ; but he modestly declinea, saYing, 
she had a person in Iier own kingdom far better quali&dto 
perform the work than himself; and deotarea that this 
was Mr. Thomas Cartwright.f Sir Francis WaIsin|^iaoi, 
who in this affiiir, as well as many others, was accounted tke 
mouth and hana of the queen, wrote to Mr. Cartwr^iU, 
earnestly entreating him to undertake the wori^ sending, it 
the same time, one hundred pounds towards the expenie, 
with assurance of sucli further assistance as he mi|U 
afterwards deem necessary* The ministers €f London m 
Suffolk, in like manner, urged him to undertake it. He 
was also warmly solicited by some of the most learned and 
celebrated divines of Cambridge.^ In their letter to him, 
they express themselves in the following manner :-^" We 
^^ are earnest with you, most reverend Cartwright, thatjoii' 
'^ would set yourself against the unhallowed endeayoaiB of 
<< these mischievous men, either by refuting, the whob 
^^ book, or some part thereof. It is not for eveiy one 
<< rashly to be thrust forth into the Lord^s battles ; but'sudi 
<^ captains as are to be chosen from amongst David*! 
*^ worthies, one of which, we acknowledge you to be, by 
" the former battles undergone for the walls of our city, 
** the church. We doubt not, if yon will enter this war, 
^^ but that you, fighting for your conscience and countiy, 
<< will be able to tread under foot the forces of the Jebnsitei, 
" which set themselves to assault the tower of David. — Yaa 
'^ see to what an honourable fight we invite you. Christ's 

• Clark's Lives, p. 19. 

f Dnriog Mr. Cartwrigbt's exile, travelliof to Geoenh be becMi 
particttlarly intimate with Beza; who, at that time, writing toi hit Mad 
in England, gave him the followiiig character : '* Here is now with « joir 
** countryman, Thomas Cartwright^ than whom, 1 thinly the sun docli not 
** see a more learned man/' — Ibid, p. 18, 19. 

t Fuller's Church Hist. b. iz. p. ni.---Sirype*0 Whitgift»p. «63,9M. 


f ^ business shall be undertaken against Satan's champions. 
** We stir you up to fight the battles of the Lord, where 
f^ the Yictoiy is certain, and which the triumph and applause 
ff of angels will ensue. Our prayers shall never be wanting 
ff to vou. Christ, without doubt^ whose cause you defendi 
f^ will be present with you. The Lord Jesus mudh 
*^, increase your courage and strength, and keep yoi^ very 
ff long in safety for his church's good."* From all these 
jollcitaiions, Mr. Cartwright was at length induced to 
iuidertake the laudable and arduous work ; and having once 
filtered upon it, he spared no pains to carry it on to 
perfection. But, marvellous as it will appear to all 
posterity, Archbishop Whitgift, by his own sovereign 
authority, forbade him to proceed. f Mr. Caitwright 
meekly cJbeyed the tyrannical prohibition. The book was 
Ml. unfinished^ to the unspeakable regret of the learned 
inpild, but to tlue lasting reproach of the archbis;hop, and was 
*ii0t published till the y^ar 1618. Fuller says, Mr. 
Jpartwright perfected the work to the seventeenth chapter 
lif Reirdation. But the excellent performance being laid 
•fislde manv years, became in part mouse eaten ; and was 
jpU published till the above year. Notwithstanding these 
Ifefects, says he, it is so complete a refutation, that the 
jtlbemists durst never answer it.t 

• . Mr. Cartwright was severely persecuted on account of 
Ms nonconformity. Although his hospital at Warwick was 
exempt from the jurisdiction of the prelates, their out- 
itr^ttmed and tyrannical power would not suffer him to 
.jOijoy peace. He was accused to Bishop Frekeof Wor- 
.oeikcar, a zealous ad vjooate^^^ the church,^ and summoned 
Jtb ajqpear. in the consistory at Worcester, to answer such 
charges as were alleged against him. Upon his appearance 
liefore his lordship and others, he was addressed as follows : 
r7^ Mr. Cartwright, you are here accused of disturbing 
Hie peace and quietness of the church, by innovations, and 
dbtniding fancies and devices of your own or others. You 
Inve brought over with you the dregs of Geneva, whereby 
. you would instU into the minds of the queen's sutgects, that 
yonr doctrine . is the only truth . to be embraced and 

P Thii letter was sabscribed by Roger Goad, V^iniam WhiUker, 
Hhnmu Crook, John Ireton, William Fulke, John Field, Nicholai Crane» 
fiMloi Sutler, Richard Gardiner, William Cbarke, and othen, celebrated 
Ibr their learning and piety.— C/arJi:*« Lives, p. SO. — LetUr prefixed to 
CmrtwrigkVs IMutaiion, 

f Strype's Whltgift, p. S53, 854. t Cbnrph Hiit. b. iz. p. 171, ITS. 

J} WoiDd'i Athsas Ozon. sq\. i^ p^ 7SS. 


entertained. 'You had best take heed, that yon nm not 
upon the same rock, which the papists themsdves split 
upon, and draw upon yourself the same penalty ordained 
for those who alienate the hearts of the subjectB both from 
their prince and rdi^on." To these accusations and 
foul aspersions, Mr. Cartwright, with becoming' chrisliao 
meekness, only said, << I have the word of Gm for ny 
warrant, and the example of the reformed churches for h^ 
guide, in what I have done." Dr. Longworth, on this 
occasion, boldly challenged him to a public disputationi 
but Mr. Cartwright wisely declined. He waa, tLcrefiMPe, 
dismissed without receiving any ecclesiastical censure.* 

Mr. Cartwright was undoubtedly concerned for the 
reformation of the church ; and he laboured, in the moiit 
peaceable manner, to promote it to the utmost of hii 
power. For the accomplishment of this ^eat obiect,^ he 
joined with his brethren in their associations, and united 
with them in perfecting and subscribing the " Book^ of 
Discipline.'*f He was one of the heads in these BMsexniXes^ 
and was sometimes chosen moderator. Though, upon his 
irelease frpm prison, he could not obtain his liberty ia 
preach, but stdl continued under suspension, he omstantly 
attended to his ministerial exerdse in his hoepital, and 

£ reached occasionally at other places, particularly at 
ianbury. His endeavours to carry on the English refoim- 
ption towards perfection, were, considered as a violation of 
established customs, and disobedience to the eccksi^siical 
Jaws ; therefore, in the year 1590, he was summoned to 
appear before the high commission. Previous to his 
appearance before this terrible tribunal,he wrote the fpXkm^ 
ing excellent and generous letter, addressed <^ To the xigU 
worshipful Mr. Puckering, one of her mi^jesty's Serjeants at 
law :"t 

" Having received Mr. Puckering's letter <m Wednesday, 
I came no sooner with it : the cause hath been in patt i 
strain of one of my legs, and in part the importunity of ay 
friends, begging me to stay until I had gotten some abBitgr 
of my leg, to travel with more commodity. And nan that 
I am come to the town, I bring not the letter myself. The 
cause is, that being sent for by a pursuivant, I was loath to 
be attached before I had made my appearance Ifithoat 
4ittachment, and that I might as it were be mine own 

• Baker*! MS. Collec. Tol. zxviii. p. 443, 444. 

+ Neal's Paritans, vol. i. p. 428. 

t Baker*s MS. CoUec. vol. zr. p. 105, 100. 

CAUTWRIGffiT. t61 

Mntti^^ftiit: and partly also because I was Joath that your 
mvour toward me should any way appear to any manner 
tf hurt of youiSy and no. good of iminb. 
. . ^ And now, good sU^ >CDnfessing>my6elf greatly, beholden 
onto you in my behrif and the behalf of .nay wife, my 
faupble desire is, that 1 may yet fiirther^Men unto 
mil in the behalf of the .poor churdh at Warwick, that 
ukely enough may be deprived of all manner of tolorablc 
Ministty, b^h for the goiod of yoiir own family, which is 
^f/xdlj and in r^ard of toth^ poor souls there : that if the 
times will not bear us who are there J10W4 y^ tfieve may 
lie flbcDe such provided, as, «diffiering in judgment fiiom ais, 
9nfey notwithstanding, both in seme good skill and caxe^ 
proceed in the edification of >the oburoh, witliMit bitterness 
wsjlirit against other poor men who acre 'othersidse. minded. 
This I am bolder to«rave at your worship^s hand, as I 
tadentknd, and was glad of, that die town hath 'chosen you 
to the iec<ndership, which mtfy be la, singuhnr means of 
vnidi^ooduiito Ihetewn, and amongst others, that 
ndiich it pleased you to^k wkh me <£ This I was 
dd to write in fear of being severed from doing any 
service there, and yet not known to myself of any 
Iveach of law, whereby 1 may be touclied. Only I fear 
to be conunitted for refusing the oath .er officio taero* Thus 
i iiunibly commend you to the gracious keeping and 
U0Mii« of Gpd in Jesus Christ. May SO, 1590. 
^< Yours to command in the Lbr^ ... 

'1! ^< T^okAS CARTlPltlt}!!^'' 

Thus our divine prepared for.^be approachvig stornu 
Xfe im tmtnediaJtel^ convened before the bigh commission^ 
JttdL'CiHt into prison.; "and, September 1st, in thos year, 
iktriu^one articlesiwere exhibited against him, the substance 
nf *TOich is the following : 

2. That Mr. Cartwright, being lawfdllv made tdeaedw 
according to the church of En^and, hath forsakien and 
mumnGm Che same. 

- S. That, to Bhew his yccdkcatpi of tins cfdUngi, be Jiath 
obtained a new ordination in foreign parts, not according to 
ilie4«WB ecclesiastical ot this realm. 
. 3. That, by virtue of this vocation, he hath established 
it Antwerp and Middleburg, a ceiiftain presbytery wad 
aidciiliipi' ^eccVssiasticaL 

4. That, by the said eldership, certain persons, beu^ 
Englishmen^ were ordained to be ministers, not accoiding 
|p tb^lhiiii ^cplep)i|8ticHl of this realm. 


b. That this ddership, so established, hath used eccle- 
siastical ceosures. 

6. That. the said Thomas Caitwright, in.his pnblic 
ministnr there, hath not used the Book of Commoa nayer, 
but bonformed to some of the foreign churches. 
^ 7. That since his return Irom beyond seas, he hath pro- 
mised, to the utmost of his power, to promote the peao^ of 
the church* 

8. That he, having no ministry in this church, and 
-without any license, hath taken upon him to preadi at 
Warwick and other places. 

, 9. That at sundry times, he hath shewed his dislike of 
the government of this church, and various parts of .the 
liturgy ; and hath persuaded others to do the same. 

10. That he hath traduced and spoken against the 
bishops, and other governors of this charch. 

11. That he hath such hatred against them, he bath 
prayed publicly to this effect : ^^ B^use they who on^t 
to be pillars in the church, do bend themselves agaimt 
Christ, and his truth, O Lord, give us grace, and power, all 
as one man, to set ourselves against them." 

13. That at sundry times and places he hath spokea 
against the laws, government, orders, prayers, and ooe- 
monies.of the church. 

! 13. That preaching at the baptism of one of Job 
Throgmonton's children, he spoke much in justification,^ 
government by the eldership m every coogr^tion. 

14. That he could not endure those who defended the 
laws, government, and orders of the church. 

15. That in his sermons at Warwick and dacwhm^ 
be hath often delivered many frivolous and: indiscreet 

16. That by his persuasions, sundry persons refiised'io 
give thanks after child-birth, accoiding to the onkr 

17. That at sundry times, when he communicated at tho 
liord's supper, he sate, or stood upon his feet, and pasoaded 
others to do the same. 

18. That before the bishop he spoke in justification of 
these things ; and declared the Book of C^mm<m Prayer 
was not es^blished by law. 

19. That in contempt of the ecclesiastical authority,^le 
hath preached since he was under the sentence: of .sos- 

SO. That his man-iservant having abastaid child fathered 


.^iipon him, he caused him to perfiwm penance, taking upon 
him the authority of the ordinaiy. 

*. SI. That he and some others have kept diyers public 
fieuta, and have invited more to join them, without the 
adthojity of* the queen. 

• '£8. That since he came to Warwick, he hath caused 
ABUich faction, by distinguishing the people into godly and 

r 23. That he doth know who were the writers, printers, or 
dispersers of the writings mider the name of Martin Mar- 

* S4f. That being asked his opinion of these books, he 
•insinuated, that as the bishops would not amend by grave 
-writings, it was meet they should be dealt with to their 
fgreat shame and reproach. 

25. That he penned or procured to be penned, all or 
tome part, of- the book, entitled DisctpHna Ecclesice sacra 

"Wrbo Dei descrij^a; and he recommended the same to the 

jndgment and censure of others. 

. 1^. That the said Thomas Cadwright and sundry others 
have met in assemblies, termed synods, in London, Ojcfcnrd, 

^CSambridge, Warwickshire, Northamptonshire, &c. 
^'87.: That at such synods, it hath been concluded|^^that 
all ministers should subscribe the said ^^ Book o£ iJisci- 

•pline," and be governed by it. 

; 88. That at such synods, a moderator was by him and 

-them chosen, according to the order of the said book. 

' 89. That at such assemblies, he did, with others, dispute 

upon <3ertain articles, and set down their determinations. 

. 30. That he, with others, in an assembly at Cambridge, 

.did conclude upon certain decrees, which were afterwa^dls 
considered and allowed at Warwick. 

I 31. That all the proceeding^ of such meeting have 

;beeii set down, fi-om time to time, by the said Thomas 
Cartwright and others.* 

These articles are presented to the reader as a curious 

"jpecimen of -the charges alleged against the puritans, that 
he may judge of their evil nature and dangerous tendency. 
Wa may suppose this long list of crimes contains all the 
evil things that even his enemies could hiins a^inst him.^ 
They were exhibited against Mr. Cartwright by Bishop 

•Aylmer and other commissioners, who required hun to take 
the oath ex officio. He, indeed, offered to clear himself of 

• Fnller's Cbnrch Hiif. b. iz. p. 108— SOS. 


The above prisoners, in answer to the charges broiigbt 
against them, maintained, ^' .That their associations weie 
^rery nsefiil, and not forbKlden by any law of the realm :— • 
That they exercised no jurisdictioni nor moved any seditiooy 
nor transacted any afiairs, inconsistent with their duty to 
their prince, and the peace of the church: — That they had 
agreed upon some regulations to render their ministry moie 
profitable, but all was voluntary, and in breach of no law :— » 
And as to the oath, they refused it, not in C(mtempt of the 
court, but as contrary to the laws of God and natare.*'*^ 
fiut their answers proving unsatisfactory, they were sept 
back to prison, where they continued two years without 
any further process, or being admitted to.bail. 

During their confinement in prison, Kinf James of Scot- 
land, afterwards the inveterate enemy to &e puritanis, in a 
letter to Queen Elizabeth, dated June 12, 1591, warmly 
interceded for them. In this letter, the king most earnestly 
requested her. majesty to shew favour to Mr. Curtwright 
and his brethren, on account of their great learning and 
fiuthiul travek in the gospel.f Mr. Uartwri^t himsdl^ 
being exceedingly afHicted with the gout and sciatica, which 
were much increased by lying in a cold prison, petitioned for 
fais liberty. He wrote a most bumble and pious letior lo 
I^ady Russel, and another to Treasurer Buridgh, ~ 
them to intercede with the queen for his enlargement, 4 
it were upon bond. He expressed, on this occanOn, 
very great concern, that her majesty should be so highfy 
otEsmed at him, seeing he had printed no books for the last 
thirteen years, that could give the least uneasinesB; aod 
having already declared his dislike of Martin Mar-Prelate^ 
and tmit he never had a hand in any of the bo(du wider Us 
name, nor in any other satirical pamphlets; ai^l that in the 
course of his ministry at Warwick, during the last fivd 
years, he had avoided all controversy.^ Dr. Ckxid, Jhr. 
Whitaker,. and other celebrated persons, wrote an ezcellentt 
letter to the treasurer, in favour of the prisoners, eamesliy 
beseeching that they might not be more hardly dealt wiA 
than papists.^ After waiting six months Imiger, tliey pie* 
suited a petition to the lords of the council, dated DeDUiiber 
4, 1591, to:bc enlarged upon bail. They wrote, at die 
same time, to the treasurer, with their request that he wovl4 

• Baker'6 MS. CoUec. toI. xt. p. 148-^152, 
+ Faller*8 Church Hist. b. i j. p. ^OS, 204. 
i Slrype'8 Aonals. vol. iy. p. 48 — 53. 
^ Strype*s Whitgift, AppeB.p. 135,.I66. 


forward it, assaring bim of their loyalty to the queen, and 
their peaceable behaviour in the church. ^^ We doubt not,'* 
*< Bay they, ^' but your lordship is sensible, that a yearns 
<^ imprisonmoit and more, must strike deeper into our 
<' healths, considering our manner of life, than a number of 
^^ years to men of a different occupation. Your lordship 
^ knows, that many papists, who deny the queen's supre- 
'^'macy, have been enlarged ; whereas we have all sworn to 
^ it; and if the govemment so require, are ready to take 
'< the oath again. This petition was subscribe by th« 
ibilowing ministers, all prisoners for the truth of Christ : 

Thomas Cartwright, Edward Lord, 

Humphrey Fenn, Edmund Snaps, 

Andrew King, William Proudlove, 

Daniel Wight, Melanchton Jewel.* 
John Patne, 

The prisoners also applied to the archbishop, who re* 
fiiaed to consent to their enlargement, unless they would, 
under their own hands, declare the church of EIngland to be 
a true church ; that tl^ whole order of public prayers and 
.ceremooies might be lawfully observed ; and renounce in 
fhtme all their assemblies, classis, and synods, as unlawful 
and seditious ; which they utterly declined.f These applica* 
tioos piOYing ineffectual, they resolved at length to aadress 
the queen herself; for which purpose they drew up a de- 
cliumtioii, dated April, 1592, containing an impartial state- 
ment of their case, and a full answer to the several charges 
brought against them.) Notwithstanding all these endea- 
vouTB, Mr. Cartwright did not obtain his release for some 
time. But at length, by the favour of the archbishop, who 
it was said, <^ feared the success of so tough a conflict fH he 
was released upon promise of his quiet and peaceable be* 
berionr, and restored to his hospital at Warwick, where h» 
made his promise good,] and continued without further mo* 
lestation the rest of his days. His fellow-prisoners were 
ndeased most probably about the same time ; but of this we 
luive obtained no certain information. It is, indeed, ob* 
served of Mr. Cartwright and his brethren, << That it pleased 
Grod so to order it, that those very witnesses who were 
brought to accuse them, did so clear them, that they were 

• Strype*! Annab, vol. !▼. p. 72, 73. 

f Strype'i Wbitgift, p. S70i App«a. p. ISS— IM. 

^ Strype*! Aooab, vol. i?. p. 85---01. 

iFaller't CliorGh Hist. b. is. p. 20i. 
P^vIb*s Wkitf ifl, p. 7«. 


dismissed and'seut home, much more honoured and beloved 
than before/'* 

The pardon and release of Mn Cartwright and. his 
brethren was procured of the queen, as Sir George Bank 
asserts, by the intercession of Archbishop Whitgill. Jl^ 
also observes, that when Mr. Cartwright was freed from hdl 
troubles, he often rispaired to the archbishop, who lased him 
kindly, and for several years tolerated his preaching at 
Warwick, upon his promise not to impugn the hiws, orders^ 
and government: of the church of LngkUid, but psomcit&^ 
JxAh publicly and privately, tlie estimation and'peace of tlM 
same. With these terms, it* is said, he complied. Not* 
withstanding, when the queen understood that he preached 
again, though in a temperate manner, according to his pro* 
mise, she would not permit him any longer without sub- 
scription; and she was not a Uttlc displeased with the arch- 
bishop for his past.connivance.f 

l^hough Mr. Cartwright never groaned any more under 
the iron rod of persecution, his cuaracter was afterwards 
slanderously aspersed. Many writers of the episcopal 

Eirty, have reproached him as being concerned with 
acKet, Coppinger, and Arthin^n, in their mad conspiracy 
and other singularities. This reproach was, however^ 
made abundantly manifest, to the great honour of Mr. Cart- 
wright and his brethren, and the shame of their enemiies; 
He published an '^ Apology" of himself, a^inst the slanders 
of Dr. Sutcliff ; and, says my author, << I have Mr. Gsut^ 
Wright's own answer to Dr. Sutcliff, in manuscript, WbicH 
doth so fully confute the shameful ^story of hisxonfederaqy 
with these men, as will shame the slanderer to any impartial 
reader.''^ Fuller himself acquits Mr. Cartwright wA his 
brethren in these words : " True it is," says he, " they as 
cordially detested Hacket's blasphemies, as any of the epis? 
copal party; and such of them as loved Hacket the nonam" 
formist, abhorred Hacket the heretic^ after he had mounted 
to so high a pitch of impiety/'^ 

Mr. Cartwright, in his old age, was much afflicted wi^ 
the stone and gout, by lying in cold prisons ; yet he did not 
i^linquish his public labours ; but continued to preach wlien^ 
with the utmost difficulty, he could scarcely creep into iip 
pulpit. The Lord's day before his death, he preached hb 
last sermon, from Eccl. xii. .7. — Then shall the dust return 
to the earthy and the spirUishall return to God who gave d* 

• Clark*! Uvea, p. 18. • + Faale's Whitgift, p. 70~^i. 

t MS. Remarkt, p. 170. S CburcliUipt. b^ ix. p. SOS. 


The Tuesday morning following, after spending tiyo bourn 
apon bis knees in private prayer, be signified to Mrs. Cart-^ 
wrigfat that he haa found unutterable joy and comfort, and 
that Grod bad given bim a glimj^ of heaven before bis de-^ 
parture; and in a few hours be departed in peace, enjoying 
the salvation of Jesus Christ He died December 27, 1603; 
aged sixty-eight years.* His mortal remains were interred 
in his own hospital at Warwick, when Mr. John Dod 
preached his funeral sermon. He married the sister of th« 
fiimous Mr. John Stubbs, whom he left to bemoan her paiii>i^ 
fill loss. 

During the whole of his life, Mr. Cartwright was- ind^* 
fiitigably laborious. He was a constant preacher when be 
enjoyed his liberty. During his abode at Warwick, besides 
taking the most exact care of the hospital, he often preached 
at both die churches on the Lords day, and at one off 
them, on the Saturday. This he did without receivin|f 
any reward for his services. It does not, therefore^ 
appear very probable, that before his death be was grown 
rtchj as some of our historians insinuate ;f especially as the 
income, of his hospital was only about one hundred pounds 
aryear. • Indeed, ne was not concerned to be rich in thit 
world. For. when he was. preacher to the merchants at 
Antwerp^ and found by their losses that their estates were 
decreased, he returned them the salary which they allowed 
him. And when he was a prisoner in the Fleet, a present 
of thirty pounds was sent him by one of the nobility, but he 
todk only ten shillings, returning the rest to the donor, with 
Huiny thankful adknowledgments. Also, when the Earl of 
Leicester ofiered him the provostship of Eton college, say* 
ing, it was one hundred pounds more than enough, besides 
the conveniency of the place ; Mr. Gaitwright replied, ^^ that 
the hundred pounds more than enough was enough for bim.^f 

Few persons whose names are handed down to posterity 
hove beien treated by party historians with greater misre^ 
prese n ta t ion and abuse. Some of them have vaitured to inti^^ 
mate, that before bis death be changed his sentiments about 
nonconformity ; for which, however, there is no certain evi* 
dence; at least, they have produced none. Dugdale call^l 
ham tfauB standaid-bearer of the puritans, and says, he was the 
first in the church of England, who began to pray extem- 
pore before sermon* Mr. Strype very unjustly denominates 

« Clark^sLives, p. SI. 

4- Fuller*! Charch Hist. b. z. p. 2.— Chartoo*s Life of Nowell, p. 916. 

t Clark's Livei, p. 18— SI . 


bim, <^ the first broacher of piuitianisin."* Mr. Clark^ wW 
treats his memory with great impartiality, says, >< he was 
hard student, cootinuing his assiduity and close applicatiQiif 
to the end of his days. Although, on account of exaessivtl 
pains and bodUy infirmities, be was obliged, towards the 
close of life, to study continually upon his Knees, he rose ak 
usual, at three o^clock in the morning; which practice h^ 
continued to the last. His humility and meekness weienail 
the least conspicuous features in his character. He was fin 
from courting the applause of men ; nor could he endnie tid 
hear himself commended, or to hear any titles ascribed tc 
himself, which at all savoured of ambition. Though be 
was uncommonly popular, he did not seek popularity, but 
laboured to avoid it as much as possible. With these 
thoughts of himself, it is added, he could not endureta. 
hear even his adversaries reproached ; and if any pmBom, 
spoke disgracefully of them in his presence, he . wouU 
sharply reprove them, saying, ^ It is a christian's dntyly 
pray for his enemies, and not to reproach them.' "f Vnf|^ 
what degree of truth then does a late writer assert, <^ thatljk 
was highly conceited of his own talents and learning l'!| 
Indeed, his highest ambition was to debase himselt^ moA Ift 
advance the ^ory and kingdom of Jesus Christ He lOM 
an acute disputant, an acfmired preacher, and eminenHlf. 
liberal, especially to poor scholars ; and, says Fuller, ^,it 
was most pious ana strict in his convenation, a vm 
Latinist, an accurate Grecian, an exact Hebrean^ anioyiK 
short, a most excellent scholar."^ . •;; < 

Notwithstanding all these excellent .qualifications^ U 
piety, his learning, and his good sense are most wana^ 
censured by a modem writer. He charges Mr. Cartwri^ 
in his correspondence with Sir Michael Hickes, with sayug, 
^^ that prayer was as it were a bunch of k^s, whereby ne 

g 9 to all the treasures and storehouses of the Lord; Ml 
utteries, his pantries, his cellars, his wardrobe.? Mr. GhIU 
Wright might use these words in a familiar correspcmdcoeef 
aniT what does it prove? This, it is readily admitted, wii 
too much the taste of those times : but our author makif 
ahnost every 4;hing that is bad of these few words. Foctt 
immediately bredu forth into a strain of most triumphMl 

: iff 

• Stripe's Whit^ift, p; 554.— Fuller*! Cbarch Hiit; b. z. p. S.— DvgdiMI 
Aotiq. of Warwiduhire, vol. i. p. 443. Edit. 1780.— Scry pc*s PwfcflTi 
Pref. p. 6. 

f Clark's Liv«f^ p. 1»H21. t Chnrton's Uie of Nowdl, p.^Uft 

S Ckarch Hiit. b. z. p. 8. 


iBtenonlion, saying, ^^ Does fiinaticisBi cxtin^ruiNh aU UMt 
and juugiuent? or is it only in minds original i^ i^x^ak* tliai 
the infection can fix itself? Which ever ^-av the reader 
nay solve the problem, he wiU naturally aslu \l*as this (he 
man that was to improve what had been done by Cranmer 
and Ridley, by Parker and Nowell, and their <>nadjtttat« ? 
to give us a form of worship more pure and edifyinj^, nxH^ 
dignified and devout ?'* But this eloquent calunmiaior does 
jttt stop here. lie felt the poetic flame arise ; and theivfoir 
Jamediately asks,* 

** Is this the region, this the soil, this the clime. 

That wc mniit change for heaven T this mournliil gtoom 

For that celestial light T 

We do confess, that so much bombast, scurrility, and 
hue-faced misrepresentation were scarcely ever found 
within so small a compass. The reader will at the sune 
time easihrperceiyc, tliat the whole is designed to extol the 
church of Edigland, if not above perfection, at least beyond 
the possibility of amendment ; and to blacken the character 
and displace the memory of that man, who was justly 
esteemed one of the most celebrated divines of the age in 
lAich he lived. But whether the treatment which Mr. 
Cartwrigbt received, was not extremely unjust and cruel ; 
and wb^ber it does not stand as a monument of lasting' 
reproach to those prelates who took an active part in pro- 
moting it, is left with every impartial reader to judge. Dr. 
Thomas Cartwright, bishop of Chester in the reign of 
James II., and who went the most uifamous lengths in sup- 
port of that monarch's measures, is thought, with some ap« 
peanmce of probability, to have been the grandson of our 

. Bk WoBSJ, in addition to those whose tiUes have been already 
iNcirf^i. A Brief Apulo^' ai^ainst all such Slanderous AccuMatkini 
^Ufitmaelk Mr. Sutclifl', in hU iMOuplilettt, moti iiijuriuuHly to load 
fawtth, 1S0C.— 2. A Body of Divinity, WW.-^. A Cuiil'utatioii of 
tke UmM* Traaalatioii, Olowies, and Auuotalions on the New 
i0l(l«— 4. Cummentaria practica iu tutain JliKtorlam 
^aatotiriivaiigeiiitlik Larmonire coiK-iiiJiatani. MViO. 
of tius work wah urintcd at Auislfrdarii, iu (017, 
Evai]||;eUca, Commf.'iitario. (Uiahlicri, rtj«'U^ 
■itrata , fac^/J — 5. Crmim^'r-Vdiii 'su«-«iii«ii ^c 
I, M88^-^. M«.'Ulphra^i^ tw liotnihv' in 
k, 1047 ■ -7. 01ooM;fc jmd 

IblfflU t IM p. Wj 


Bdward Philips, A.^M.^ — ^Tbis lealons pw i t aB ' 
educated in Pembroke ocdkge, Oxford. Attenmds ht 
settled in London, and became preacher at St. SaTionrX 
Southwark, wheie be had a large congregaiioD, mostly pa* 
sons of puritan principles, bj whom, savi Wood, w wss 
esteemed ^< a person zealous for the tmth of God, pivwcr* 
ful in his calling, faithful in his ministry, careful of his flock, 
peaceable and blameless in his life, and 'constant and con- 
fertable in his death.'* And suiely the people of his own 
particular charge were as likely to know these thincs as-tirf 
others. Our author denominates him a zealous GalYinist, 
an avpwed enemy to popery, and constantly bboriout in the 
propagation of puritanism and practical religieo.* 

His excellent endowments were not, indeed, a suflicieDt 
protection a^inst the oppressions of the times. For^ inths 
year 1596, he was cited before Archbishop Whiteift and 
other high commissioners, wlien he was suspended nom hu 
ministry and committed to the Gatehouse. The crimes far 
which he was thus .punished, were contained in the fidlow* 
ing articles : — 1. <^ That he broke the order appmnted, bj 
preaching on a Thursday y instead of Wednesday^ which was 
appointed to be observed as a day of fasting and prayer.— 
9. That by preaching on Thursday, he turned a daif of le* 
joicing and feasting mto a day of mourning and absonence; 
which, by hindering hospitality, made the case wme.— 
S. Hiat be continued the service much too tongj even jBromnine 
o'clock till one.— 4. That as soon asrthe service was cndedi 
he very schismatically led many people to hear Mr. Qiown; 
ham's sermon. — ^5. That he agreed with Mr. Downham to 
keep his exercise with festing in die afternoon.'^ ^Tfafsc 
were the marvellous charges au^ged against him, for y^iiA 
he met with the above oppressive treatment. Ourleaiiied 
htslorian, indeed, says, <^ It is but jiut to observe, AatHr. 
Philip did observe the Wednesday j only he preached on 
the Thursday, because, being his regular lecture day, he vas 
likely to have a larger congr^tion: that he went not to 
Mr. Downham's church till an Sour and a half after he lied 
finished at his own : that when he went he had onl v the 
company of Mrs. Ratcliff mid his fellow minister, and bsth 
their wives ; and that he did not persuade Mr. Downhamio 
keep his exercise in the afternoon; but he had purposed w 
to do, even before he spoke to him about it, as Mr. Dowv* 
ham himself confessed before the hieh commissianeni*'^^ ' 

♦ Wood's Atbenae Oxon. voLI. p. STO, S71. 
+ Sirype'g Wbitgift, p. 400, 491. 

.: % PHII^IPS— MIDGLEY. i 163 

¥nm tbk impeitial statement, it may be doubted M4iether 
io^escoeUeiit and useful a ndnister of Christ was ever sus- 
Imided and cast into prison upon such trivial and ridiculous 
chugiBB before* 

rt It does not appear how l(nig the good man continued in 
lk«lftte' of confinement. If his persecutors considered the 
^bUre charges so dangerous to the episcopal authority and 
ihe charch c^ England, as to justify their proceedings, he 
njgiit remain a lopg time. He died about the year 1603. 
Mr. Philips most probably never published any thing him- 
self; but after his death, in 1605, Sir Henry Yelverton, 
afterwards judge, who having been his coiistant hearer, had 
taken down some of his sermons as they were delivered, 
mblished a tolunfe, entitled, ^' Two and tirirty godly and 
feuned Sermons."* 

jt ■ 

'. .(Mr. Midgley was many years vicar of Rochdale in 
Lancashire, and a man of high reputation in his tiine. He 
ia denmninated a grave and godly minister, whose praise 
was -ifreat in the gospeLf In the year 1585, he was ap- 
poiiit^ by the Bishop of Chester, to be one of the modera- 
ton of -thd religious exercises in that diocese.} He was 
gKffOy admired and beloved by the puritans. Dr. Chad- 
oMon maide mention of him, at the Hampton-court con- 
jcnotee, in 1603. He requested on that occasion, that the 
Hearing of the surplice, and the use of the cross in baptism, 
niffbt not be urged upon certain ministers in Lancashire, 
and paiticularly upon the vicar of Rochdale. The request 
WA no sooner presented, than Archbishop Whitgift replied, 
Mtylng, '^ You could not have light upon a worse. For not 
lAaoy years ago it was proved l^fore me, that by his irre- 
}rereiit usage of the eucharist, in dealing the bread out of a 
fmsk^if every one putting in his hand and taking out a 
pfeoe, .be noade many loathe the communion, and refuse to 
ONne to church."^ His grace in this statement was certainly 
miitaken. It could not be Mr. Midgley 's ^^ irreverent usage 
<f 'the eucharist,*' in the way described, but their own igno- 
nnoe, bigotry, and superstition, which produced those evils. 
jjl Bfr* Imdgley was the pious and laborious minister of 
fUiebdale nearly fifty years, and is said to have been instru- 

* Wood's AtheosD Oxon. vol. i. p. 277. 

"f Clark*8 Lives aonexed to Martyrologip, p. 68. 

1 Strype's AoDals, toI. ii. Appen. p. 75. 

S Fbller*! Cburch Hist. b. x. p. SO. 


inental in ibe conrersion of thousands of soob; yet he mi 
silenced and deprived by the Bishop of ChesCiCT for noooim* 
formity.* He was the happy means in the conyenion €€ 
Mr. Richard Rothwell, another worthy puritan diyhie. 
Mr. Jdidgley's son was also vicar of Rochdale, and a man of 
distinguished eminence. He presented <^ The Abridppmut 
of the Lincolnshire Ministers' Reasons'* to Bishop BwrtoiL 
who afterwards puUished an answer to it. Both rather and 
son were deprived for nonconformity. The latter, afber hiit 
deprivation, turned physician, and was afierwaida pioae? 
cuted for refusing to kneel at the sacrament, t 

William Hubbock, A. M. — He was bom in the caaaij 
of Durham, in the year 1560, and educated first in Mag' 
dalen-hall, then in Corpus Christi collie, Oxford. After* 
wards entering upon the sacred function, says the Oxfind 
historian, he was in great repute for his learning ;t and '^ he 
jnight have added, that he was a divine of distinguished 
worth, on account of his .christian piety, his excelkttt! 
preaching, and his manifold labours ; and that he was lugUj 
esteemed and admired by some of the most worthy pcfr 
sons in the nation. Mr. Strype denominates him one of 
Mr. Cartwrighf s fraternity, yet a modest nonconfonnisit. ' 
^ In the year 1590, Mr. Hubbock was cited before Aick* 
bishop Whitgift, and other high commissioners, at Lombetlii 
when he was charged with having preached a sennani «t 
Oxford, in which he made some reflections upon a certaxBi 
great person (this was the archbishop,) which the cmttmi^^ 
sioners held to be undutiful and seditious. He was thensfixe 
required, as a just punishment of his crime, to enter into 
bonds that he would preach no more, nor come again .wjthio 
. ten miles of Oxford. Upon the proposal of these demand^ 
he thus replied, in the presence of hisju^^ees: << I cannot^ 
with a safe conscience, enter into any such bondsjuor do 
any thing by which I should willingly exclude myself 'fiom 
ihe exercise of my ministry. Nevfsrtheless, if I must betiiit 
to silence, I had rather be committed to prison, than ihos 
silence myself; especially unless I had committed. -sioivt 
faiSt, by preai^iiig some false doctrine, or by pubUahlpK 

some offence, for which I justly deseryed to be puniahtt). 
Whitgift;, at the same time^ required him to subscribe, siff- 
^fy^y ^^U ^ be would comply, he should be disniusM, 

• Borges*! Aatwer Rijoinedy p. S18. Edit. IHSI. 

f PHet*i Defeocey Flrtf. i Wood*i Athems Oiob. ?o1. !• p. 881. 



and his troubles endeck Bat the good man refused sub- 
abt^tfton, as urell as entering into bonds; and, accordingljr, 
ttioeived the ecclesiastical censure.* 

' , In Ibis state of perplexity and distress, Mr. Hubbock 
inade application to Sir Francis Knollys; who, most 
Wifndj. espousing his cause, immediately, wrote to the Lord 
xtoaunn^r Burleigh, recommending his distressing case to 
Uir IcH]Gbhip*s consideration. But the zealous intercessions of 
uicse great statesmen were of no avail whatever. Whitgift 
sbd his brethren had passed a decree against Mr. Hubbock, 
ivbfch, like the laws of the Medes and Persians, could not 
be altered. With this decree, however, the treasurer was 
much displeased. Though our learned historian has 
altogether failed in saying what the decree was, we may 
cftnJj conjecture, that, as it proceeded from Lambeth, and 
'wni a^inst a divine of puritan principles, it savoured not 
of the things of Jesus Christ. 

. 'Bbt tlie treasurer did not immediately relinquish the cause 
qf this imuiied servant of Christ. One repulse frpm the arch- 
HfailiOp- did not discourage him. Beholding the severity 
wlBk indhioh the good man was treated, he still took his part, 
fhA lyiote again to the archbishop, boldly declaring, '^ That 
w* Hobbbck had committed no offence, only he had said 
in his sermon, that a great nobleman (meaning the arch-. 
bishop) had kneeled down to her majesty^ for staying and 
hhtderittg, her intent to reform religion.^' Sir Francis Knollys 
illfay wrote again to the treasurer in these words: ^< Vou 
)di€iw how greatly and how tyrannically the archbishop 
Jfarth jurgcd subscriptidn to his own articles without law ; and 
llia^ lu^T^as claimed a right of superiority in the bishops 
ifferfhe inferior clergy, from God's pwa prdinance, to the 
great injury of her majesty's supreme government. Though 
at preset he does nqi profess to clai[n it ; yet I think he 
mi^t openly to retract it."f 

l!pe worthy endeavours of these illustrious statesmen 
pfcrred altogether ineffectual. The iiiflexible prelates 
"tliAiild not uter their . purpose. The ^ood man cpn- 
fi$i|ed qnder the sentence of his spirituq.1 judfes ; but how 
Idbgi or whether he was ever restored, pur niaterials fail to 
ittofcd sufficient information. Mr. Hubbock published 
^An Oiation Gratulatory upon King Japies's Coronation," 
IfKM; and several sermons. 

> Strjpe'i Wkit|;irt, p. 841. f Ibid. p. 841, S4S, 


Thomah Carew Has bom of (he ancient and "worthy 
femily of his name in Cornwall, educated in the unrveisity 
of Oxford, and, entering upon the sacred function^ became 
a frequent and zealous preacher. He received ordination 
from the Bishop of Worcester, and \?as licensed by Arch- 
bishop Grindal and Bishop Aylmer, from whom, on 
account of his excellent preaching, he received high com- 
mendations. He afterwards became minister at Haitfidd 
Peverel, in Essex; but having acquainted the bishop by 
letter, that in the county of Essex, within the compass of 
sixteen miles, there were twenty-two nonresidents, thirty 
insufhcicnt and scandalous ministers, and, at the same time, 
nineteen ministers silenced for refusing subscription, Ms 
lordship, instead of being pleased with the information, 
convened Mr. Carew before the high commi^on, and 
charged him, without the smallest evidence, with setting up 
a presbytery, and contenming ecclesiastical censures. It 
was further alleged against him, ^< That he was chpseq'by 
the people; that he had defaced the Book of Conunoti 
Prayer ; that he denied that Christ descended into tbe 
regions of the danmed ; and that he kept persons from fle 
conununion, when there was more need to allure them to 
it."* These charges beu3g brought against him, the bislic^ 
;to make short of it, tendered him the oath ex officio; upon 
the refusal of which ]Vfr. Carew was immediately committed 
to the Fleet, and another minister sent to supply the phce. 
ttis successor was soon found guilty of adultery; and 
when the parishioners petitioned Bi^op Aylmer for his 
removal, and the restoration of their former minister, Ids 

frace said, ^^ That he would not, for all the living lit 
ad, put a poor man out of his living for the fiict cf 

Mr. Carew having left an account of his troubles^ Hi ifi 
hear him speak for himself. " The bishop," says he, ** fiirt 
granted me a license to preach, and much commended mj 
preaching; but afterwards^ upon the complaint of sedMt 
.enemies, lie sent for me, and took it from ine. Befbrei Iluid 
been at Hatfield above seven weeks, because I woiiild not 
wear the surplice, he suspended me, and I continued under 
suspension half a year. My parishioners were at coilsidh';- 
able expense and trouble in presenting many supplicqtiQns 
unto him, that I might be released from suspension and 
restored to my ministry, but without success. Afterwards 

* ■ * ^ 

« MS. Register, p. 651, 652.— Strype's Aylmer, p. 180, 181. 
-f MS. Regiiter, p. 659, 654. 

CAREW. 167 

I' weot to his lonkhip mrself, to know the reasons of his 
diipleasure; and when I said I would yield in all things 
acrording to the word of God, he replied, < That addition, 
according to the word of God, is your knavish trick; but 
jrcm shall observe all things.^ At length," says Mr. Carew, 
5< ia about a tweWemonth after, by the kind favour of one 
^Ji0 was intimate with the bjshop, my liberty was obtained, 
lifeverthdiess, by further, complaints of known enemies, I 
jnm again suspended; ^d after I was cleared by my 
judges, I obtained my release from suspension. Soon after 
this, I was again brought into trouble ; and refusing to fake 
ihe oath to answer their articles against myseU^ I was 
ixmmutted to the Fleet."* His commitment was dated 
November 16, 1585. 

Mr. Carew, and Mr. AU^, his patron, were both com- 
;aaitted to prison at the same time. They both offered bail, 
-iHit it iras refused. Afterwards, it was offered them by the 
Ixtthon, /Upon these conditions : ^^ That Allen, the patron, 
woula not disturb the minister who was appointed to preach 
jfljeie, nor disquiet him in reading the service ; and that 
ICr. Calvw would prea<;h no more in his diocese, without a 
^irflier lioense/'f These conditions did nol^ however, 
aeet their approbation. During their imprisonment in the 
fjlee^ 'Hba. Clarew presented a supplication to the queen, for 
ihe idease of her husband, in which she addressed her 
JDDqcsty as follows : — << This most humbly beseecheth your 
jVnost royal majesty, to relieve the distrained state of your 
foot hai^nmid, who sueth to your highness in behalf of 
Aer husband, a minister of the gospel, who hath been 
apcused by certain papists, and who incensed the Bishop of 
l^ondoh Mainst him. And for refusing to subscribe to two 
of thearcmbishop'fl articles, which appear to him to be con* 
to iheword of God and the laws of the realm, the bishiqp 
.liatB suspended, deprived, and twice committed him to 
miai(fik ; and hath now a third time conunitted him, because 
Be,jf uiiwillii^ to give up preaching till the bishop license 
Jm^. . Whereforo, I heartily beseech your majesty, that 
jnoOtiriU flet my. husband ai liberty ; that, by preaching the 
word, he may fiirther instruct the people now to pray for 
rtfae. present peace and. everlasting felicity *of ycKii most 
''C»beilent inij^y.''}: ^ 

Mr: Cardw and his worthy patron, having suffered impri* 
souQcot for some time, made application to the privy council, 

• MS. Regiiter, p. 653—655. f Strype*s Ajflmer, p. Ilil, 18S. 

t MS. Rciiiter, p. 6S8» 650. 


and ivere both released from prison. This so greatly dia- 
pleued Bishop AyUner, thai he sent to the council a Tiefy 
BD&y letter, calling the prisoners hunes^ rebds^ ratee&j 
ftmsj petty gentlemen^ precisionsy &c. ;» and told their 
Donours, iiiat if such men were countenanced, he mint 
yield up his authority. But the bishop never left our pious 
divine till he bad hunted him out of his diocese, f Mn 
Carew was author of ^^ Several Sennons/' 1603; iemd 
<< Four Godly Sermons/' 1605. He was living at Uie 
period last mentioned. 

George Co RYAT, B. D. — ^He was bom at Salisbury^ 
educated in grammar leamine at Wickham school, and 
admitted perpetual fellow of New College, Oxford. Jn the 
year 1566, when Que^ Elizabeth visited the university, he,^ 
together with Mr. William Rainolds, received her majesty 
and her train at New CoU^ ; on that occasiim he de- 
livered an oration, for whicn he received great apfdaiue 
and a handsome purse of gold.t . He afterwards took Iris 
degrees; and, in 1570, became rector of Odcomb,' in 
Soidersetshire, where he continued to the end of his days. 
In 1594, he was preferred to the prebend of Warthd, in 
the cathedral of York. 'He was a perscm much admiied 
for his refined taste in Latin poetry, and his excellent- phH 
ductions are often quoted by the learned men of niqte 
times. He died at Odcomb, March 6, 1606, and liis 
remains were intened in the chancel of his own church. 
Wood denominates him a most accomplished scholar, and 
an excellent and admired poet ;^ but says, he was a poritaii, 
and no true son of the church of England.) Mri Coiyat 
had a son called Thomas, author of << Crudities ;^liaisfily 

Sobled up in five Months Travels," and some other pieoes; 
ut was a man of great eccentricity, having much learajni^ 
especially in the original and eastern languages,'but wanted 
judgment. He travelled through a great ^But of Eumei 
and the various countries of ue east, on foot; and :m»- 
tinguished himself by walking nine hundred miles in ope 

* While this tyraooical prelate abased and penecated .the plooi tfi , 
■sefol paritam with the ataost cruelty, be made his own porter ■ilBy^i' 
PlAddiogtoo, who, io a few years, through blindness and old afe» bcM« 
tnable to serve the cure.— S«ry|i0*« Aylmer^ p. 818, SIS. 

f Strype*s Aylmer, p. 188.-- Neal's Hist, of Paritam, tqL I« p. M^ ' 

i Biog. Britan. vol. It. p. 873. Edit. 1778. 

4 Wood's Hist, et AnUq. lib. ii. p. 141. . * | 

I Wbad*0 AtbeoK Ozeo. vol. U p. 886, Sift, ... - ^ . H 




Siir of shoes, which, as he infonns us^ he got mended at 
lurich. He did not live, however, to complete hia travels, 
but dUed at Surat in India.* He was* author ci-^^ Poemata 

Vfttia Latina," 1611; wid '^ Descfiptio Angliae. Scotise; 

' Fbanois Trigge, a. M. — ^He was bom in Lincolnshire^ 
in the year 1544, and educated in University college, 
Oxford, where he took his degrees. Aflerwalds, he entered 
upon the christian ministry, and became rector of Welbom, 
near Buckingham. He was the founder of the public 
library at Grantham in Lincolnshire, on the wall of which 
18 a Latin inscription descriptive of his great charity and 
other excellencies. He gave a certain sum to the town of 
Grantham, to be distributed annually among its poor 
inhabitants. He died May 12, 1606, aged sixty-two years ; 
and his remains were interred in tlus chancel of Welbom 
cbuich. Wood styles him a noted and godly preacher^ 
but a very strict puritan.t 

Wb Works. — 1^ An Apology, shewing that the days wherein w« 

livcf are more ^obd and blessed than those of our Forefathers, 1589. — 

^L CkMnment m cap. 12. ad. Rom., 1500. — 3. Ck>mment. in Rev. S. 

. 'JFttli^ UiOO.— 4. Analysis capitis 24 Evangelii secandnm Matthaeuim, 

:1G9^«''=*^ A Sermon preached at Grantham, 1594. — 6. Touchstone of 

SalboUc Faith, 1599.-- 7. The true Catholic formed, according to 
le Troth of the Scriptures, 1602. 

' Percival Wyburn, D. D. — The earliest account w« 
'meet mth of this excellent divine, is in March, 1560, ^hea^ 
tjy an oyderfrom Qishop Grindal, he was ordained by 
Iwhop Davies.t He was chosen proctor of the cathedral 
of Rochester, in the convocation of 1562 ; when he sat in 
'tkat learned assembly, and subscribed the articles of 
.'rdmra.^ During the same year he became prebendary 
' of iVestminster, and, the year following, vicar of St. 
tt^pnlchre's, London.) The last he did not hold very ^ 
1(»g; for in 1564, being convened before Archbishop 
Banier, and refusing subscription, he was sequestered and 
wpnyei.t He remained under his lordship s censure till 

* Wood's AthcBS Oxen. toI. i. p. 968— 362. -Granger's Biog. HitC 
^e|L U. p. 35. . . f Wood's Atbenie, vol. i. p. 883, 284. 

{8ti^pb*s Grindal, p. SO. S Strype's Annaliy toI. i. p. S90. 

Newcoan's Repert. Eccl, TOl. I. p. 634. 
I Sbype's erlndal, p. 98. 


Ibe year 1567, at ^bich tinfe, because he was of tbe number 
of those divines who were styled peaceaUe nonconfiMinistB, 
be was treated with some decree of gentleness^ and ofateiied 
(I license to preach; or, atTeast, a conniranoe to c#nturae 
in the minist^.* 

In the year 1571, he was again convened before the arch- 
bishop and other' high commissioners, at Lambeth, when he 
imderwent an examination. Mr. Christopher Goodman, Mr, 
fldward Deering, and Mr. John Field, were convened at 
the same time. Dr. Wybum, k^ther with his brethren^ 

E resented on this occasion the foUowing proposals to ihm 
irdships : — 1. ^^ I am ready to.subscribe to the true christian 
iaith, and the doctrine of the sacraments, as contained in 
the Book of Articles^*— 8. As to the Book d Common 
Prayer, appointed by public authority, it contains, even as 
you confess yourselves, some imperfections ; and I confess 
the same. Yet, that I may testify my great desire, of 
brotherly concord, I will subscribe to the doctrine of fatith^ 
and administration of the sacraments, in the same bodi ; m 
far as they make for edification, and are agreeable to the lore? 
said .Book of Articles. — And, 3. As to the appard appointed, 
because it seemeth not unto me to be sufficiently antboiizqd 
by the word of Grod, for the ministers to be required to nsc 
i^ I dare not use it, for fear of ofifence, humb^ beseechjag 
your honours' consideration thereof. Yet I do not jndg^ 
or condemn others in using the same ; for to the Lord thejr 
stand or fall, as I also do. Neither would I break the 
unity of the christian faith, by withdrawing my duty from 
preaching the truth and faith, as in the &6k of Aitielei 
contained : to the end, that we may not go backwards, but 
forwards to perfection."f It does not, however, appear 
what was the result of his examination, or of tnese pro- 

In the year 1573> Dr* Wybum, with many of hi^ 
l)rethren, was again brought before the high commissioiiy 
and convened before the council, when certain articles were 

{)resented to him, requiring his subscription, But,.afler:a 
ong examination, refusing to subscribe, he was suspended 
from preach ing4 About the same time, he wrote the" 
excellent letter generally ascribed to him, in defence cf 
'himself and his brethren, who were deprived by the arbi- 
trary proceedings of. the prelates,^ 

«Strype'8Park«!r, p. 243,325,413. f.MS. Regi6ter;,p. 117. 

i Newcbdrt's Itepert. Eccl. vol. i. p. 534. 
S Parte of a Register, p. 1—12. ' 

BOUND. 171 

Though it does not appear how long he continued under 
Hie above suspension, he was afterwards restored to his 
aiinifitfy, and was preacher at Rochester. In the jeat 
I6SI9 he was one of the learned divines who were deemed 
mc^t pn^r to dispute with the papists, and w^ n(^inated 
for that purpose.* However, the peaceable exercise of his 
millistly Was not of long continuance. The extended arms 
of the high commissioners soon a^in laid hold of himi 
He was again suspended, and continued under suspension 
at least five years.f Towards the close of life, he preached 
statedly at Battersea, near London, where, by a fall, he 
btdke his leg, and was for some time disabled from attending 
to the public duties of his ministry ; but had the assistance of 
Mr. Richard Sedgwick, another puritan divine.j: He was a 
learned and pious divine, a zealous enemy to popery, a 
constant advocate for a further reformation, and a firm and 
peaceable nonconformist. He died about the year 1606^ 
at an advanced ase.^ He sddom or never wore the hood 
and surplice for t£e space of forty years.) 

Nicholas Bound, D. D. — This learned and religious 
divine wias educated at Cambridge, where he took his 
degrees, and was afterwards beneficed at Norton in th^ 
county of Sufiblk. A divine of the same name was rect<^ 
of iVIckford in Essex ; but whether the same person, we 
'€»mnot fully ascertain.^ In the year 1583, when subscription 
to Whitgift's three articles was rigorously imposed upon the 
deigy^ about sixty worthv ministers in Suffolk refused to 
snb^Dribe^ and were, thererore, suspended from the ejl^ercise 
of their ministry. Dr. Bound was one of those who received 
tliis ecclesiastical censure.** 

That which rendered him most famous, was the publi- 
cation of his book, entitled " Sabathum veteris et novi 
TeJstam^iti ; or, the true Doctrine of the Sabbath," aboiift 
the year 1595. In this book, he maintained that the 
seventh poxt of our time ought to be devoted to the 
'service, of God ; that christians are bound to rest on the 
Lord's day, as much as the Jews were on the M osaical 
sabbath^ the commandment about rest being moral and 

• Strypf^*8 Parker, Appen. p. 116. + MS* Register, p. 585* . 
1 Ciark^t 'Lives annejced to Martyrologie, p. 158. 

^ MS. Cbroiiology, vol. i. p. 129. (8. 1.) 
I ^ood^ AtheDie Ozon. vol. i. p. 834. 
1 Newcoart*8 Repert. Eccl. toI. ii. p. 656. 

• • MS/ Ri^itter, p. 436, 487; 


perpetual ; and that it was not lawful for persons to follow 
their studies or worldly business on that day, nor to user 
such pleasures and recreations as were lawful on other daysi.; 
The tx)ok soon obtained an extensive circulation, and iHror 
duced a most pleasing reformation in many parts of tbe. 
kingdom. The Lord s day, formerly proffmed by interr 
ludes, may-games, morrice-dances, and other sports «£id 
recreations, now began to be observed with greater' exact* 
ness, especially in corporations,* " This doctrine," say* Jhi: 
Heylin, '^ carrying such a }air shew of piety, at least in 
the opinion of the common people, and such as did not 
examine the true grounds of it, induced many to embrace 
and defend it ; and, in a very little time, it became the mosi 
bewitching erroTy and the most popular infatuation^ that 
ever was embraced by the people or England !"f In this^ 
the zealous historian at once dis^vers what maI^ler of spirit 
he was of. 

Dr. Bound'^ book had not been long published before it 
excited the enmity of persons of a contrary opinion, 
especially among the ruling clergy. They exclaimed 
against it, as putting a restramt upon christian liberty, as 
putting too great a lustre upon the Lord's day, and' as 
tending to eclipse the authority of the church in appointiajp 
festivals. This was a shorter and an easier methcidc^ coqt 
tending with an author, than by publishing an impartial 
answer to his work. And, indeed, though there was sp 
great an outcry' against the book, no one even attempted tp 
publish • any sort of a reply for several years. The fii4 
who took up his pen against it, was Mr. Thomas Roge& 
in his ^< Exposition of the thirty-liine Articles." Id 
.the preface he declared, << It is a comfort to my soul, and 
will be to my dying hour, that I have been the mai^ 
and the means of bringing the Sabbatarian errors and 
impieties to the light and knowledge of the state. "{ Bitt» 
surely, it would have looked as well in a clergyman, airi 
would hs^ve afforded him an equal degree of comfort Qn a 
dying beid, if, instead of opposing an exact regard ii^ 
the sabbat|i, he; had spent hjs zeal in recommending a lelir 
gious and holy observance of that day !§ * 

' « FuUer's Cbarch Hist. b. ix. p. 227. f HejfHo*8 HNt. of Prei. p. S4d 

i Fullef'^ Cburcb Hi^t. b. ix. p. 228. 

^ Mr. Rogen was beneficed at HorpiDgibeath. ip Safiblk, and once a 
professed puntap, wben be discovered bis zeal for nonconformity. Ift 
1583, be was suspended for refosing subscription to Wbitgift't tbvM- 
articles { but afterwards be altered bis mind, and became a sealoni tMn 
formist,— IfS, H^^Uttr^ p. 43t.— TTpoiTt Mfuna: 0x0%, vol, I. p. ^}v 

BOUND. ' 178 

'Dr. Boimd might carry his doctrine too high by ad- 
yaEncing the Lord's day in all respects to a perfect level 
with the Jewish sabbath. But it was certainly unworthy 
the character of divines, to encourage men in shooting, 
fimdng, bowling, and other diversions on the Lord's day, 
CBpeciaUy as they were sufficiently forward in such prac- 
tices without the countenance and example of their spi- 
ritual guides. Nevertheless, in the year 1599, Archbishop 
WhitgijEt called in Dr. Bound's book, and conunanded that 
it should not be r^rinted; and the year following, the 
Lord Chief Justice Popham did the same. These, indeed, 
were eood remedies, says Dr. Heylin, had they been soon 
etiough applied: yet not so good as those which were 
formeirly applied to Copping and Thac^er, who were 
hanged at Bury, for spreading Brown's books against the 
dmrch.* Did Dr. Bound then deserve to share the same 
fiite, for writing in defence of the sabbath? This, 
however, was the shortest way of refuting his arguments. 
They both declared, that the doctrine of the sabbath agreed 
neither with the doctrine of the church of England, nor 
with the laws and orders of this kingdom; and that it 
disturbed the peace of the church and commonwealth, and 
tended to promote schism in the" one, and sedition in the 
other.f JNothing, surely, could appear more absurd, or 
more contrary to truth. Notwithstanding all tliis care and 
labour to suppress the book, it was read and circulated in 
private mdre tnan ever. Many persons who never heard of 
it when printed, inquired for it when prohibited. 
* Tbe archbishop's head had not lon^ been laid in the dust, 
when Dr. Bound prepared his book lor another impression; 
ttid in 1606, he published a second edition with large 
additions. And, indeed, such was its reputation, . that 
scMcely any comment or catechism was published by the 
fltiioter' divines, for many years, in which the. morality 
of the sabbath was not strongly recommended and enforced.} 
But to counteract the influence of this Sabbatarian doctrine, 
Abut twelve jrears after the above period, came forth the 
Declaration for Sports upon the Lord's da v. This, having 
the sanction of public authority, opened a flood-gate to 
all- manner of licentiousness. 

Hjs .WomL8,r-l. The.Holy Exercise of Fasting, in certain Homi- 
fiet4Nr'SmBeiis, 1004. — ^2. A Storehouse of Comfort for the Afflicted 
in. JSpiffit, in ^Tweniy^ne Sermons, 1604.— 3. The Unbelief of St. 
Tbonas the Apostle laid open for Believers, 1608. 

• !&nrlin*s TnctMf p. 491. f Strvpe'i Whitgift, p, 531. 

t fWfier** Charch Hist. b. 1x. p. 9S9. 


Ekbchias Moblbt was minister tft Walsham in tbe 
Willows in Suffolk, and afterwards at several other placesi 
He was a zealous and laborious preacher, but suflfeied 
numerous oppressions on account of his. nonconformity. 
Mr. Morley has left a circumstantial account of the trouUct 
he underwent, which it may not be improper to lay befiupe 
the reader. 

'' For three years," says he, " I have been so molested by 
the commissary, that I could not remain to do the work of 
God, for any long time in any one place. They SnX 
arrested me by a warrant from the bishop, when they said, 
I muat be bound to appear before him at Norwich by tm 
o'clock next morning, or go to prison. The time appomted 
being so very short, I yielded my body to the piisoD. 
This was in the year 1582. 

^^ Having obtained my liberty, I became minister of 
Denton ; then the commissary caused an act of excpnunn- 
nication to be entered against me, of which I had no 
knowledge till about a week after. I then resorted to Dr. 
Day, and desired he would not proceed against me, seeiiig 
he had already done me so much injury. Therefore, afler 
much entreaty, he promised that he. would not hinder melD 
my ministry, and so gave the bis word to stay the examumvu* 
cation. Notwithstanding this, in six weeks after my remefal 
to Denton, he published an excommunication against me, 
and jBixcd it upon, the door of the church at Walsham, 
being unknovmto me, and fifteen miles from the jribiee ^ 
my abode. . Aftowards, I was arrested on the Lotd^s day in 
(he church-yard, when the Lord^s supper was about to have 
been administered. When the warrant was read, I told.the 
<^cer, that I would remain in a bcmd of twenty ppiipd* 
to appear the iiext day, which he utterly refosed. W^ 
a friend offered his bond of twenty pounds, he vefqied 
this also. . And when my friends proposed to entle^ a 
bond of three hundred pounds for m^ appearance tk 
Xiext day, this in like manner was renlsed. As. I pit- 
pared to go with him, he would have taken bond ; bat h 
being i^orant of the law, refused fats offer, and, thenfyjOj 
went with him to the high sheriff to Bury. Here notiung 
was objected against me, only. I was bound over ib -ttt 

<< At the assizes, I was indicted for having deviated fion 
the order of baptism, in baptizing a chud a 'low tine 
before I left Walsham. In thb incuctment^ I:wds cuumd 
with having said, < do t/ou forsake the deril?* inftead of 

M0RLE7. ) 175 

trying, ^.dost thou forsake the devil?'— -and < will you 
kme this child baptized ia thi» faith ?' for < wilt thou be 
iNqptiaBd in tfais-faitti V Upon the reading of the indictment, 
the judge asked me what I had to saj why sentence should 
Mllbe executed against me. I answered, that I had endured 
ipaidfiiiaient already from the conmiissary. And when the 
judge inquired whether I had been so punished, the com* 
missary said I had ; but he did not know whether it was for 
tius ems&oe^or some oth^* I was, therefore, committed to 

- In the year 1584, Mr. Alorley mad^ the following 
MM>id>— ^< The first day of June was two years, I was 
oommitted to the Clink, by the Archbishop and the Bishop 
oC London. I was there confined seven weeks, and to this 
hour, I know not for what cause. I was fetched by the 
puisiomnt upwards of forty miles, which was attended 
with great e^qiense, as well as hinderaiice of my usefulness, 
i haive never received any recompence for false and 
imjust imprisonment; neither can I obtain liberty to 
use my ministry with a good conscience. So that I am 
now ready to go a begging; yei^ if 'allowed, I might, 
through the blessing of Grod, do some good to myself 
and & aflUcted church of Christ, of which I am a poor 
meaibiBi'. I 


It appears iroiu the above, that Mr. Morley was for a long 
tiine suspended from the exercise of his ministry. After- 
wards, being driven out of Norfolk, he preachea at Ridg^ 
well in Essex. And during the above year, warrants were 
issued by Archbishop Whitgift, the Bishop of London, 
«nd other ecclesiastical commissioners, requiring certain 
hymea ta appear before them at St. PauFs, to prove 
several charges against Mr. Morley. Upon their appear* 
anoe before their lordships, they were required to answer 
the f<dlowing articles of inquiry : 

.'. 1. ."Do you, and all of you, know Ezechias Morley, 
picacher ; and how long have you known him ? 
! 9L." It is objected against you, that you have been at 
jdivers preachings and lectures of the said Morley, in the 
church of Ridgwell in Essex, since Easter. 

3. '^ That you have often, or some times, been, within 
theie V90 yean, at the said Morley's lectures, pieachings 


• MS. Rifitter, p. MO-^HlSS. t Ibid. 


and expositions, in some bouse or other place, oot of any 
church or place appointed for public prayers. Where are 
those places ? Who were present ? And how often haYC 
you been ? 

4. ^' That you did hear or know, that the churchwardens 
of Ridgwell in !E^x, or some other who had authority so 
to do, did give admonition and warning to the said Morley, 
that he should not preach in the said church until he lilid 
shewed sufficient license, and brought authority from the 
ordinary so to do."* 

Mr. Morley was convened, ^t the same time, and, for re- 
fusing to subscribe, was obliged to enter into a bond of one 
hunted pounds not to preach any more in the diocese of 
Loodon.f But it does not appear what other hardships he 

He beoune rector of Roding-Alta in Essex, July 23^ 
1601; but resigned it by death, previous to Febniaiy 
18, 1607, when the next incumbent entered upon tbs 

John Rainolds, D. D. — This celebrated divine wai 
bom at Penhoe, near Exeter, in the year 1549, and educated 
in Corpus Christi college, Oxford. At first he was i 
zealous papist, and his brother William a professed protest- 
ant; but engaging in conference and disputation, tlie 
brothers, it is said, converted each other ; WiUiam becoftn- 
ing a most inveterate papist, and John an avowed protest- 
ant.^ The latter no sooner changed his views, than he 
applied himself to the study of the holy scriptures, and 
soon became a celebrated preacher. 

In the year 1578, he was chosen to perform the two acts of • 
the university, which gained hini great applause ; and the 

£ear following was appointed to the reading of the sentences. 
!y these exercises he was soon draiwn into the popish con<^ ' , 
troversy, when the papists sought to eclipse his reputation.' ' 
This did not in the least discourage him in his pursuits; 
but, in order that he might be the better qualified for dis* 
cussing this subject, he read, with indefatigable pains, all 
the Greek and Latin fathers, and perused all the ancieni 
records of the church he could meet with. By thestf 

• MS. Register, p. 48a-^«2. + IbM. p. 14». " 

1 Newcourt's Repert. Eccl. voL ii. p. 501. 
S FbUer't Abd AedWiTns) p. 478, 479, 

• t 

^ i*iK- 


Herculean labours, Be shdiily became so well acqiiainted 
irith 'ihe elrors and superstitions of popery, that he vffka 
ftccotliited a complete master of tlie controversy. 

About this time, the famous John Hart, a zealous papist,* 
had thie boldness to challenge all the learned men in the 
natiotf, to try the doctrine of the church. No one was 
Aonght better qualrfied to encounter the daring champion 
than Rainolds ; who was, therefore, solicited by one or her 
Biajesty's privy council. After several combats, the popish 
antagonist was obliged to quit the field ; as appears front 
lis bwn. letter written from the Tower.* This conference, 
nbscribed by both parties, was afterwards published ; whick 
gare abundant satisfaction to all unprejudiced readers, aiiH 
80 neatly raised the fame of Rainolds, that he was immedi- 
aUuv taken notice of at court. After taking his degrees in 
divuiity, the queen appointed him divinity lecturer at 
Oxf<Mra. In these lectures he encountered Bellarmine, the 
Rnowned champion of the Romish church. Bellarmine was 
public reader in the English seminary at Rome ; and as he 
delivered hig popish sentiments, they were taken down and 
H^ularly sent to Dr. Rainolds ; who from time to time com- 
muted upon them, and refuted them at Oxford. Thus 
fidlainune*8 books on controversy were answered, even 
b^re they were printed. 

We are informed, indeed, that this divinity lecture was 
*^ up on purpose to widen the breach, and increase the 
difeience betwixt the church of England and the church of 
Home; and, to accomplish this design. Dr. Rainolds, a 
violent anti-papist, was first placed in the chair. His lectures 
^Kie numerousi V attended and highly applauded. But it is 
AirUier observed, <^ that Dr. Rainolds made it his btisiness 
^rcad against the hierarchy, and weaken the authority of 
Uic Wshops."* How far this account is correct, we shall 
M attempt to determine ; but the queen, hearing of his 
It fiune, and his good services in opposing the church of 

K referred him to a deanery in Lincoln, and even 
im a bishopric. The latter he modestly refused^ 
diooBing an academical life rather than the riches and 
Splendour of any ecclesiastical preferment whatever, t. 

Dr. Btmcroft^ chaplain to Archbishop Whi^ifl, in a ser^ 
inopy. January 12, 1588, maintained^ '^ that bishops were a 

• f%11cr*t Abdt RedivWas, p. 482. 

f CoUler^t Eccl. Hist. vol. ii. p. 597. 

tFidler't Abel Redivivoi, p. 482, 483.— Wood's Ackens Ozon. Tol. U 

Toil. II. N 

ITS uVes'of the puritans. 

distifict order from priests ; and that they had a superiorify 
over them by droine right, and directly from God." In 
those times this Mras new and strange doctrine, even to. 
churchmen themselves. Hitherto it had been maintained, 
that all the superiority of bishops over pastors or presbv- 
ters, was wholly of human appointment, devised in the 
third or fourth century. WhQe his sermon was hiMj 
gratifying to most of the ruling prelates, it gave great ofl^ice 
to many of the clergy, and to all the friends of the puritans 
at court. Sir Francis Knollys « told the archbishop, that 
Bancroft's opinion was contrary to the command cf Christ, 
who prohibited all superiority among the apostles. . fiot 
this eentleman, not relying on his own judgmrait, requested 
Dr. Rainolds to give his opinion of this new doctrine; 
which he did in a letter at considerable lengths 

Dr. Rainolds, in this letter, observes, ^^ that all who have 
laboured in reforming the church, for five hundred years, 
have taught that all pastors, whetlier they are entitled 
bishops or priests, have equal authority ai|d vov^ci hj 
God's word : As, the Waldenses, next Marulius ntavinm^ 
then Wickliffe and his scholars, afterwards Husse and (be 
Hussites ; and Luther,' Calvin, Brentius, BuUingcT} vA 
Musculus. Among ourselves, we have bishops, the queen's 
professors of divinity, and other learned men : as, BiadfiNd, 
Lambert, Jewel, Pilkinjgton, Humphrey, Fulke, Sec* But 
why do I speak of particular persons? It is the cminioii of 
the refcMTmed churches of Helvetia, Savoy, France, ScotlaDd, 
Germany, Hungary, Poland, the Low Countries, and oar 
own. I hope Dr. Bancroft will not say, that all these have 
approved. that for sound doctrine, which was condemned 
by the general consent of the whole church as lienstf ^ in 
the most flourishing time. I hope he will acknowledge 
that he was overseen, when he avouched the superiority of 
bishops over the rest of the clergy, to be God*i ovm orSr 


About the year 1599, Dr. Rainolds gave up his d^j/aaaj 
of Lincoln, and his mastership of Queen's college, when te 
was chosen president of Corpus Christi college. Tho«i|^ B 
the last situation he did not continue above eight years, bis 
presidency was rendered eminently useful. In lOttS, be 

* Sir Francis Knollys was one of ber majesty's privy comicilv a ■■■ ^ 
iistingaigbed learning and piety, a most able siateiniao, and a casstait 
patron of tbe persecuted noncoDformists ; on Hrhich accomit he ups Bot «cU 
esteemed by some of tbe prelates.— Faiflrr's AM RMd. p. ai&— Wtfi* 
fiifig. vol. lii. p. 371. 

f Strype's Whitglft, p. S99, !293.*-8trype'8 Annals, voU Ul*.p. 57T,«T8. 



was nominated one of the puritan divines to attend the 
fMoference at Hampton-court. On the side of the episco- 
palians, were Archbishop Whitgifi, eight bishops and eight 
deans^ with the king at the head ; and on the side of the 

Critans, were Dr. liainolds, Dr. Thomas Sparke, Mr. 
wrence Cliadderton, and Mr. John Knewstubs, all no- 
minated by the king.* Dr. Rainolds, in the name of his 
hrethieiK humbly presented the following requests: 
- 1. ^^ That the doctrine of the church might be presenred 
pare, according to God's word. 

S. ^< That good pastors might be planted in all churches, 
to preach the same. 

3. <* That church government might be sincerely minis- 
tered, according to God's word. 

4. " That the Book of Common Prayer might be fitted to 
more increase of piety." 

These requests contained all or most of what the chief 
pmitans desued ; and however reasonable they may appear, 
iiot.oiie of them was granted. When the puritan ministers 
wished to discuss those things, for which they were pro- 
fessedly called together, the kin^ would not allow them to 
]lrooeed: but rising from his chair, he said, ^^ If this be all 
^ ihat your party have to s^iy, I will make them conform, 
* or I wiD hurnr them out of the land, or else do worse." 
Theyweie much insulted, ridiculed, and laughed to scorn.f 
Sir jBdwaid Pejrton confessed, that our divine and his 
bteChien had not freedom of speech ; and finding' it of no 

I to attempt a reply, they held their peace. t This con- 

ence was therefore justly called. The mock conference 
of Mampion^couri ; and, says the judicious historian, was 
ODhr a blind to introduce episcopacy into Scotland.^ 

Li the year 1604, the king appointed Dr. Rainolds, on 
acodiuil of his unconunon skill in Greek and Hebrew, to be 
of the translators of the Bible ; but he did not live to 
the work completed, y He was seized with the con- 
iption of which he died, when in the midst of this labo- 
undertaking ; yet he continued to afford his assistance 
efen, to the last. During his sickness, his learned 

. • nner't Church Hiat. b. ix. p. 7.--8tryp€'8 Whitgift, Appeo. p. »7. 

i* FnUer's Charcb Hist. b. x. p. 19.— Barlow's Account, p. 170. 

1 Neal'tPwltBiis,Tol. ii.p. 18. 

S lUpiii's Hilt, of £Dg. Tol. H. p. 162. 

I ThU wai the present aatborized translation, which his migesty com* 
mmaA to the carie of forty-seven reverend and learned persons, divided 
iMo aiz CMtpuies, to whom he cave the requisite iostroctions for the 
mtk^BUg. mUm.yol. ii; p. 588. Edit. 1778. 



biethren in Oxfonl met at hiis lodgings regularly once a 
week, to compare and perfect their notes. This learned 
man was thus employed in translating the word of life, e?eq 
till he himself was translated to life everlasting.* -• ■ 

In his last sickness, all his time was spent in prajrer io 
God, in hearing persons read, and in conferring with the 
translators. He remained in a lingering state tillt AscensioR* 
day, when he addressed his friends, saying, << I hoped to 
have ascended on the very day of our Lord's aJscension; 
but I shall stay with you a little l(»]^r,.in which flimf 
I entreat you to read nothing to me, omy such chaptexft of 
scripture as I shall appoint. t •: ft) 

This reverend and learned divine, during his life, bad 
been a famous opposer of the errors of popery ; and noW 
upon his death-bed, the papists propagated scandalinis 
reports concerning the nature of his commaint, and beffion 
to insinuate that he now recanted. To coonteiact Siis 
vile calumny, his friends desired him to give some testimoojp 
of his faith, previous to his departure. This bein^ap signified 
to him, he shook his head, and seemed mnch aftected^ibot 
was not able to speak. His friends, obsorvi&g this, adoed 
him whether a form might be drawn tip in Writing; tp 
which Grod might enable him to set hi$ hand;- and Jie 
signified, by certain signs, his full approbation. Then iJmj 
drew up the following paper : — ^' These are to testify (p aS 
<^ the world, that I die m the profession of. that feith whidi 
^ I have taught all my life, both in my preaching andin 
<^ my writings, with an assured hope pf my salvatusi, op^ 
^< by the merits of Christ my Saviour." — Thiis paper bshig 
twice distinctly read to him, and having seriond j:. ]XM|* 
dered every word of it himself, he put on his spectadtty 
and subscribed his name in very fair characters.f Theda^ 
following, with his eyes lifted up to heaven, he breathed hii 
soul into the hands of his dear Redeemer. He died 'May SI^ 
1607, in the sixty-eighth year of his age. His miAaini 
were interred, with great funeral solemnity, in the eo|lce0 
chapel,* beiog attended by the vice-chancell(nr, the hem 
of ccAeges, and the mayor and aldermen of the city. J}rv 
Henry Airay , the vice-chancellor, preached his fimeial 
sermon; and Mr. Isaac Wake, the universijty dpraiol,} 

• Faller's Abel Redivivus, p. 487, 488. + Ibid. p. 489.' 
i Wake, is said to have been an elegant scholar, and no mean ojdM^'^ 
but King James thought Sleep of Cambridge much siiperior fo himf wbieh 
occasioned his saying, <* That he was inclined to sleep, wbeb he j^iMt 
Wake; and to vrake, when he heard Sleep.'*— Granxer^f l|l^. i^*' 
f ol. i. p. 812. . *^ " - ■ - ' 


delivered a funeral oration, in T^hich be gave him the fol- 
lowin^f character : 

** However others admired his knowledge, lowliness of 
mind^ and incredible abstinence, in all which he excelled, 
9B evjtti exceeded wonder ; yet I do, and ever shall, chiefly 
admire his slitting and neglecting all ways of preferment. 
Neither Luther, nor Calvin, nor Beza. nor Whitaker, caa 
challei^ any honour which Rainolds nath not merited. I 
caimot out exoeiedinglv congratulate our country, where he 
was iMNTti, our mother the university , where he was educated, 
and that most pregnant house or excellent wits, where he 
learned 'the 'first rudiments cif most exquisite liteiature."* 
Dr. Crackenthorp, his intimate acquaintance, gave this 
acdoant of him: <^ He turned over all writers, profane, 
ecdesiastical^ and divine ; and all the councils, fathers, and 
historieft of the church. He was most excellent i|i au 
tongues, useful or ornamental to a divine. He had a sharp 
ana- ready wit, a •grave and mature judmient, and was 
iodefii^ably industrious. He was so well skilled in all 
iMs anosciefices, as if he had spent his whole life in each 
Sifi^eoL And as to virtue, integrity^ pi^^J) <uid sanctity 
of life he was so eminent and conspicuous, that to name 
Rainolds is to commend virtue itself'f Bishop Hall used 
to iBay, fS That Dr. Rainolds alone was a well->furnished 
libnm fiill of all faculties, all studies, and all leam^ ; 
an4 ^at his memory and reading were nearly a miracle.'* 
And olir author adds, '' he was a prodigy in reading, 
AnuMSB in doctrine, and the very treasury of erudition ; 
and in a word, nothing can be spoken against him, only ihdk 
lie was the piUar of puritanism^ and the grapd favourer of 
mmamformkjf.^^t Indeed, Fuller insinuates, and Dr, 
Cradkeyitjiorp laboured to prove, that he was not a puritan, 
but an. exact conformist.^ In this, however, they have 
mpvcid'UnsucceBsful. For, besides subscribing the ^' Book of 
Puciuliue^" he utterly disapproved of certain ecclesiastical 
(;i»ei^onies ; and tnough he wore the round cap as a 
epBegUMf he refused wearing the clerical habits 4 Gnuiger 
savs, tliat Dr. JK^tinolds was generally reputed the greatest 
schcdar of His age and country : tliat his memory was so 
retentive he hardly knew what it was to forget; that he 

• FUlcr't Abel. Red. p. 496. f Ibid. p. 483, 484. 

L Wood's AthensD Oxon. vol. i. p. 290. 
FaUer's Cborcb Hist. b. x. p. 48. — Barksdale't RemeiobraDCCfr, 
-il.. Edit. 1670. 
~ 1 118. BoMTjU on Hilt. p. 88. (8.) 


was esteemed a match for Bellarmine, the Goliah of 4lie 
church of Rome ; and that he was styled a liying litvaiy^ 
or a third imiversity.* 

His Works.— 1. Two Orations, 1576.— 2. Six Theses, 1679.-^ 
3. A Sermon on the Destruction of the Idumeans, 1584^-4 A 
Sermon to the Scholars of the University, 1586. — 5. The Sum of a 
Conference between *lohn Rainolds and John Hart, 1588.— 6. Dd 
Romanae Ecclesias Idolatria, 1506. — 1, The Oyerthrow of Stage-' 

5 lays, 1509. — 8. An Apologie of bis Theses, 1602. — 9. An Epistle to 
'homas Pye, 1606.— la A Defence of the Judgment of the lUformfld 
Churches, 1609. — 11. Censura Librorum Apocryphorum veteris '^es- 
tamenti, 1611. — 12. The Prophcsic of Obadlah opened and applied* 
1613. — 13. Letter to his Friend, concerning the Study of Divimty; 
1613. — 14. Orationes Duodecem, 1638. — 15. The Discovery of 'tbe 
Man of Sin, l&ll.— 16. A Letter to Sir Francis Knolljs, 1641.— 
17. The Original of Bishops and Metropolitans briefly laid opeip 
1641. — 18. Judgment concerning Episcopacy, 1641. — 19. The no* 
phesie of Haggai interpreted and applied, 1649. — 20. Commentaiii 
in tres bib. Aristot De Ketorica. — ^21. Answer to ^Hch. Sannden 
his Books, De Schitmate Anglicano, in Defence of our ReformatMNP— 
22. A Defence of our English Litui^ against Rob. Afowiio Ui 
Schismatical Book. — ^23. A Treatise of the BeginniDg and PktimM 
of the Popish Errors. — He also published seyeral TranidatiiHIs or the 
works of other learned men. ' . * 

Thomas Brightman was bom at Nottingham) in tbe 
year 1556, and educated in Queen's college Candiri^gei 
where he became fellow. Though he was a champion in 
the cause of nonconformity, he did not despise toose of 
the contrary sentiments, but was charitable to all who 
differed from him in matters of discipline and ceremonies.f 
Upon his leaving the university, he was presented by & 
John Osboume, a man of ^reat learning and piety^ to the 
rectory of Hawnes in Bedfordshire, where he sport the 
remainder of his days in hard study, and a constant appli^ 
cation to his pastoral duties. Sir John was his cxMuUnt 
find liberal benefactor. He ¥ras a man of a most annelical 
life, and uncommon learning, which was .acknowtodged 
even by his enemies. He lived so much under the infinenoe 
of divine grace, that he was never known to be anffiy; 
and always carried with him his Greek Testamen^ which 
lie read through regularly once a fortnight. His dailv 
conversation was a^inst the episcopal government, whidoi 
he declared would shortly come dowu4 Though Mr. 

• Biographteal HM. toI. i. p. SI 2. 

f He is, by mistake, called William. ^JPViIbr'j FTarfUM, • part Hi 
p. 619, aaO. % Faller'i Cborch HUt« b. z. p. 40| 50, 


Brightman wrote against the prelacy and ceremonies of flie 
church, land subscribed the ^^ Book of Discipline,"* he was 
no friend to separation. He published a ^^ Disputation 
about Antichrist ;" a " Refutation of Bellarmine ;" a " Com- 
mentary of the Song of Solomon;" and another on the 
" Revelation of St. John." « This last," says Granger, 
^ made a great noise in the world." In that book, he 
makes Arcm)ishop Cranmer the angel haying power oyer 
the fire, the Lord Cromwell the angel which came out of 
(he temple cf heayen, haying the sharp sickle, and the 
Lord Treasurer Cecil the angel of the waters, justifying 
the pouring out the third yial. The church of £ngland 
is the lukewarm church of Laodicea ; and the angel that God 
loyed, is the anti-episcopal church of Geneya, and that of 
Scotland : and the power of the prelacy is antichrist. In 
the reign of Charles I. he adds, when the l)ishops were 
ez|ielled the house of peers, and seyeral of them imprisoned, 
Bn^htman was cried up for an inspired writer, and an 
abndgnient of his book was printed in 1644, entitled <^ The 
BevwUion of the Revelation. "+ He desired to die a sudden 
death, 'and the Lord granted him his desire. He died very 
tuddcaily, as he was travelling with Sir John Osboume in 
his coach, with a book in his hand, August 24, 1607, aged 
SR^^ooe years. Fuller has classed him among the learned 
wnteiK^ of Queen's college, Cambridge^ He was a most 
puMU^ laborious, and learned divine ; whom Mr. Cartwright 
Vied to dencnninate '^ the bright star in the church of 
GkxL'H Dr« Buckley preached his funeral sermon. 

RfCAARD Maunsel was minister of Yarmouth, and 
aeverdy persecuted, together with Mr. Thomas Lad, a 
merchant of that place. They were brought before the 
Chancellor of Norwich, for a supposed conventicle; 
because, on the Lord's day, after public worship, they , 
joined with Mr. Jackler, their late minister, in repeating 
the heads of the sermons which had that day been preached 
hi the church. Mr. Lad was compelled, upon his oath, to. 
answer, certain articles relating to the supposed con- 
venticle, which he could not see till after he had taken 
the oath. Haying been twice convened before the chan- 
cellor, he was carried before the high commission at Lam- 

• Neal'i Paritans, toI. i. p. 483. 

f Gnuiger'i Biog. HiiL Tol. i. p. 280. t Hist, of Can. p. 8. 

^ Le^ OB ReligioB and Learniof » p. 143. 


beth, and required to answer, upon a new oath, such inquiriei 
as his ecclesiastical judges were pleased to propose. This^ 
indeed, be refused without a sight of his former answers; 
9ad was, therefore, cast into prison, where he remained a 
long time, without l^eing admitted to bail. Mr. Maonsei 
was further charged witli signing a petition to the house of 
commons, and with refasing the oath ex officio; for which 
he was treated in the same manner, itaying suffered a 
long and painful confinement, the prisoners, about the year 
1607, were brought to the liar upon a writ of habeas 
corpus; and having Nichohis Fuller, esq. a bencher of 
Gray's-inn, and a roost learned roan in his profesaiim, for 
their counsel, he rooved, that the prisoners ought <to be 
released ; because tlie high conunissioners were not empow- 
ered by law to imprison, or to administer the €mtk.ex 
officio^ or to fine any of his majesty^s subjects. These 
points he laboured to prove in a most learned, aijgamcft* 
lative, and perspicuous manner, which was looked upoa ai 
an unpardonable crime ;• and instead of serving hissdieDti^ 
brought the heavy indignation of the commisaionea opaa 
liimself. Archbishop Bancroft, now at the head ^of the 
high conunission, told the king, that Fuller wa& tJheiGhaiH 
pion of the nonconformists; and^ therefore^ ought . to U 
made a public example, to terrify others from appearing 
hereafter in defence of the puritans.f Accocdingly^ Jiftim 
shut up in close prison ; from whence, neUber by Ihe inter- 
cession of, fri^pds, nor by his own most humUe «nppli* 
cations, couldJie.cMain release; but after dosei confineDieBl 
about twelve years, he died in prison, February 83, 1619, 
aged seventy-six year84 What became of Mr. Bfaonsel 
and Mr. Laid, his clients ; whether after ihebi- trial they 
were released, or suffered some othec punishment, we hash 
not been able to learn. 

« Fuller's Arfrnment in the caie of Thomas Lad aod Richard Manmrli 
edit. 1607. — ^Tbis most learned, cqrioni, and Taloable Tract, ooBiifting ft 
3S pages in quarto, was repnblished in Id4l. 

f Fnller^s Church Hut. b. z. p. 66. 

X Nicholas Fuller was member of the parliament of 1608* whM ha 
brought in two bills : the one concerning Ecclesiastical JnrisdictloBy the. 
other concerning Subscription; both with a view to ease the borileili of the 
persecuted puritans. He was a person of great learBiiyaad pMy; 
i^id finding the nooconformisis grievously oppressed jn their Iibertlea, their 
estates, and their consciences, contrary to law, he laboured boAh in the 
Inmsle-of commons, and in the courts of judicature, to'proctn^ tbefr 
deliyerance from the cruel oppressions of their persecntorB*— JTS* Chrf- 
nologtff vol. ii. p. 667. (2.) 


. Thomas Wilcocks, A. M. — This celebrated divine was 
born about the year 1349, and educated in St. Jofan^f 
coUege, Oxford. Upon his leaving the university, he 
became a- learned, zealous, and usefiil preacher in Honey-* 
lane, London. In the year 1572, he was an active persqia 
in the erection of the presbyterian church at Wandsworth 
}n Surrey. During the same year he was brought intp 
much trouble for his nonconformity. Th^ puritans havi^ 
for a long time sought in vain to the queen and prelates, 
for a further reformation of the church, now resolved to apply 
to the parliament, Accordingly, Mr. Wilcocks and Mr. 
John Field published '' An Admonition to the Parliament,^' 
xirhich they presented to the house of commons lyith .the|r 
oWn hands. Though the book was much esteemed, and 
soon passed through four editions^ the ai^thqiis were appre- 
hefided and committed to Newgate, where they, remaiped 
a long time, in close and miserable confinement.* A par* 
ticular account of these cruel proceedings, together wifli 
their other troubles, will be found in another place, f. 
.' The character and sentiments of these excellent divifie? 
iiaving greatly suffered by reproach, th^ publis^ied.^ 
vindication of themselves, againk the false iipputations of 
imsound doctrine, and disloyalty to the queen. The piece 
Ib entiiOed' <( A Copie of a Letter, with a Confession of 
Faith, written by two faithiul Servants of Gpdji ufito a^i 
lioiioiiiable and virtuous Ladie.^t It is subscribed, with 
their aim hands; but whether it was published before, or 
4<uing their imprisonment, we are not able to l^m. ^ it is, 
however, a different confession from that which is noticed in 
the pkoe referred to above, but was penned most probably 
on the same occasion. During their confinement in New- 
gat^ Archbishop Parker sent nis chaplain, one Pearson, to 
confer with them. This conference, dated September 11 ^ 
J[57S, was in ibe presence of Mr. Mondes their keeper, 
and is as follows : 

Pearson. Is your name Wilcocks ? 

"Wilcocks. Yes, verily. 
. PI desire to become acquainted with you ; for I know 
you not. 

W. Neith^ do I know you. 

• Mr. Thomas Woodcock, a bookseller in London* for vending the 
Adnonitibn, Was, at the sane time, comnitted to Newgate by Bishop 
Aylmer. — Strype's Aylmtry p. 57. 

f See Art. Field. 

X Bute Af a'Ref iste>, p, 598— M6. 


P. I am come to conyerse with you^ by wanant from my 
lord of Canterbury. 

W. Indeed it is high time. I have been in close prisad 
almost three months, and no one has yet been seqt to confier 
with roe, and reclaim me from error, if I be in any. 

P. I am come to you, and your companion, Mr. Fidd, 
about a letter from you, delivered by your wives to his 
grace of Canterbury; wherein you charge him with 
unjust dealing and cruelty. He would gladlv know in what 
particular instance you can accuse him of injustice and 

Field. To charge him with cruelty we mind not: neith^ 
did we write any such thing. But we may justly charge 
him with unjust dealing. 

P. Why so 2 What is the special cause of it ? 

W. Because he hath kept us in close prison almost three 
months without a cause. 

P. I judge it is not so. • 

F. We wrote a book in time of parliament, justly craTiag . 
a redress and reformation of many abuses, for which we 
are thus imprisoned and uncourteously treated. 

P. That book I read over at the time of its ^first comiiig 
out ; but since that time I have not read foiu: lines of it 
To speak my mind, though some thingis in -it be good, I 
dare not justify all. 

W. What are the points which you so much dislike? 
Mention some, and we will gladly talk about them. 

P. So far as I can gather, you would have in the church 
an eouality of ministers. 

W. We would not have it of ourselves; but God*s 
word requireth it. ' 

P. No: God's word is against it. 

F. I pray you let us see the place. 

P. Before I proceed, let me ask you one question. Do 
you both agree in this point ? For if you do not agree, I 
shall labour in vain. 

F. We agree both in this point, and all others. For, the 
Lord's name be praised, there is no contrariety of judg- 

P. You will allow of the name of a bishop* 

W. Yes, verily. 

P. And why so ? 

W. Because Grod's word alloweth the same, in the ordi* 
narv government of the church. 

r. xou wiU, also,^ allow the name of an apostle. 


F. In one respect vfe do, and in another respeet we do 
not. As it signifieth cme sent of God to preach the gospely 
we aUow it. 

P. And in what respect do you not allow it ? 

W« As it signifieth one sent to preach to all creatures, it 
hath no place in the church. 

P. my so? 
^ W. Beoiuse the calling of the Gentiles is ended, and 
that office was only temporal, enduring only for' a season. * 

P. I know many good writers are of your opinion. But 
how do you prove that from scripture ? . 

W, £asily enough. It is scripture itself. 

P. Let this be granted. Doth an equality of ministers, 
therefore, follow ? St. Paul saith, God gave'' to his church 
some i^ibstles, some prophets, some eyangdists, some pastors, 
and fiome teachers. 

F. That place maketh most for us, as, by the assistance 
of Grod, we hope to make evidently appear. 

W. Seeing we are dealing in matters which concern 
Ood^s glofy, and we cannot of ourselves speak to his praise, 
nor wi3iout the teaching of his Spirit, let us crave his divine 
aaristanee in the exercise of prayer. 

P. Will you use private or public prayer ? 

W. Nay, in my judgment, the more public the better. 

^Mr» Field then engi^ed in pnn^er, which being finished, 
they lesnmed the conversation as rollows :] 

W. No?w, if it please you, let us begui' where we left off. 

P; From the words ot Paul, I reason thus: In his day 
thore was a distinction of callings ; therefore, there can be no 
parity of ministers. 

F. That place of Paul proveth no such thing. For he 
thene speaketh of those exiraor^nary offices which were 
peculiar to the state of the church in the time of the 
apostles: as apostles, prophets, and evangeli^s. Also he 
speaks of those offices which are ordinary^ and to continue 
to the end of time : as pastors and teachers, which differ 
not in authority and dignity, though they may in gifts and 

■ P. I understand your meaning. I perceive you will 
have no minister to preach out of nis own charge. 

F. That is our opmion. 
, p. And why so ? 

F.* Because every pastor hath work oiouffh to take proper 
eaite' of his own flock ; therefore, he needeth not to thnuit 
hiiDidlf opoa another ma&*8 Jabour. 


P« It- is not thrusting himself upon another^ prorided he 
cometh called ? 

F. Indeed, if the minister had nothing more to dp thwi 
to preach a sermon or two a week, this might be plqa^ed ; 
but seeing he must visit the sick, comfort the mpumen, 
strengthen the weak, and admonish {^id instruct, all. ftom 
house to house, through the whole of his charge, I warrant 
you he will have little desire, and less leisure, to preqdl in 
other men's cures. 

P. It is said, in the acts of the apostles, th^t vrheii th^ 
apostles laboured to appease the contention bet^inxt tin 
Greeks and the Jews, deacons were chosen to provide for 
the. poor, that thclymiffht give themselves to prayer, and 
the ministry of the wora. 

W. That is not contrary to what my brother hatlf said, 
but serveth very aptly to confirm it ; fpr there the Holy 
Ghost includes their whole office in two particular .duties. 
And if the apostles did well in communicating the tenqioisl 
part of their office to others, that they might give tnenw 
selves , the more to prayer and preacb^ng^ whfit cah. v» 
jud^e of those who unite dvit functions to their eCcAesiaflf 
tical offices ? But a wandering ministry is to be avoided^ 
because it is an ignorant and unlearned ministrj^, the udbr* 
matioA of which, with the banishment of the pbpe*9 cUnoD 
law, we have particularly set forth in our late h^dk. And 
because it is directly contrary both to reason and soriptiirR 
. P. I wish to hear that reason^ and see that scriptncNu 

F. You know that a father hath much rcsgard for hit 
children, because they are nearly related to him : so^, cm Ui6 
same account, hath a pastor for the children of his flock* 
And the scripture saith, <' Take heed Onto yourselves, and 
to all the flock over which the Holy Ghost hatb mad^ ydkk 
overseers, to feed the church of God. Feed the Bocli: nf 
God which is among you." 

P. May I not then preach in other men's charges } 

F. Upon certain conditions you may. 

P. If I see the people lacking instruction, aind out of 
compassion preach to them, do you think I do evil ? . . 
. F. It is hot for us to condemn another mab's serv^: 
to his own master he standeth or falletli. Yet you. will dt 
well to take heed to your own calling. But having youf 
own flock, and intermeddling with other mens' 
which Grod hath not commanded, you do hot weU*. Jf, 
indeed, there be a defection among the churches, etllMf IB 
faith or practice, and God stir you up by an exbnmdiBUf 


wUiDgy fliQfagh you preach in other places^ I condemn you 
not. . . . ■ I . », 

Pi Whai are the reasons -why I may not come into 
toipther man;*s. charge i 

W.' If our chui^ were so reformed, that there was a 
kaxnedaad painful ministry, with a godly sincerity in 
evenr oon^n^ation^ then^ with a view to end a controvtersy^ 
conmrm a dodnne, or refute an error, you might preach in 
MMrthfaT' man^s charge : yet you might ■ not do this, .unless 
ybtf were requested by the^ minister and seniority of the 
cfaurclK and permitted ^y your own. 
' ' P/'Yoa seem to have written your book in choler against 
flonie pefsohs, rather than to promote a reformation of tha 

W. I)iuppose you are displeased witli the sharpness of 
Ae language. . We are willing to bear the Uame of that. 

P, I think it did not proc^ from a spirit of love, and 
charity, and meekness. 

F; That toucheth me, and therefore I answer; as God 
bafli his Mose^' fib he hath his £l|jah. Isaiah calleth the 
ndioca iof hiisf time, princes of Sodom* . John calleth the 
acribes and pharisees, a generation of vipers. Jesus Christ 
Adietfi them adders, and aii adij^lterous generation. And the 
acriptores^ especially the prophets, are full of 6uch< wannq 
ezpresnoDs. We have used gentle words too long :' we 
pooeiTe they have done no good. The wound is tecome 
eksperate; it therefore needeth a strong corrosive, ft is 
no time to flatter men in their sins. Yet God knoweth, we 
meant to speak against no man's person^ but their places f* 
odd eiuting ctyrruptions. 

' P. Wiir you tnen tike away all ecclesiastical policy f 
Ilrpleaseth the prince, in pplic^, to make the ministers lord^ 
kkfttps and archbishops. I confess, this cannot be warranted 
hjj^ G(A\ word ; but as the christian magistrate, in policy^ 
eitiseineth'it good, and not against God's word, I. doubt 
whether they may not do it. 

' " W^ We praise God for having made you confess thi» 
truth; But, from your words, we must consid^.whetlier 
the policy concerning ecclesiastical matters, as contained ia 
Gbd'S'Word, be not all-i^ificient, and that alone whieh is to 
Mellowed. The miitdgters of Christ may take unto than-; 
t^is^ ho other titles than those which are allowed and 
a^n'^^'^^^ ^ God's word, though the christiw ApmcM 
would, in policy, make them ever so liberal an olBfer otthem. 

F. No. Thou^ the' prince, would' give them such 


offices and titles, they ought, according to the urcnd of CSod^ 
to refuse them. 

P. When in honour they are offered, would yod have 
them wilfully and unthankmlly to refuse them ? 

F. Whenever the prince is so disposed, they, in the feu 
of God, should say, ^^ A greater charge is alreadT laid 
upon us than we are well able to fulfil. We cannot faboiir 
so faithfully in this function as the Lord requireUt ; there- 
fore, we most humbly desire your majesty to lay the chaige 
of chil matters upon those who have time and tldllto 
manage them, and to whom in duty they belong ; and kt 
us exercise ourselves in the office of the ministnr fdone.**. No 
names can be more blasphemous than those of brd-iitkopt 
and archbishops. They take that honour to themselves which 
belongs to Jesus Christ alone, as lord and king in ZUm, 

P. if for religion the prince appoint fasts, we oiupht not 
to obey ; but Sf, in policy, when victuals' are mar, he 
appoint them, we arc bound in conscience to obey. 

F. As you plead so much for policy, we saSkt ifluptisoD- 
ment for opposing the popish hierarchy, the policy of which 
is directly contrary to that which was used in the piimitive 

P. Must we then in every point follow the apostles and 
primitive church ? «— — — 

W. jy^ i_ unl ess a better ord er, can be , foumL^ In matters 
of govemmenfand discipline^lhe word of God is our only 
warrant ; but rites and ceremonies not mentioned in scrip 
ture, are to be used or refused, as shall best appear to toe 
edification of the church.* 

Here the conversation closed; and soon oiler this Mr. 
Wilcocks and Mr. Field presented a supplication to Laid 
Treasurer Burleigh, written, says Mr. Strype, in a good 
Latin style. In this they vindicate their own innooenoei 
and petition his lordship to procure their libMy, by 
addressing him as follows : — <^ Confiding in your singular 
benevolence, we were induced to address you, hoping to 
obtain our liberty, and to propagate the truth. We aie 
aware that we are spoken against and slandered by many*' 
But let the truth speak for itself— it never seeks to lie hid m 
comers. While we commend the innocency and eqaifj 
of our cause to your consideration, we humbly and eariKsdy 
beseech you to grant us favour. We have, indeed, latdy 
^tten a book, urging the reformation of horrid abases; ana 

• lis. Register, p; 139-1S7. 



that 'true religion may be freed from popish superstition, 
^d, witb the queen's approbation, be again restored by 
the parliament. But of ourselves we have never attempted 
to correct or change any thing. We referred alL to their 

judgments, according as the case may seem to them to 
lequire. And vre hoped that, by this means, the peace of 
the church, and the reconciliation of brethren, might have 
been happily promoted. 

^^ By dais ecclesiastical establishment, which is so con- 
trary to the word of God, we have all seen a sad schism in 
the church ; and that most desirable blessing of peace, which 
ought to abound among those of the same religion, has been 
destroyed. We said nothing of the contempt of good 
learning, the corruption oftrue religion, the depmvingofthe 
ininistry, and the increase of sin which it hath occasioned. 
All this is a sufficient justification of. our book. And the 
corruptions and abuses which we have mentioned, are unani- 
moujuy acknowledged by all the foreign reformed churches, 
and by the writings of men of eminent learning, to be very 

. foul.'^ 
. In the conclusion they humbly and earnestly entreat 
him to be a means of procuring their liberty. They also 
pregsaited other petitions to other persons of distinction, but 
^ppaxeaUy to little effect : for they were confined in close 
priflon in Newgate at least fifteen months • A further account 
of theseproc^dings will be found in another place.f 

Mr. Wilcocks at length obtained his release from prison, 
bat was at the same time deprived of his living in Honey- 
lane. Beiiiff driven from his flock and his benefice, ho 
prei|Ched where he could, as he found an opportunity, 

- thoogh not without frequent molestation from the persecute 
ipg prelates. For the greatest part of ten years he preaclied 
Vojr frequently at Boyington, in Hertfordshire, tie spent 
a considerable portion of his time and pains in his epistolary 
correspondence with his numerous friends ; and in his 
lettea he commonly subscribed himself, ^^ Thomas Wil- 
cocks, the Lord's unworthy servant." Among his numerous 
and learned correspondents, was the venerable Mir. Anthony 
iGMIby, €£ Asbby de la Zouch, in Leicestershire, to whom 
ha addressed the following epistle,' descriptive of the cruel 
ioppmtuons of thetime:} 
. ,>* Good Father Gilby, since my separation from you I 

bare jnceivcd letters from London, whierein was certified the 

• -■-.. .' ..• 

« 8tnrpe*t Annals, vol. ii. p. 186. f See Art Field. 

t BalMr*t BU. CoUec. toI. xssii. p. 441, 448. 


stirs and troubles there. When I had read them, I thou^' 
it meet to make you partaker of such news as was sent unto 
me, to the end that you and all the godly there with you 
may pour forth earnest supplications tor our brethren wliO 
are now in bonds, and under the cross, for the testimony of- 
the truth. Thus standeth the case. Mr. Fulwer, our dear 
friend and brother in the Lord, with divers other^ are pri- 
soners in the same Compter, and for the same cause that our 
brother Edmunds is. Our brother Johnson, minister of the 
church without Temple-bar, and others with him, are laidf 
in the Gatehouse at Westminster. Our brother Wight ai^d 
others with him are committed to Newgate. 

^< The ministers of London were callra by the arehdeaconC 
and Dr. Hames, tliebishop^s chancellor, to Lawrence church 
in the Jewry, and then subscribed, and were commanded 
to put on their trash ; as surplices, &c. on the Sunday fol- 
lowing. Amon^ them, none bad more deceived ihd 
^odly than one W a^er, who had many times been, but jodI^ 
m words, against tne popish regimen and ceremonies. re-' 
tained and used in the English church; but now hyhU 
subscription hath allowed all. The Lord grant that, as he 
hath fallen with Peter, aild denied the trum, so he may, if 
it be his will, rise with him again. This subscriptioal is 
required, not of ministers alone, but of the common peoplei 
such as they cdUpurilans. Scribbled in haste from Coyai- 
try, this 21st of December, 1573. 

'^ By yours to command in the Lord Jesus, 

" Thomas Wilcocks." 

Mr. Wilcocks, in about six weeks after the above, ad- 
dressed another epistle to the same venerable divine, ccmbk 
taining a further account of oppressions and cruelties exer- 
cised upon the poor persecuted puritans. It contamS| 
indeed, some other interesting fsicis worthy of being coiia- , 
municated to posterity ; and the whole is so excellent, and 
BO exactly characteristic of the writer, that it would bewail 
inexcusable omission to withhold it from the inquisitive 
reader. The following is an exact copy :• 

*< Grace and peace from God. 

" Father Gilby, news here is none gpod ; for how naay 
we look for good in these evil times ? The commissioiieA 
go forwards m their haughty proceedings : God, if it hej^ 
will, stay their rage. Three of them that they have 1111* 
ptis(Oned are dead already. What shall become of the rest 

• Baker*s MS. Coliec.yol. zzzii. p. 439, 440. 


the Lord knoweth. We here persuade MUdives of nothing 
bat great extremity. The Lord grant us patience an3 
strength in his truth for ever. The godly here desire your 
earnest' prayers to the Lord for them, and heartily salute 
you in the Lord, especially my brother Edmunds, tba 
Lord's prisoner, tinto whom you promised, at my being 
with you, to write some letter of comfort. Surely a letter 
fifom you to him would much encourage him in the ways 
of the Lord ; and, therefore, I desire you at your convenient 
leisure to write somewhat as it shall please the Lord to 
move you. 

^^ Dr. Whit^Ul^s book is not yet come out, but we look 
for it daily. Our brother Cartwright is escaped, Grod bo 
praised, wad departed this land smce my coming up to 
London, and, I hope, is by this time at Heidelberg. The 
Lord bless him, and direct him in all things by his Holy 
Spirit, that he may do that which may serve for the 
aovanoement of his glory, and the profit of his church. 
His earnest desire is, that you and all the godly should 
remember him in your earnest and hearty prayers ; therefore^ 
I the more boldly and willingly now make mention of him. 

<^ The commissioners caused Beza^s Confession, translated 
into English, to be burnt in Stationers*-haIl, on Thursday 
the 88th o£ January last. The pretence was, that it was 
ill translated : but I suppose rather because it over plainly 
dissolveth the popish hierarchy, which they yet maintain. 
From my house in Coleman-street, this Sd of February, 
1S74. Tours assured in the Lord, 

" Thomas Wilcocks*" 

Bfany of the letters written by Mr. Wilcocks were 
aniwers to cases of conscience. He was highly celebrated 
finr his knowle(^ of casuistical divinity. Multitudes who 
applied to him undcfr spiritual distress, obtained, through 
me blessing of God, both peace and comfort. Most of his 
episOes were written particularly to promote family and 
poBonal rdUgion among his numerous connexions. Our 
author observes, that he had seen a large folio volume of 
his letters in manuscript ; and, from the long list now before 
me, it appears that many of them were adcuessed to perscms 
of quality. Mr. Wilcocks was intimate with the celebrated 
Sir Peter Wentworth, who had the highest respect and 
esteem for him.* 

• sir FMer Wentworth, member in lefcral of Qneen Enttbeth'spsrlla* 
amtB, was a man of great piety, stronf reiolation, exceUent abilities, and 
^wayt sealotti for ite prlfUqe** ^ pwliameati and a flnrtliec reformation 

toXm li. o 


Thoogh our divine was a decided nonconformifll^ he 
a penoa of great modeiation. He acknowledged the 
chnrch of England to be a true church, and her ministrf 
to be a true ministry, but greatlj encumbered wi£h the 
superstitions and corruptions of ^papery. He also coca* 
sionally attended the public service of the church, and was 
a divine of great learning and piety; yet, for the sinifc 
sin of nonconformity, be was often prosecuted in the 
ecclesiastical courts, and often suspended and d^imdl 
In tbe year 1581, he was convened before his snperion 
and suspended from his ministry ; and, in I59I, he was cut 
into pnson. He died in tbe year 160S^ and flie fifty<4iiiitli 
of his age.* Wood, not knowing that he was a muritaD; 
gives a very higli character of him, styling him a fieqMit 
writer and translator, a laborious preacher, a noted cMdflt^ ' 
a grave divine, and a person greatly esteoned in his day.f 

Hii Works.— 1. An Exposition on the book of Cantidss, « 
Solomon's Song, 15S5. — 2. An Exposition on psrt of Romans viB; 
1587. — 3. A short and sound Commentary on the ProTeriM of 
Solomon, 1689. — 4. An Exposition on the whole book of Pnlmi^ 
wherein is contained the division and sense of erery Psalm, Ace, \M. 
(These four articles were collected and published, in 1094^ nnder 
the care of Dr. John Burgess, who married the author's dangMar* 
It was in one volume folio, entitied, '' The Works of the Refsnail 
Divine, Mr. Tho. Wilcocks.'Ot-^ A Summary of short MeditatioBi» 
touching certain Points of the Christian Kcligidn, 1579. — 61 A 
Concordance or Table, containing the principal Words and Mattiw 
which are comprehended in the New Testament, 1690^ — 7. Ai 
Answer to Banister the Libertine, 1581. — 8. A Glass for GhuBestBtl^ 
or such as delight in Cards and Dice, wherein they may see no|only 
the Vanity, but idso the Vileness of those Plays, plainly disco^Qsm 
and overthrown by the Word of God, 1681.— 9. A Form of I¥^iiift- 
tion for the Lord's Sapper, 1681. — 10. The Substance of thvLsfdV 
Supper shortly and. soundly set forth, 1681. — 11. A oomfertshlp 
Letter for afilicted Consciences, written to a godly Bfaii gVMtty 
touched that way, 1684. — 12. Three large Letters for the Instraolln 
and Comfort of such as are distressed in Conscience, 1560^^18. 
The Narration of a fearful Fire at Wobum in Bedfordshirey^fi66>^ 
He also pubHsbed the following translations into English s-^i. A 
Catechism, 1678, by Fountein.— 2. Three Propositions, IfiSOy.l^ 
Calvin. — 3. A Treatise of the Church, wherein the godly inay 
discern the true Church from the Romish, 1682, by BertJmnd'de 
Loques.— 4. A Discourse of the true visible Maiiu of the CAtbofio 
Church, 1688, by Beza.— 6. Two Sermons on the Sacrament of the 

of the charch. In tbe year 1598, for making a motton in tbe ho«e sf 
commons for entailing tbe voccession, he was, by the queen's tyrannical 
order, committed to the Fleet|«»d three other memben to tlw T6wMr»Tor 
the same oirence.-^Jir8. Chronology^ vol. ii. p. 417. (SO.) 617. («.) 

• Ibid. p. 617. (4.) f Wood'i AtheniB Oson. vrt. i. p. 861. % ML 

J* SMYTH. m 

Jkird'i Snipper, 1688, by Beza. — 6, Bertram the Priest cdncemiiiip 
the Body and Blood of Christ, 1582.-7. Meditatioips on Psalm ci^ 
lifi99, by PhiL Morney Lord of Plcssis. 

John Smyth, A. M.— «TIiis zealous puritan was fellow of 
Ghiist's college, Cambridge, and a great sufferer for non- 
confbnnity. He was a popular preacher ; and hayio^, in 
0De of his sermons before the university, maintained the 
iBilawiiilness of sports on the Lord's day, he was summoned 
before the "nce-chancellor. During his examination, he 
flffeied to prove^ that the christian sabbath ought to be 
obierved by an abstinence from all unnecessary worldly 
bttdness, and spent in workR of piety and charity ; though 
ii does not appear what punishment was inflicted upon him.* 
A divine of his name, beneficed atMitcham in Surrey, was 
a member of the presbyterian church erected at Wands- 
worth in tiiat county, in the year 1572 ; but it is not easy to 
aiceitain whether he was the same person.^ 
r Mr. Smyth afterwards separated from the established 
ehurch, and embraced the principles of the Brownists. 
la the year 159S, he was one of their leaders, and 
OMt into prison, with many of his brethren, for their 
Bonoonformity. After being confined more than eleven 
BBanths, he was called before the tribunal of the high com« 
miigion, when be expressed his great surprise^ that in 
l ua Uteis of religion and conscience, his spiritual judges 
ahoold censure men with imprisonment and other grievances, 
laflier than some more christian and equitable methods. 
In the course of his examination, one of the commissionera 
wiring him, whether he would go to churchy he answered^ 
that Be. should, dissemble and play the hypocrite, if he 
dumld do it to avoid trouble ; for he thought it was utterly 
vdawfid. The commissioner then said, ^ Come to church 
and obey the queen's laws, and be a dissembler j an hypocrite^ 
«r a deM, if thou wilt.''^ Upon his. refusal, he was sent 
back to the Marshalsea, some of his brethren to the Clink^ 
aftd others to the Fleet; where they were shiit up in close 
vooms, not being allowed the commcm liberty of the prison* 
Beie they died like rotten sheep, some through extreme 
mmti .some from the 'rigour of their imprisonment, and 
withers of infectious distempers. § Though Mr. I^ytt^ 

.• .^ some's AaoaU, vol. Hi. p. 341. 
f tiS&T\ Cborcb Hist. b. Ix. p. 103. 
% Strype's Aooals^ toI. iy. p. 134. \ tbUkp. IMr^lSa. 


samved these calamities, it does not appear at wliat period- 
he was released from prison. 

Previous to his total separation from the clmrch of 
England, he spent nine months in studying the ^rounds of 
conformity and nonconformity;* and held a disputatioo 
with Messrs. Dod, Hildersham, and Barhon, on thepoiirffof 
contcNTmity, and the use of prescribed forms of prayer.f 
He was preacher in the city of Lincoln, and afterwaids 
beneficed at Gainsborough. In the county of LinoolD, and 
on the borders of Yorkshire and Nottinghamshire, the 

?rinciples of the Brownists gained consicbarable gioand. 
'wo churches were formed, over one of which Bfr. ShnjA. 
was chosen pastor ; and over the other Mr. Richard Clinaij 
who was succeeded by Mr. John Robinson.t After endnrr 
ing numerous hardships and incessant persecution fran the 
high, commission, they fled from the storm, and went (9 
Holland. Mr. Smyth and his followers settled at Antfter- 
dam, in the year 1606, and joined themselves to the Engliih 
church at that place, of which Mr. Francis 
pastor, and Mr. Henry Ainsworth teacher. ' Itwasnotlmit 
however, before a very serious breach took place. Tb 
subjects of debate, which gave rise to this division, wen 
c:ertain opinions very simimr to those afterwards eapooael 
by Arminius. Mr. Smyth maintained the doctrines oSf fiEce- 
will and universal redemption ; opposed the predtestination 
of particular persons to eternal lire; as also the doctrine f£ 
original sin ; and maintained that believers might fidi fiooiB 
that grace which would have saved them, had ihev cotf 
tinned in it. He seems, hideed, to have entertained aoioiie 
very singular notions : as, the unlawfidness of leodiott tke 
scriptures in public worship; that no translation of the 
Bible was the word of God ; that singing the piaisei of 
Grod in verses, or set words, was without authonty ; .thai 
flight in time of persecution was^ unlawful; that the newr 
creature needed not the support of scripture and ordinanoep^ 
but was above them ; ana that perfection was attainable k 
this life.§ 

Mr. Smyth differed also from his brethren on Uie subject 
of baptism. The Brownists, who denied the dmrdi U 
Engkmd to be a true church, maintained that her minirtaii 
actra without a divine commission ; and, consequently, th^t 

•' Life of Aintwortb, p. 36. 
-f* Cotton's Congrentional Charchei, p. 7. 

t Prince*! Chron. Hist« vol. i. p. 19. SO.— Mone and Fui•b^l New.Etag. 
p. 6. 
S Life oif Ainf worth, p. S8. 

J. SMTTH. 197 

v^ery ordinance administered by them, was null and void* 
They were for some time, however, guilty of this incoo- 
«stency, that while they re-ordainra their pastors and 
teachen, they did not repeat their baptism. This defect 
was easily mscovered bv Mr. Smyth ; whose doubts con- 
cerning the validity of baptism, as administered in the 
national church, paved the way for fiis rejecting the baptism 
of infants altogether. Upon further consideration of the 
mibject, he was led to conclude^ that immersion was the 
trae and only meaning of the word baptism; and that the 
ordinance should be administered to those only who 
anpelued to believe in Jesus Christ. But the absurdity o£ 
Mr. Smyth's conduct certainly appeared in this, that, refus- 
i^ to apply to the German baptists, and wanting a proper, 
administrator, according to his views of the ordinance, he 
baptized himself; on which account he was stigmatized by 
the name of a Se-bapiist. This is related as a tact by moot 
of our historians ; and one of them affirms, that he was 
baptized no less than three times.* Crosby has, however^ 
tazen great pains to vindicate him from the charge of having 
baptized himself; yet it does not appear that he has been 
verv successtul.f 

Mr. Smyth's principles and conduct deeply involved him 

hi public controversy, and soon drew upon him an host of 

opponents, the chief of whom were Messrs. Robinson^ 

Ainsworth, Johnson, Jessop, and Clifton. The controversy 

commenced soon after his setdement at Amsterdam, and was 

carried on with too much asperity by both parties.^ 

Many writers observe, that soon after this unhappy con- 

tio?ersy broke out, Mr. Smjrth and his followers removed 

fixHn Amsterdam, and settled at Leyden ; whereas it is 

extremely obvious, from the testimony of persons who lived 

ia those times, and even in those places, that both he and 

his people continued at Amsterdam till the day of his death,§ 

^ch happened about the close of the year 1610. Tte 

year following appeared, '' A Declaration of the Faith of the 

fiaglish People remaining at Amsterdam, in Holland,'' 

being the remainder of Mr. Smyth's company : with an 

appendix, giving some account of bis sickness and death. 

• Piget'g Heresiography, p. 66.— -Ncars Puritans, vol. il. p. 46.— Life 
^' AinBworth, p. 38— 42.— Clark's Lives annexed to Marty rologie, p. 56. 
^ Crosby's Hist, of Baptists, vol. i.p. 95—98. 
t Ufe of Aioiwortb, p. 42. 
)Cotton*i Congregational Churches, p. 7.*Prioce*8 Chron. Hist. yo\, u 


A copy of fliis declaration is stiU preserved.* Soon aifiev 
his death, his followers returned to England ; and, as it iff 
generally supposed, they were the first of those now called 
general baptists in this country. Mr. Smyth possessed good 
abilities, was a learned man, and an able preacher, but he 
often changed his opinions, even to the very close of life« 
This, however, was undoubtedly from conviction, as he 
himself declared. '^ To change a false religion,*' says h^ 
<< is commendable, and not evil ; and to tall from the pro* 
fession of Puritanism to Brownism, and from Brownism to 
true Christian baptism, is not evil or reprovable in itself 
except it be proved that we fall from true religion.*'f 

Mr. Smyth and his company were certainly very much 
reproached by their enemies. This, as well as their drfenoe^ 
we have from his own pen. " We," says he, ** disclaim 
the errors commonlv, but most slanderously imputed onto 
us. We are, indeed, traduced by the world as atheists, by 
denying the Old Testament and the Lord's day ; as tiaiton 
to magistrates, in denying magistracy ; and as heretics^ in 
denying the humanity of Christ. Be it known, therefore, 
to all men ; first, that we deny not the scriptures of the Ola 
Testament, but, with the apostle, acknowledge them to be 
inspired of Grod; aiM that we have a sure word of the 
prophets whereunto we ought to attend as to a light shinii^ 
in a dark place; and that whatsoever was written aforetinw 
was written for our instruction, that we, through patience 
and comfort of the scriptures, might have hope. — Secondly, 
we acknowledge, that, according to the precaient of Christ's 
disciples and the primitive churches, the saints ought, ttpon 
the first day of the week, which is called the Lord's aay^ 
to assemble together to pray, prophesy, praise God, bceak 
bread, and pertbrm other parts of spiritual communion. fi>r 
the worship of God, their own mutual edification, and the 

? reservation of true religion and piety in the churchd-^ 
^hirdly, concerning magistrates, we acknowledge them to 
be the ordinance of the Lord ; that every soul ouffht to be 
subject unto them ; that they are the ministers or Grod for 
our good; that we ought to pray for them that are in 
authority, and not speak evil of them, nor despise govern*- 
ment, but pay tribute, custom, &c. — Finally, concerning 
the fiesh of Christ, we do believe that Christ is the seed m 
Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and of David, according te the 
prophecies of the scriptures ; and that he is the son w Maiy 

* Crosby's Baptists, vol. i. aod ii. AppcD. 

f Smyth's Character of the Beast, Pref. Edit. 1610. 

CUFTON. 199 

Ub modiery made of her subBtance, the Hol^ Ghost over- 
shadbwing her : also that Christ person in two distinct 
natures, me Godhead and manhood; and we detest the 
contraiy errors."* 

> His Works. — 1. Parallels and Censures, 1609.-— 2. The Character 
of the Beast: or, the false Constitution of the Church, (discovered in 
certain Passag^es betwixt Mr. R. Clifton and John Smyth, concerning 
tme Cbn^tian Baptism of New Creatures, or new-bom Babes ia 
Christ, and false Baptism of Infants born after the Flesh, 1610. — 
9. IKIfereiiees of the Churches of the Separation. — 1. A Dialogue oF 
Baptism.-*^ A Reply to Mr. Clifton's Christian Plea. 

- Richard Clifton was a person of a grave deportment, 
ami a successful preacher, but severely persecuted for non- 
conlbnnitjr.f He was pastor to one of the Brownist churches 
in the. north of England, and by his ministerial labours, 
many souls were converted to Christ The celebrated Mr.. 
John Robinson was a meml)er of his church, and afterwards 
Us socoessor in the pastoral office.} These worthy persons 
endnred most cruel persecution, and for a long time were 
^acoeedin^y harassed by the high commission, and were at 
length dnven out of the kingdom. About the year 1606, 
ICr. Clifton remov^ to Holland, and settled at Amsterdam ;^ 
where he became teacher to the church of which Mr. 
Fxancis Johnson was pastor. He carried his views (tf separa- 
fion much fiulher than Mr. Robinson, and imbibed many 
of the opinions of Mr. John Smyth ; but it appears that he 
was. afterwards reclaimed from so rigid a separation.|| He 
is denominated the principal scribe among the separatists, 
and is said to have writt^i most to the purpose in 
defence o£ separation.! As his writings were published 
during his exile in a foreign land, we have not been able to 
odlect the title of more than one of his pieces ; which was, 
^ A Hea for Infants and elder People concerning thek 
Baptism ; or, a Process of the Passages between M. John 
Smyth and Richard Clifton,*' 1610. Having renounced the 
firinciples of rigid separation, he wrote, as in the work jost 
mentioned, with great warmth against Mr. Smyth. He is 
said to have been one of Mr. Smyth's most violent adver* 

• 8ayth*s Character of the Beast, Pref . 

-f- Cotton's Congregational Churches, p. 7. 

t Moneand Parish's New Eng. p. 6. § Life of Ainsworth, p. ST. 

I Clark's Lives annexed to Martyr, p. 56. 

1 Paget's Arrow against Separation, p. 8. 


•aries.* Mr. Clifton ivas probably living when ihe alxmf 
piece was puUisbed ; but when he died we cannot aaoartaiik 

Nicolas Rush was fellow of Christ's college, Cam- 
bridge, and one of the preachers to the university, but 

Srsecuted lor his noncontbrmity. In his sermon at St 
ary's church, September 10, 1609, it is said that he 
doliyered divers opinions contrary to the religion of the 
established church ; for which he was convened before the 
vice-chancellor. Dr. Jegon, and the heads of houses, and 
required to deliver up a copy of his sermon. Having com- 
plied with their demands, certain offensive opinions weie 
extracted from his sermon, for which he was immediiiiely 
suspended from preaching, and enjoined to make a puUicf 
recantation from the pulpit of the above church. This 
degrading recantation, containing an account of his oflSsosite 
crimes, was the following : 

^' Whereas many christian auditors, wis^ tS9^^7 '^' 
*^ religious, have been offended with many things which I 
^^ not long since uttered in a sermon in this putce, justly 
^' reprehending not only my great indiscretion, presumptioto, 
<< uncharitableness, rash and bold censuring, but also some 
^< strange and erroneous opinions I then was taken to 
^^ deliver; I am now come to the same public place (after 
^< sundry conferences had with divers grave and teamed 
'< divines of this university) to acknowledge my £ralt and 
^^ make satisfaction. 

« And, first, in my prayer, where I used very irreverent 
<< and reproachful speech against the clergy, or aome of 
^^ them, terming them gorbellied clergy ; and abo some 
<< ofiensive speeches, which might be ts^en to touch avtho- 
^^ rity, or some attending at court, calling them devilish 
^^ parasites, in flattering and attributing overmuch to some 
^' u higher place : upon better advice, I now admowledge 
<< niy presumptuous boldness therein, {•'urther, in tluit 1 
*^ did then deliver three opinions in these words, via. that 
<< St. IPaul and Moses did faulty and err in their desires^ it 
^^ coming from a scourge and force of a pa^ion too eaniest 
^' and hot, and not sufficiently bounded with the true limiti 
^' of pure charity. And also even our Saviour Chris's 
<^ prayer (Father if thou wilt, let this cup pass from mcv y^ 
^^ not my will, but thy will be done,) came from nature QBiIy^ 

« Crosby's Baptists, vol. i. p. 99. 

RUSH. aoi 

'^ Urithmit reason attending, his nnderstandin^ all the while 
^^ being otherwise busied, and his reasonable deliberation 

"^ not ccmcurring therewith ; for it is not necessary that the 
^^ reascMiable mind should always concur with the tongue^ 
^< men speaking in their sleep, and parrots also learning that 
<< fecuhy. And that his mouth, with all the instruments of 
^< speech, were writhed as it were, and wrested to utter th^ 
^ same, and substance of his natural instinct and inclination. 
^ And farther, that our Saviour Christ's prayer, though it 
** were uttered by a person reasonable, yet it was nothing 
^ in substance but a nature desired prayer : it bein^ 
^< directly and originally the proper cause of it. And 

' *^ fiorther, that the words of Christ were as the words of a 
^^ man in sleep. Whereas in my confutation of Mr. Beza's 
^ judgment, (being that the prayer of Christ came from a 
^^ leasooable will^) I uttered these words in answer : < As I 
*^ take it, it cannot stand ; for how could he, without tedious 
^^and untimely troubling^ and obtruding his Father's ears, 
^^ (as I may so speak,) pray that the cup should pass from 
^ him.' 

' **^I now, upon better deliberation, do, with grief and 
^Borrow of heart, confess before Grod and his angels, and 
^ this whole assembly, that 1 have greatly erred in my 
<< said opinions publicly delivered, and especially touching 
^ the points about the most holy, earnest, meritorious, and 
** heavienly prayer of our Saviour in that bitter agony sufr 
*' feied for our sins ; wherein my said speeches were not onljt 
<< errcmeous, rash, and presumptuous, but also such as might 
<< be taken to be dishonourable to our Saviour, impious aind 
^ profane, giving just scandal both to such as then heard 
^^ me, and those to whom the report hath come. Where^ 
^ fore I humbly beseech, first. Almighty God, and next 
^ you all whom I have offended, to forgive me, promising^ . 
<< by God's grace, to be more vigilant and circumspect 
^^ hereafter in what I shall publidy utterj either in this 
^< or any other place : which, that I may the better perform, 
<< I humbly desire you to pray for me, and now to joui with 
^ me in that most absolute form of prayer which our 
^ Srtviomr Christ himself hath taught us. ' 

Bir. Rush absolutely refused to maSe this degrading 
tecantation; for which, February 8, 1610, he was expelled 
ftom the university ;• and this is all that we know of nim. 

• Baker*8 MS. CoUec. vol. f i. p. 189, 190. 


Mr. Lancaster was born of good family, and for some 
lime was fellow of Kins^s college, Cambridge, where lie 
mq^ probaUy received Sis education. He was a mw of 
great hnmiUt^, fidth, and self-denial, and an ezodleat 
scholar, especially in Latin. . The famous Qr. Collins used 
to say, <^ he delivered his public lectures in as pure Latin 
as TuUv, having no other notes than what he wrote on the 
nails of his fingers." With his great learning, and otiiei 
ornamental accomplishments, his preaching was plain, and 
easy to be understood ; and he was ccmtent to live among 
plain people, with a living of less than forty pounds a year, 
lie was teneficed at some place near Bonbuiy, in Oz£nd- 
^hire ; but, about the year 1610, was suspended both fiom 
his oflice and benefice, by the tyrannical oppression of 
Archbishop Bancroft. Mr. Clark gives the foUowii^ 
account of this excellent divine : << When I was young,^ 
aays he, ^ I knew Mr. Lancaster. He was a little man, but 
eminent, as for other things, so especially for living by 
fiiith. - His charge was great, and his means smaH. When 
his wife was abou^t to send her servant-maid to buy provi* 
aion at Banbury market, she would many times come to 
him, and tell him she had no money ; his usual answer wai^ 
Send your maidL, and God vritt provide. And though she 
■ent her maid without numey, sne never returned empty; 
fox one or other, who knew her to be Mr. Lancaster's nuud, 
would give her money, by which their present wants mm 

Thomas Peacock, B. D. — This learned and pious divine 
was bom in Cheshire, and educated most probably in 
Brazen-nose college, Oxford, where he was chdsen fellow. 
He was the leanied tutor, the familiar friend, and the 
roiritual father to the famous Mr. Robert Bolton, <^ 
oroughton in Northamptonshire, who, at his deaUi, Im an 
account of him in manuscript, which was intended for the 
use of the public, and afterwards published by his friend 
Mr. fldward Bagshawe. Thence tbe following singular 
narrative of Mr. Peacock is collected ; and it contains « 
fNretty copious abstract (^ the whole. As the piece is 
^tten throughout nearly in the form of a dialogue, the 
s^me; method is observed in the abstract, with nf Uttk 
alteration as possible. 

* Clark's Livef aaoezed to lHartjr. p. 318> S19» 


Mr. Peacock was a very godly minister of Cfaiiat, and a 
rare example of, humility and holiness in the religious 
edncation of his scholars, and in his extraordinary conc^n^ 
for both the bodies and souls of poor distressed christians. 
Notwithstanding his eminent grace and excellent piety^ 
he endured, in his last sickness, the most remarkable spir 
ritaal conflict. He was brought even to the suburbs of 
hell, and thence plucked as a brand from the fire. The 
taemy of his peace was permitted to come upon him as an 
iimed man ; but God restored comfort to his dejected soul^ 
bound up his broken spirit, and poured the precious balm 
of Qilead into his wounded and bleeding conscience. For 
nearly three weeks after the commencement of his affliction^ 
his time was almost wholly employed in serious deyotion 
and. holy^ c<m verse with God, and he was full of most 
heavenly consolations. He said his hope was firmlj 
fixed on the rock Christ Jesus. He hoped the Lord 
would give him a place among his saints, though it were 
in the lowest room. He thaiS^ed God, that he had no 
trouble of conscience; and that the Lord did not suffer 
Satan to vex him. But afterwards calling to some of his 
friends, he addressed them as follows : 

Peacock. I thought I had been in a good state, but 
I see it now far otherwise. My conscience lays these things 
i^inst me. I brought up my scholars in gluttony, letting 
them eat their fill of meat when they lived with me. While 
I was talking, they did undo themselves. I did unad- 
visedly expound places of scripture at the table ; and for 
these things I now feel a hell in my conscience. I have 
procured my own death, by often eating like a beast. 

Friend. How do you do ? 

P. Sin, sin^ sin! 

F. What doth any lie on your conscience ? 
1* P. Yea, my inconsiderateness : I did cut too much meat 
to breakfast. But Grod be thanked there is no greater. Am 
we must not extenuate, so neither must we too much aggra- 
vate our sin. Let drunkards and gluttons have those 
terrible horrors. I thank God, I never continued in any 
known sin against my conscience. — (He afterwards with 
bitterness exdaimed,) A damnable wretch. Oh, how woeful 
and miserable is my state, that I must converse with hell- 
hounds. The Lord hath cursed me: the event sheweth it 
I have no grace. I was a foolish, vain-glorious hypocrite. 
It is a^nst the course of God's proceeding to save me* 
He hath otherwise decreed : he cannot. 


F. Pat your trust in God. 

P. I cannot ; no more than a hone. 

F. Do you desire to believe ? 

P. No more than a post, or an horse-shoe. I hsfe 19 
more sense of grace than these curtains; than a gooK; 
thah a block. 

F. Let the testimony of your life past comfoit ymiy 
especially in the calling of a tutor. 

P. I did the business there(^ negligently. When I 
handled hard authors, I came often unprepared, and read 

F. Be of good courage, and the Lord will comfiMrt yowr 

P. It is ended : there is no such matter. 

F. Why do you think so? You shall see the ercnt. 
God will yet bring it to pass. 

P. Tush, tush, trifles. 

F. What do you think of your former doctrine? 

P. Very good. 

F. Let it now comfort yon. 

P. It cannot 

F. You desire it could. There is nothing impoariUs 
with God, which stands with his decree. 

P. Oh i Oh ! miserable and woeful. The burden of 
my sin lieth heavy upon me. I doubt it will break my 

F. Behold your comforts. 

P. That is nothing to me. I prav you hdd your peaces 
You vex me. Your words are as daggers in my heart 

F. Remember, sir, the good counsek you have given us. 

P. Those were ordinary. 

F. You may see many others^ in the like estate. See 

P. Not such as mine. Why do you speak to me of 

F. Good sir,- endeavour to settle your mind. 

P. Yes, to play with hell-hounds. 

F. Will you pray. 

P. I cannot. 

F. You were wont heretofore. 

P. Yes, by a custom and vain-glory. 

F. Suffer us to pray for you. , 

P. Take not the name of Grod in vain, by praying br 

F. Suffer us to pray for ourselves. 


P. Look to it; you would now shew vour faculty in 
pvaying.— ^Afier prayer was ended^ he said, do not trouble 
yourselves in yain.) 

F. Let not the devil delude you, abusing your mind and 
toiij^e. I know you speak not these wonk. 

P. I wonder that intelligent scholars should speak thus. 

F. We are persuaded you are in as good a state as 

P. Look how it is with yourselves, in truth. 

F. How can you discern this change by the absence of 
God, if you never enjoyed his presence ? ^ 

Pk I thought I had it once; but now I see it is far 
otherwise. Oh, me ! Wretch that I am ! 
f F. Be of good comfort 

P. I cannot. I hav# no more grace than a back-stock, . 

F. Do you desire grace ? 

P. I cannot. I can as well leap over the church* 

F. Would you not be in heaven ? 

P. I would not. 

F. The devil himself would if he could. You have 
the testimony of faith : you love the brethren. 

P. I do not. 

F. Do you not love us ? 
. P. No. 

F. What is it that most troubles you ? 

P. I took too much upon me foolishly. I had got a 
little logic and Greek ; and, meanly instructed in the ruleSi 
l set myself to read to scholars ; and afterwards undertook 
other business which drew my attenUon from them. I 
have destroyed a thousand souls. 

F. You inay see the falsehood of him that suggesteth 
-this unto you. You never had a thousand. The good 
efect of your pains appears in many 'of your scholars. 

P. They were of themselves capable. 
*. F. Name one in whom they do not appear. 
* P. There is one, (pointing at a master of arts.) 

F. I thank God, that I ever came to you. 

P. It is not so. I did foolbhly. 
. F. You confess yoii did foolishly;, therefore^ not of 
iioalice. Consider what would have become of them^ if ypu 
tind not taken them. 
* P- Better, far better. 

F. All the college know the contrary. .. 

f. But I feel it 

F. it is iidse : believe not the devil. 


P. It » too true. 

F. When will yon make amends? God will giTC yon 
yonr desire. 

P. Never. 

F. Are you sorry that he will not ? 

P. No. There is no ^race in my heart : it is dead. . 

F. Whom Grod ioveth once, he loveth to the end. 

P. But he never did love me. I deceived myself by t 
certain vain-glory. 

F. You could say the Lord's prayer, and, tlieiefoie,'caH 
Um Father. 

P. That I did hypocritically. 

F. You must trust in the Lord. 

P. I cannot: I cannot. He will not have me.saved. Hii 
sentence is passed. 

F. Do you desire to be saved ? 

P. No. 

F. Do you desire to desire ? 

P. No. 

F. Would you be damned ? 

P. No. 

F. Look at the sins of other men, as great as ycmis ; ttid 
yet they are saved. 

P. They are good and godly. They have found grace: 
here is the difference. Bfy sins are horrible. 

F. I see now how it is. You strictly look back to your 
ewn actions for ydur justification, and will have mme of 
God's mercy ; and now he hath justly met with you. Your 
judgment is just. Do you hope to be justified by your own 
merits ? 

P, I fear to be danmed for my sins.^ Oh! if you did 
but feel my grief only erne hour, you would have ooii»* 

F. If you were in the fire, you would wish to get ouL 

P. I had rather be in the fire than here. I took many 
things upon me too proudly, and, being neglu^nt, f&[* 
formed nothing. Cursed be the day when I took schwis. 
If I had not taken them, I had been happy. I was aa 
hypocrite, and now there is no hope of comfort for me in 
God's presence. 

F. W hat would you counsel me to do ? 

P. Abide within the bounds of your caUing; Take ^not 
too much upon you, and the Lord will bless yon. 

F. Will it avail me to hear sermons ? 

P. Yes, if you mean to be saved. 


F. What good shall I reap thence ? 
P. Nothing from bailee hearing. . 

F. You know the poor in spirit are blessed. 

P. I am not such. 

F. You see you are empty of aU good : yon feel your 

P. I may you, ^o your way. (He turned his head 
aside, and stopped his ears.) 

F. What though you have done but little good ; yet, if 
joa have onl^ given a cup of cold water, in Sie name of a 
disciple, it will be accepted. 

P. Oh! if God— 

F. He will give you grace. 

P. I doubt it. Oh God, give me a spark of grace, aaid 
enlarge my heart to apprehend it. 

P. Oh, Mr. Dod ! I have no grace. 

Dod. I will not believe every one who saith bc^ btth 
grace, nor every one who saith he hath none. A man must 
not always be led by sense. You forgive yoUi? enemies and 
love them, aid would do them no hurt, if you coold. 

P. Yes. 

D. Then your sins are forgiven : an hypocrite may ^ve 
alms and fast, but this he cannot do. ^ 

P. That is a small matter. 

D. I think it to be a great one ; yea, such a one as I had 
need to pray for. That is put for a reason in 'the Lord's 
player; and if Christ had thought of any more forcible^ 
he would have given it. 

P. Sir, that is true, in those who are elected. 

D. Do not you put an exception where Grod hath put 
none. I came hither ixi cheiri^ you; and you love your 

• P. I cannot 
D. Would yqu rather have bad or good men to be with 


P. Good. 

D. Yet you say you do not love them. There is oo 
fellowship between light and darkness. Doth your sick* 
uess or your sin most trouble you ? And would you hav» 
grace, rather than health ? 

P. Grace : but it cannot be. 

D. Do you desire to be saved ? 

P. Infinitely! Oh! if God would give me a drop. But 
I feel horror. 

I). Do noib you search into the secrets of Grod ? 


P. It is too true and manifest. 

D. Sir, do nqi always be digging at your sins. A wound 
continually rubbed cannot be cured. Suffer the plaster of 
the word of God to rest upon it, that it may be healed. 

P. Oh, if I had! Oh, if it would pleaseGod! I had 
rather than any thing in this or three thousand worlds. 

D. Who now giveth this desire unto you ? Ofoursdns 
we cannot think a good thought. God giveth both the will 
and the deed. A desire is a sure token. 

P. But I cannot truly desire. Oh, if he would etdaige 
my heart. 

D. Cast your burden upon the Lord. 

P. He hath rejected me. 

D. Who nmde you his counsellor ? Secret things bekmg 
to God, but things revealed to us: Will you make 
almanacs ? 

P. He doth manifest it. Oh, mine abominable bringing 
op of youth ! — (He groaned most bitterly.) 

D. JBchold we make your state our own^— we have pait 
in your sorrow. Who hath thus disposed our heaits ? 

P. God. 

D. And do you think that he who causeth us to love yon 
doth not love you himself? 

P. I fear I did too much glory in matters of ^vate 
service of God. 

D. The devil hath now winnowed you, and yon think all 
is gone out; but God holdeth what is his. When aft 
earthly father setteth his son on work, he must do it in hit 
own strength : but the Lord setteth on work, and givdh 

P. Oh^ my heart is miserable. 

D. What then ? A father loveth his son as well whea 
he is sleeping as when he is waking. Sir, I have knows 
you heretofore^ and although, if I were in your caae^ I nugU 
do as you do; yet I should remain the servant of God, ai. 
you certainly do. If Jacob could say of Esau, I have seen 
thy face as though I had seen the face of God; how muck 
more should you think so of the children erf* God who coot 
to you. 

P. I think God hath begun to give me ease. 

D. He will in his good time. 

P. Grod grant it. 

D. AKhou^ we depart from our friend in the way, wa 
shall meet at the end. 
. After Mr. Dod was departed, he leoeived a ktterftoBUi 


■ffectionate friend Mr. Bolton, in which he thus addressed 
him : — '' I heard, I know not how,. Uiat my dear christian 
nriend Mr. Feacock is in great distress, which hath much 
grieved and afflicted my heart, and wrung from me many 
Qitter tears. If his extremities be such^ h^ temptations are 
likely to be very sore. Tell him from me, as froni one who 
did. ever with dearest intimacy know and converse with him, 
t&at I can assure him in the word of life and truth, from a 
most holy and just Grod, whose minister I am, that he is 
undoubtedly one of his saints, designed for inunortality, 
and the endless joys of another world." 

Upon the reading of Mr. Bolton's letter, at those words, 
<< I can assure him,? he said, '' Oh, take heed, take heed.r 
I did deceive myself: now God hath revealed more. My 
heiirt is broken. " Then," observed one of his friends, 
" the promise is yours." " Oh," said he, " I love your 
company, for the grace that is in you." He then cried to 
fhe Lord, saying, ^^ Oh God, reconcile me unto thee, that 
I may taste one dbram of thy grace, by which my miserable 
wml may receive comfort. Satan hath borne nie in hand, 
and hatn deluded me." A person afterwards coming to 
him, and asking him how he did, he replied, <^ My mind 
was grievously . puzzled with sundry distractions in the 
night; but now, I thank God, I feel my burden more light; 
Lord, grant me the comfort of thy deliverance, and for^ve 
me my foolishness, that I may praise thy name." An mti- 
miate fricadd taking his final leave of him, and asking his 
ooonsel, he said, '^ Look to your calling, that it be as well 
inward as outward;" and he urged others to be diligent in 
prpinotin^ God's glory. Being asked how he did, he said, 
^ Oh 1 ifit woulcf please God mat I might live with him :" 
.then^ added, << I have been thinking of arguments by which 
i. might plead my cause with God, and I have found them. 
But what if dyifig thus I should be found an apostate! 
Ttmljj'*^ said he, ^< my heart and soul have been far led, 
apd deeply troubled with temptations and strifes of con- 
fdence ; but, I thank God, they are in a good measure 
cased : wherefore I desire that I may not be branded as a 

Afterwards, when he was asked what he thought of l^is 
finrmer doctrine, he said, <^ It is most true. In it I have 
Uyed, and in it I will die : I have not dealt hypocritical^ 
in if Being asked whether he was willing to die, he said, 
^1 truly submit to the will of God." When it was 
jaqj^ipijyfhtOKi he forgave all offences, he replied, ^< Yes, 


^aad desire that mine may be foKjgyren. I heutiljr \ 
bmnbly ask forgiTenesB." When it was intimated tint his 
convenation had been unblameable, he said, ^ No ; I dait 
not affirm it. I trust in nothing but in the name of Jesai 
Christ; yet I would not be pressed io a paiticular ■wnrancs 
in this grievous agony. Indeed/' said he, ^* I htm beea 
bold to argue thus with God : if he hath shewed raenyto 
such and such, why should not I likewise have hope. The 
Lord is merciful tome, and I have cause of rejiHcing.** 

Dr. Airay coming to see him, he ccmipbdned or Ids sia 
and misery ; and when the doctor signified that lie looked 
SMt fof any thin^ in himself to recommend him to God) he 
said, << JNfo, nothing.'' To a number oi joatig geMaatai 
who came to see him, he said, << Live in the fear of God^ 
that jcia may die in his favour. Otherwise die ox and ths 
ass wiU condemn you. I spent my time foolishly and pio^ 
dinlly." When it was observed that he had vemenbofli 
this Sv^ientiy, and was advised to remember Christ alM^ 
he said, *< That is true. Christ is to be lemembered, ani 
our sins are to be remembered also." 

About two hours brfore his death he expressed himself to 
those about him as follows : — '^ You all expect that I dbooU 
declare what I think of my own salvation. Truly God ii 
for ever so endearingly tender, and so inconoeivabty merci- 
All to all those whom he hath once loved, that he dcwi nevcif 
finally forsake them. Therefore I am asMired that I AmU pi 
to heaven. Happy, thrice happy are those fiettets of afflie^ 
Hon in which my gracious God hath tied and bound me.*** 
A fnend having said to him, '^ You have fought a good 
fight,'* he answered, << It is requisite, it is requisite tSat I 
should contend for heaven. Lift me up; help me out; 
carry me hence that I may go to heaven. God doth fiivou^ 
ably accept the endeavours of his saints." Being remindBd 
of Grod^s great mercy to him, he said, << Oh, the sea is not 
so full of water, nor the sun of light, as God is of goodnes* 
His mercy is ten thousand times more. I do^ God be 
praised, feel such comfort in this, that if I had five thotMiri 
worlds, I could not make recompense for such tat issue. 
How shall I extol the munificence of Grod, which is an^ 
ftpeakaUe, and more than any heart can conceive ? Lei-vh 
with humble reverence, acknowledge Us mat iBertf||* 
What great cause have I to magnify the goocmess of CSi^ 
who hath humbled, nay, rather hath exalted so vnretchlQds 
miscreant, and of so base a condition, to ah estate so gloffDis 
and stately I T4ie Lord," said he^ << hath bonooxed JM 


with his goodness. I am sure he hath provided a gloriotn 
kuacdom for me. The joy that I feel in my soul is incre- 
dibk. Blessed be God, blessed be God ! I am a thousand 
times happy to have such felicity thrown upon me, a poor 
wretcbea miscreant.'' After panting a little for breath, he 
said, << Lord Jesus, into thy hands I commit my spirit. 
LcHrd, receive my soul. Lord, lift thou up the light x>f thy 
coimtehance upon me, and be merciful unto me;" and then 
fisll asleep in the Lord, December 4, 1611. His remains 
were interred in St. Mary's churcli, Oxford.* 
'' Mr. Peacock was greatly beloved by many persons of 
Ileal worth, on account of his great learning, piety, and 
luefiilness. Sir Robert Harley,+ his constant friend and 
worthy patron, was particularly kind to him during his 
hetLYy affliction, and promised, if the Lord should restoi^ 
him, to do great things for him. The learned divines who 
attended Mr. Peacock in his sickness, as Mr. Dod, Dr. 
Airay, and others, were all decided puritans. The author 
and publisher of his life were persons of the same stamp. 
The latter ^nployed his printer to procure a license for the 
work, during the severe persecution of the puritans, in 
-1635, but in this he was absolutely refused ; because '' it 
was too precise (meaning too puritanical) for those times.*' 
It was afterwards licensed by Mr. Edmund Calamy, the 
celebrated nonconformist, and published in 1646. From all 
these circumstances, we conclude that Mr. Peacock was a 
divine of puritanical principles, and ought in justice to be 
glassed among the puritan worthies.^ 

Gabriel Powel, B. D. — This learned person was the 
iOB iji Dr. David Powel, the famous antiquary ; born at 
Roabon, in Denbighshire, in the year 1575, and educated in 
Jeras college, Oxford. Having finished his studies at the 
iuuveisity, he became master of the free-school at Ruthen, 
IBl his native county. During his abode in the country, he 

* Wood's Athenn Oxon. fol. i. p. 802. 

^ Mr Robert WM knight of the shire for the county of Hereford, and 

~ of the lllot, to which ofice was annexed a salary of four thousand 

\ ft year. In 1641 he received a commission from the lionse of com* 

to d|M#llih all inag^ cnicifixes, and other obnoxious relics of 

I aad Ml commfaaloB was panctually executed. He had consider- 

' nice In die hoaie ; and, Uice others of his illustrious fomily, was 

IHead aad patroo of learning. He died NoYcmber 0, 1656. — 

a. 4T. Edit. 1788.— t7rMi^<r*« Biog. Hist, f ol. ii. p. S69. 

HiriM!^ CoaOicii, and Daath of Mr. Peacock. 


paid h close application to the writings of the father^ and to 
the study of philosophy, and laid a foundation for seTer^ 
works which he intended to publish. But this not being! 
suitable situation ibr the accomplishment of his wishes, be 
again returned to Oxford, entered St. MaryVhall, and 
wrote and published several learned books. He was one of 
those. learned divines who wrote a^inst Bishop Bilson, 
concerning Christ's dcscenUiiito hell. On account of the 
admirable productions of pen, he obtained ^eat fapM^ 
especially among the puritans. His high reputation having 
spread through the country, Dr. Vauffhan, the pious and 
learned Bishop of London, who was a decided friend to the 
puritans, invited him to London, made him his domestic 
chaplain, and, had he lived much longer, would have done 
great things for him. A minister of the same name, .and 
most probably the same person, was made prebendary of 
Portpool, in the year 1609; but resigned it by death pre- 
vious to December SI, 1611.* Wood says he was esteme^ 
a prodigy of learning, though he died when a little more 
than thirty years old ; and had he lived to a greater maturity 
of years, it is thought he would have exceeded the famoos 
Dr. John Rainolds, or any of the learned heroes of the age: 
but he adds, ^' that he was a zealot, and a stiff puritan.'^f 

His WoRKS.^l. The Resolved ChristiaD, 1602.— 2. ProdromOs: 
or a Logical Resolution of the first Chapter or the Epistle to tbe 
Romans, 1602. — 3. Theological and Scholastical Positions conoeniiig 
Usnry, 1002.— 4. The Catholicks' Supplication to tbe King for Toler- 
ation of Catholic Religion, with Notes and Ohserrations in thf 
Margin, 1603. — 5. A Supplication parallel-wise, or Counterpdie of 
the Protestants to the .said Kiug, 1603.— 6. A Consideration of Paj^ 
Reasons of State and Religions, for a Toleration of Popery in £iig- 
land, intimated in their Supplication to the King*B Majesty, and tht 
State of the present Parliament, 1604.— 7. The Unlawfbinwi and 
Danger of Toleration of divers Religions, and Connivance to ccniiatj 
Worship in one Monarchy or Kingdom, 1605.-^ A Refutation ofai^ 
Epistle Apologetical, written by a Puritan-papist to persuade the 
Permission of the promiscuous use and profession of all sorto of 
Heresies, 1605. — 9. A Consideration of the Deprived and Siientied 
Ministers* Arguments for their Restitution to the use and liberty of 
their Ministry, exhibited in their late Supplication to this preMUt 
Parliaqient, 1606. — 10. Disputationcs Theologicse de Antichrifti^ 
1606.— 11. De Adiaphoris theses Theologicse et ScholasticaB, iMIb-' 
12. Rejoinder unto the Mild Defence, Justifying the Coniideratka 
of the Silenced Ministen' Supplication to the Parliament-«^i3i 'A 
Comment on the Pecalogne. — Most of the above artieles ps*^ 
through several editions. 

• Newcoart*8 Repert. Ecd. vol. i. p. 201. 
f ^ood*i Athenis Ozon. vol. i. p. 894, 394.~ 


? Thomas Holland^ D. D. — This celebrated scholar and 
divine was bom at Ludlow in Shropshire, in the year 
1539, and educated in Exeter college, Oxford ; where 
lie took his degrees with ^eat applause.' In 1589 he 
mcceeded Dr. Lawrence Humphrey, as king's pro- 
ftssHOr of divinity ; and in 1592, was elected master of 
fixeter college, being accounted a prodigy in almost al} 
kuids of literature. His distinguished reputation was not 
confined to his own country. He was higlily admired in 
tke foreign universities, as well as in our own public semi- 
naries. During his professorship, many persons eminent 
fer learning and piety were his scholars, who afterwards 
,became conspicuous ornaments in the church and the 

1 Dr. Holland was a thorough Calvinist in his vietv s of the 
doctrines of the gospel, and a decided nonconformist in 
iritattexs of ceremony and discipline. In one of his public 
^C^s at the university, he boldly maintained that bishops 
ifeie no 4istinct order from presbyters, nor at all superior 
^.them, according to the word of God. He was a most 
(jsalous opposer of the innovations in doctrine, worship, and 
ceremonies, intended to be introduced into the university of 
^xfonl, by Bancroft, Neile, and Laud.* In the year 1604 
iHr., .William Laud, afterwards the famous archbishop, per- 
fyxwing his exercise for bachelor of divinity, maintained, 
^ That there could be no true churches without diocesan 
episcopacy ;" for which, it is said. Dr. Holland sharply 
lebuked, and publicly disgraced him, as one who endea- 
wared to. sow discord among brethren, and between the 
(^rch of EIngland and the reformed churches abroad.f 
During the above year. Dr. Holland was one of the Oxford 
OiTines'appdinted by King James to draw up a new trans- 
Ifition of the Bible ; and he had a considerable hand in that 
J^aimed and laborious work. This is the translation now in 

. Towards the close of Ufe^ this celebrated divine spent 
qpost of his time in meditation and prayer. Sickness, old 

r, and its infirmities, served only to increase his ardour 
heaven. He loved God, p^nd longed to enjoy him. His 
iaml was fcmned for heaven. He could find no rest out of 
p^ven ; and his end was peace. Finding the hour of his 
O^i^arture near at hand, he exclaimed, ^' Come, O come 


.118. ChroDology, vol. ii. p. 635. (2.) 
MB. Renvkt, p. 583. — Canterburies Doome, p. 389. 
" 1*1 mH4 of Refor. ? ol. U. Rcc. p. 367. 



Lord Jesus, thou bright Morning Star ! Gome, Lord Jesus: 
I desire to be dissolved, and be with thee." Herein Ui 
request was granted. Jesus crowned him with glory, 
immortality, and eternal life, March 17, 161S, a^ed seraity- 
three years. His remains were interred in the chancel of SL 
Mary^s church, Oxford, with great funeral solemnity and 
universal lamentation. He was succeeded in tlie pro- 
fessor's chair by Dr. Robert Abbot, afterwards Bishop of 

Dr. Xilhy, who preaclicd his funeral sermon, mm 
the followiii'i^ account of him : ^^ He had a wonderfhl 
kiiowleilgc of all the learned languages, and of all arts and 
sciences, both human and divine. He was mighty in the 
scriptures; and so familiarly acquainted with we faiheBB^- 
as if he himself had been one of them ; and so versed in 
the schoolmen, as if he were the seraphic doctor. He wa%> 
tlierefore, most worthy of the divinity chair, whiqh he filled 
about twentv years, with distinguished approbation aal 
ap])lause. He was so celebrated tor his preaching, teading/ 
disputing, moderating, and all other excellent qualificatioiiii 
that all who knew him conunended him, and all who heafa' 
of him admired him. 

^^ His life was so answerable to his learning, that it was 
difficult to say which was most to be admired. He was sDot 
like those, who when they become learned cease to do weD; 
nor like those, who by their learning, aspire after riches, 
honours, or preferments ; but his learning was so sanctifled' 
by the Holy Ghost, that he ever aspired towards the kingdiMfi 
of heaven. His lite and conversation w6re so holy, upii||M 
and sanctified, that in him the fruits of the Spirit gMklljr 
abounded: as, love, joy, peace, gentleness, medknea^ 
temperance, and brotherly kindness. He was so zealons in 
advocate for the purity of the gospel, both in faith and 
worship, and had so great an -aversion to all innovatko, 
superstition and idolaStry, that previous to his going a 
journey, he constanilv called together the fellows of ikt 
college, and delivered to them this charge : < I commend' 

* This most pious and learned prelafe, brother to Arehbiiluip AUMi 
distlDipiished himself by writing in defence of Mr. WUlitti FntiM^ 
«' Reformed Catholic,'* against Dr. WiUiam Bbhop, tbeo • tecriM^ 
prieft, but afterwards, in the pope's style, a titalar biihop of CbakcdM* 
when Abbot was offered the bishopric of Salisbary, it wai with 
icreat dificnlty he conld be pressed to accept it; insomach, that wheite 
attended at conrt, to do his homage afker his conaecratioa. Kiss ii 
Abbot, I have had very mach to d« ta 

pleasanUy said to him, ^ 

a bishop I tnit 1 know bo reason for it, onicn it' were becaaw tW« kM 
writfoi agaiiM oae.*'^lli0^. Britmm. ? oL i. p. »» 8S. Edit, ma 


joii Id the loye of God, and to the hatred <^ all pcq)ery and 
suMi#itioo.' "• The Oxford historian denominates him <* a 
9QUd preacher, a most noted disputant, and a most learned 
divine/'f It does not appear whether he was any relatioii 
to Mr* John Holland, another excellent puritan diyine. 

Dr* Holland published several learned orations, and a 
9ennon on Mat. xii. 48, printed IGOl ; and left many 
■lanuscripts ready for the press, which, fiedling into the 
luuids of those unfriendly to the puritans, were nerer 
paUished. , 

. HuoH Broughtok. — This celebrated penoa was bom 
lit Oldbury in Shropshire, bordering on Wal^, in 1549, and 
descended from an ancient and a wealthy family. Ho 
9DoeiYed his grammar learning under tl^ famous Mr* 
Bernard iGilpin, at Houghton in the Spring, near Darham; 
irho sent him to Christ^s collie, Cambridge, where lie 
ns afterwards chosen fellow.t He was also elected one of 
W taxers of the university, preferred to a prebend in 
4ie church of Durham, and chosen reader of divinity at 
OorAam* In the year 1579, after enjcqring his fellowship 
several years, he was deprived of it by the vice-chanceDor 
Md others. Though he was censured in this manner, it 
W9S not for want of learning, or for any blemish in his cha- 
lacter, but on account of some trivial irregularity in his 
admission to, or continuance in, that pvrferment. Bfr* 
Brao^ton was a man of ^reat celebrity ; and he had many* 
able Sriends, who, at this juncture, pleaded his cause, and 

Sve high commendations of his character. The Bishop of 
orham became hk zealous advocate, and wrote a letter, 
dated December 14, 1579, to Lord Burleigh, chancellor of 

• KHbjp'i FoBcral Sermon for Dr. HoUand. 

f Wood^s Athene Oxon. vol. i. p. 380. 
' J TiMfoUowing anecdote is related of Mr. Brooghton :— At the celebrated^ 
Beniard Gilpin was once traveliinf to Oxford « he obserred a boy befiM« 
Ifte, MBMlimei walking, and sometimes running. When he came op to him» 
oMenring him to be a youth of an agreeable and promising aspect, Im 
•aked him whence be came, and whither he vv as going. The hoy told him» 
that he came out of Wales, and was going to Oxford, in order to be « 
scholar. Mr. Gilpin having examined him, found him expert in the Latin, 
■ad possessed of a smatteriag of Greeli; and was so pleased with his ap* 
pcarance, and the qoichness of his replies, that he inquired if he would go 
with him, and he woald provide for his education. The youth agreed to 
the generous proponl, and went with him to Houghton i where he mado 
woodcrfnl proPclency both in Greek and Hebrew i and Mr. Gilpia after- 
wwds lent him to finish his education at Cambridge.-r^JPWIfr*« Jih$i JML 
Y* S88.-^€hnrr« JBccl. BUL p. 764. 


the university, earnestly soliciti^ that Mr. Bronghtdi^ 
notwithstanding his preferment at Durham, might stiU con- 
tinue to hold his fellowship. The Ekurls of Hiintingdoii 
and Essex, at the same time, warmly espoused his ctfnse^ 
and jointly addressed a letter, dated February S4, 1580, to 
the worthy chancellor, in his favour. The two ndUe 

e arsons speak in this letter in high commendation of Bfr. 
roughton's learning, obedience and circumspection ; and 
observe, that only want of maintenance in the univeiritf 
had induced him to accept of the above prebend, which, 
however, he was more willing to resign than lose his place in 
the university. " This," it is added, " shewed the good mind 
that was in him."* JLiord Burleigh addressed a ' letter, 
dated October 20, 1580, to Dr. Hatcher, the vice-chancdlor, 
and Dr. Hawford, master of the college, in which he expresKS 
with great warmth bis disapprobation of their conduct, and 
the conduct of the fellows, in their unjust treatment of Ur. 
Broughton.f Therefore, after much opposition, he was, in 
1581, by an order from this generous and worthy statewnan, 
again admitted to his fellowsiiip ; though it does not aj^pear 
whether he returned any more to the cou^e.^ In the mein 
time he very generously resigned the office of taxer €i the 

Mr. Broughton having left the university, removed ta 
London, where he had many worthy friends, amcmg whom 
were the two earls already mentioned; also Sir WaBcr 
M ildmay, and others. About the same time, he entettd 
upon the ministerial function ; but still pursued his studies 
with uncommon assiduity, usually spending fourteen ix 
sixteen hours a day in the most intense applic^timi. In Us 
preaching, he commonly took a text out of the. Old Testa- 
ment, and a parallel text out of the New Testament, aAd' 
discoursed pretty largely upon them in their connexioo, 
then concluded with a shoil and close application of the 
doctrine. His preaching soon rendered nun exceeding!/ 
popular, and he was very much followed, particulady bjT 

Eersons celebrated for learning. But that which raidevri 
im most known to the world was the publication of his 
book, entitled, " A Consent of Scriptures. It was the fruit 
of immense labour and study, and is a kind of system of 
scripture chronology and genealogy, designed to shew 
from the scriptures, the chronologiod order of events from 

• Baker*8 MS. CoUec. toI. iv. p. 91. f Ibid, fol.z. p. 300. ■■ 

t Strype'g Aonajs, yol. ii. p. 618—614. 
§ Baker's MS Cbllec. vol. iii. p. 483. 


Adam to Christ. The work was published in the year 
1588; and, while it was printing, the famous Mr. John 
Speed superintended the press.* It was dedicated to Queen 
£Iizabetb, to whom it was presented by himself the 17th of 
November, 1589. In this dedication he says, " The whole 
Book of God, most gracious sovereign, hath so great an 
lianncmy, that every part of it may be known to breathe 
from one Spirit. All soundeth the same point, that by 
Christ the Son eternal, we are made heirs of life : wl^om 
they that know not abide always in wrath. Prophecies in 
every age, (the first ages larger, the later narrower,) all 
briefly told, all events fully recorded : these shew the con- 
stancy of this truth. The like revolutions are of Abraham, 
Jacob, and his children, together of Shem's house: and 
again to Japheth's sons, and all families: wherein the 
fiirmer be stamps of the latter : so that in one speech another 
thing also is spoken. These shew the eye of Jehovah, and 
his Spirit. The kindreds, places, and times (the lights of 
narrations) are registered so profitably, that it should be a 
blasphemy to affirm any one to be idle. Our Lord^s 
fiithers are recorded from Adam, by David and Nathan, to 
his grandfather Ely : likewise they, after whom he is heir 
to the kingdom of David : Solomon's line so long as it con- 
tinued, and afterwards they who from Nathan were heirs to 
Soloihon^s house. So other families, who came all of one, as 
from them all come : they by Moses and the prophets be 
plentifully expressed. In like sort the places of their 
dwellings are clearly taught. The course of time is most 
certainly to be observed; even to the fulness, the year of 
salvation, wherein our Lord died. Of which time the very 
. hour was foretold by an angel, not seven YCSlxs before, but 
seventy times seven years, Dan. ix. 24. To this all other 
Hebrews, and profane Greeks, bear witness strongly a^inst 
themselves. These helps be stars in the story. The frame 

* Mr. Speed, who was brought up a tailor, was, by his acquaintance 
with Mr. BroBghton, become particularly studious, and, by his directions, 
wai deeply versed in a knowledge of the scriptures. Also, by the 
generosity of Sir Fulke Gravile, bis patron, he was set free from a manoal 
employment, and enabled to pursue his studies, to which he was strongly 
iDcliiicd by the bent of his genius. The fruits of them were his ** Theatre- 
of Great Britain ; Genealogies of Scripture ; and History of Great Britain," 
works of immense labour ; the last of which, in its kind, was incomparably 
iqpre ^complete than all the histories of bis predecessors pot together. Mr. 
Broughton -had a considerable share in the '* Genealogies ;" bat wheo fhe 
work came to be published, '* because the bishops woald not endare to have 
Mr« Bfongfatoo's name prefixed, Mr. Speed went away with all the credit 
mod profit.'*^Gterifc*f JLtvei, last toI. part i. p. 2.— Ormf er't ^Mif* HM' 
vol. ii. p. Sm-^Biog. BrUnn. yoI. if. p. 67. Edit. 17T8. - ' • ^ ^ 


of all this, with coupling of joints and proportien of bodj^ 
will much allure to study, when it is seen how about out 
work, (religion and Go^s way of salvation,) all fiuniliesii 
countries, and ages, build or pull down : and find th# 
kindness or sererity of God."* 

The learned author took great pains to shew, that the 
heathen chronology containednumerous inoMisiBteDGiea and 
contradictions, while the sacred history was perfectly deur 
from these imperfections. However, no sooner was his book 
published, than it met with great opposition. ArchbisliO|l 
Whitgift, at first, so exceedingly disUked the perfcmnaiioe^ 
that he would have called the author to an account for soma 
things contained in it ; but, to avoid the hi^ oommisiioii^ 
Mr. Broughton fled into Germany. This, indeed^ greatly, 
excited the general clamour against the book, ana visry 
much increased the number of its adversaries ; nevertlidiesii^ 
Bishop Aylmer, in commendation of the work, said, *^ That 
one scholar of right judgment, would prove all its adnt* 
caries foolish."+ Notwithstanding this, Dr. Rainoldi dt 
Oxford, and Mr. Lively of Cambridge, both learned pnw 
fessors in those imiversities, read pubucly against the book. 

Mr. Broughton used to call this work, << ms little book of 
great pains:'.' for it cost him many years study; and 
when it was published, he had to write and puUiah ia 
defence of it, against the exceptions of the above divintf* 
By the allowance of the queen and council, he Altered upoa 
its defence, in public lectures in St. Paul's church, wiMS 
the lord mayor, some of the most learned of the bishopi,! 
and other persons of distinction, were at his audience;- 
Others of the bishops, however, could not endure, these. 
exercises, calling them dangerous conventides; and theiefoie 
brought complamts against him, and put down his lecture. 
He and his friends afterwards assembled privately, at 
various places in the city, as they found opportumty4 
During Mr. Broughton's continuance in London, he mostly 
resided in the house of Mr. William Cotton ;S whose soOy- 
afterwards Sir Rowland Cotton, he instructed in the Hebrew 
language. His young pupil obtained so exact a knowledge 
of the language, that at the age of seven or eight years he- 
could translate almost any chapter of the Bible into £iiglish| 

• Biog. Britan. toI. ii. p. 606. f Strype'i Aylmer, p, 949. 

:( Clark*s Uvet, p« 3. 

^ Mr. Roger Coltoo, brother to this persoo, was one of Ifr. tt na mlrt trt 
true ichelan. He read tlie wbole Bible throacb tmekf iimm la oM^flar^^ 


and conyerse -with the greatest ease in Hebrew.* Mr. 
William Cowper, afterwards Bishop of Galloway, was 
another of his pupils.f 

■ Mr.^ Broughton was a zealous advocate for the purity of 
the sacred text both of the Old and New Testament. " In ' 
the prophet Daniel's time, and afterwards/' says he, <^ the 
sacied tongues were changed : it wUl not therefore be amiss ' 
to speak something of God's counsel in this matter. Adam 
add Eve's tongue continued, commonly spoken bv the Jews, 
until the captivity of Babylon, and the understanding' 
thereof, when Haggai and Zachary prophesied, in the nex£ 
age. In this tongue every book of the Old Testament is 
written m a style inimitable. The characters and points 
are the same as those written by God on the two tables. 
The Masorites, of whom £zra was chief, with an Argus- 
eyed diligence so keep the letters and words, that none of 
them can perish. The sense of the tongue is preserved for 
us by the LXX, the N. T. And the Talmudic phrase by 
them, who in their schools still kept their tongue. By the 
hdp of the LXX. and N. T. we may excel all the rabbins. 
For tbeur study is more easy to us than to them, in regard- 
that they imitate the Greeks in their fables and expressions, 
and we have above them God, an heavenly interpreter for 
us in all the N. T. which, both for the infinite elegance and 
vaiiety of its words, is most divinely eloquent. In it ore 
the choice words of all kind of all Greek writers, nor can * 
they all, without some fragments of the ancients, and the 
LXX. shew all the words in it. It hath also some new-framed 
Words, as all chief authors have, and all brave expressions ; 
so that if any one would study in another tongue to express 
the like elegancy, he may as well fly with Daedalus^s wax- 
wing, and miscarry in the attempt. In the N. T. is a 
fourfdd Greek, 1. common; 2. the LXX. Greek; 3. the 
Apostolic; 4. the Talmudic. The uncorruptness of the* 
ff. T. text is undoubted to all who know the Hebrew 
tonsaej history, and the exact Athenian eloquence. And 
such as pretend "to correct it, do debase the majesty of both ' 

* This accovDt may appear to some almost incredible. Mr. Broughton*s 
method of iDatmction was singular. He bad his young pupil constantly 
with him, and invariably required him to speak, both to himself and others. 
In Hebrew. He also drew up a vocabulary, which young Cotton con,- 
•tantly used. In this vocabulary he fixed on some place, or thing, then' 
named all the particiilars i)elonging to it : as, heaven, angels, sun, moon, 
•tan, clouds, &c.; or, a house, door^ wIndoW) parloar, &g. ; a field, 
rnuB, flowers, trees, &c. — IMd. 

f Ckirk*f EccU Hiit. p.809. 


Testaments, by unskilful altering what God spake most 
divinely. The r^uling, therefore, of the apostles in these 
matters will call together Homer, Hesiod, iEschylus, Pni-' 
darus, and others of the coasts of Illyricum: as atw 
Sophocles, Euripides, Aristophanes, Aratus, Menander, 
Callimachus, Epimenides, Plato, Aristotle, and all the 
orators and historians of Grecian writing in the time ^dwii . 
this tongue flourished.'** 

He maintained that the gospel of St. Matthew was origi* 
nally written in Greek. " The New Testament," says he^ 
<< was all originally in Greek. St. MaUhew's gospel wis 
written at the first in that heavenly oratorious Greek which 
we now have : and if the Holy Ghost had written it in the 
Jews' Jerusalem Hebrew, the holy learned of old time would 
have kept it with more care than jewellers all precious stcmes. 
We accuse antiquity of great ungodliness, when we scr 
8t. Matthew wrote in Hebrew, but antiquity lost that gospel* 
So St. Paul wrote in Greek to the Hebrews, in thoso^ 
syllables which we have to this day ; and the style hath: 
allusions, which the Jews' tongue hath not : which shcwetk 
the original to be in Greek. The apostles wrote the Neir 
Testament in Greek, with such skill, that they go through 
all kind of Greek writers. They have words in their little 
book, good Greek, which Greeks have only in fragmeate^ 
reserved by God's providence to honour the New Teshi- 

This is the high character which our divine gives of the^ 
elegance and purity of the apostolic writings. His senti-- 
ments were equally exalted concerning the sacred records of 
the Old Testament. He made the following observatioos- 
upon the Book of Job : " There never was a book written,'* 
says he, <^ since the pen became the tongue of a writer, of 
a more curious style than Job; in verse of many sorts, and- 
use of words more nice than any Greek or Latin writeth; 
and for grammar, hath more tricks and difficulty than all the 
Bible beside, Arabizing much ; but fuller of Hebrew depth 
of language. God saw it needful to honour with h style ot^ 
all ornaments the particular case of Job, lest it should be 
despised or thought a feigned matter; and, therefore, aave 
that book a more curious style than any other part of the' 
Bible; and such depth of skill in the tongue, as no rabbia 
could be thought ever to have in the holy tongue."j 

Mr. Broughton, as we have already intimated, fled to^ 

• Bioi:. Britan. toI. ii. p. 606. f Ibid. p. 607. 

t Ibid. p. 609. 

BRpyqHTOxV. £U 

Germany, where he had many disputatbns with Jetrs and 
Prists. Previous, however, ii) his departure, he wrote 
a letter, dated March 27, 1590, to his vorthy friend Loi4 
Burleigh, desiring permission to go abroad, particularly 
with a view toins^e use of King Casimr's library; and he 
no doubt obtained the fevour.* He yos always firm' and 
ooarageous in the defence of truth; di which account he 
sometimes brought himself into dangear, by openly exposing 
the errors and superstitions of poperj. He.had a public 
disputation with Rabbi EUias, a learmd Jew in the syna- 
gogue at Frankfort. They disputed unier an oath, that Grod 
might immediately strike him dead who should, on that 
•ccasion, speak ccHitrary to the dictaes of his conscience. 
In the condusion, the Jew departed n^ without some proofs 
of advantage, desiring to be taught )y his writings. An 
account of this conference was carrtd to Constantinople, 
where it excited very considerable attention among the 
Jews.f Not only did Mr. Broughto/s arguments in ravour 
af Christianity make a deep impressyn upon Rabbi Elias ; 
but he also adds, ^' After my retim from Zurich, two 
Italian Jews came thither, and seeiig what I had printed, 
especially upon Daniel, believed aid were baptized, and 
came to Basil to see me." " Anotler," says he, " is now 
in £ndand, as I hear; who, by myoccasion, embraced the 

In the year 1591, Mr. Broughtoivstumed from Germany^ 
particularly with a view to settle te controversy betwixt 
fflffl»df and Dr. Rainolds. He hfi an earnest but absurd 
desire to have the dispute settled ]^' public authority. In 
one of his addresses to the queen, faisays, " Your majesty's 
signification of your princely detnnination would break 
young braving students, whom reaon in such unexpected 
floik cannot bend . " Speaking of hnself and his opponent, 
be 'says, '' His fame of learning, .nd my more confident 
resistance, maketh many think mt the scripture is hard, 
where our long labours differ, ^he fault is intolerable, 
either in him or in me ; and the fidty should be forced to 
yield, that none may think amiss^f God's word. Wbil« 
divines jar in their narrations, fah is weakened, and all 
study of scripture ; and old confined errors have disgraced 
all the holy story, that without iheinforcement of authority j 
students will hardly yield to therutb." He solicited the 
queen to command the archbishos, and both universities^ 

* Baker's MS. CoUec. yoI. iv. p. OS. ^ Clark's Lives, p. «. 

X Bi«g. BritfUi. vol. ii. p. 608. 



to ddeimiiie the points in contest betweai him and* hh 
learned opponent.* Mott persons at this period, and, aiaoif 
others, the leamec Hugh Brooghton, Imd reij errooeoak 
conceptions of thegrand principles of protestantism; and 
their views of religons freedom were erbemdy inconsistent 
and absurd. 

The controversy, lowever, was not determined faj jniblic 
authority, but rdered to the arbitration of Aichbidiaa 
Wbitgiil and Bishcp Aylmer. Though an entire pacifr 
cation could not be iflfected, the result appears to have been 
greatly in favour oi Mr. Brou^hton. For, although the 
archbishop exceedinrly disliked Broughton's book, whoa 
it was first publishec^ vet, upon cool uid matnre ddflben^ 
tion, he openly declaed on this occasion, ^' That never any 
human pains were of greater travail and dexterity, to cleir 
up the holy story, aid against errors of fifteen hundred 
years standing, than a>peared in the book of Consent."f 

The fdlowing year Mr. Broughton again retired tft 
Grcrmanv. He had i powerful adversary at conrC^ wh6 
hinderea him from obaining those preferments whicii, it ii 
said, the queen desiged to confer upon him. Notwifr 
standing Whitgift's hi;h opinion of his book, this ppM 
adversary was the arcbishc^ himself; who, it is pontivdy 
affirmed, laid wait for hm, and even ofiered a sum of money 
to any. who would apprhend him4 Mr. Broughton, in one 
cxf bis addresses to tnequeen, complains that her minaty 
was prejudiced against him by means of the ai€hbidi0[h 
whom he represents asci person of no great learning, and 
speaks of his bare Latbstudies.S 

Mr. Broughton, dung his abode on the continent 
formed an acquaintancewilh the learned Scaliger, Repbe- 
lengius, Junius, Beza, nd other celebrated scholars. He 
received great fiivour torn the Archbishop of Ments^ to 
whom he dedicated hi translation of the prophets into 
Greek. He was highlyesteemed by many of the leamed 
Jesuits; and though hevas a bold and inflexible enemy to 
popery, he was o^red acardinal's cap.|| 

The article of our Sav>ur*s local descent into hell begaa 
about this time to be qestioned. It had hitherto hetA 
the received doctrine oithe church of England, that the 
soul of Christ, being sej^ted from his body, descended 
locally into hell ; that, ai he had already conquered detik 

• Bios. BritaD. vol. ii. p. 60' f . Strype*8 Whitgifl, p* .»^ 

} Clark's Lives, p. &. ^ Biog. Britan. toI. It. p. 91Q, 

I Clark's Lives, p. 5. ' 


wmA im, lie might tritiniph crrar Satan. Bat Mr. BrougbtcMi^ 
lieooiuited the very rabbi of the age, conyinced the world 
Hmt Che word hacksy as used by the Greek fathers for the 
phce into which Christ went after his crucifixion, did not 
mean hell^ or the place of the damned, but only the state of 
the dead, or the invisible world.* He was the first of our 
countrymen who gave this explanation ; which he did in a 
jpiece that be published, entitled, ^^ An Explication of the 
•article of Christ's Descent to Hell." This proved the occa- 
sion of much controversy, and' his opinion, now generally 
nd justly received, was vehemently opposed. His twd 
frincipal opponents in this controversy were Archbishop 
Whil^ift and Bishop Bilson ; the latter of whom, in the 
IhurmSi of disputation, he treated with some degree of 
contempt, and said of him, ^< Verily I was amazed, when I 
nad his words, to see what a very infant in his mother's lap 
lie ifi in the Greek tongue."f 

' Oki this subject he addressed <^ An Oration to the Gene^ 
Mans,"' which was printed in Greek. In this piece he treats 
the cdiebfated Beza with much severity; but he supports 
Ub opinion, concerning tiie meaning of the word hadesj in 
the OMist satiriistctory ami conclusive manner, by many quo- 
Mhmis from Homer, Plato, Pindar, Diogenes, Laertius, and 
Mher Greek writers. Bayle says, that our author '^ was 
Modigtottsly attm:hed to the dusciidine of the church of 
^E^land, and he censured, in very bitter language, that of 
tte mesbyterians. The oration which he addressed to 
the Geneveans, is a very strong proof of this assertion." 
It is observed, however, in reply, that this oration does 
not, by any means, prove all that Bayle supposes. Allow- 
Imce being made for Mr. Broughton's rough method of 
%xpressing himself, says the learned bio^apher, we think it 
does not appear from his Oration to uie Geneveans, that 
4i0 had any great aversion to them or their discipline, 
fito^pting a few sarcastic sentences, we can discern little 
ttoittiosity against them but with respect to the particular 
fldMect of which he treated, the interpretation of the word 
kmksj in which the church at Geneva difiered from what 
te justly supposed to be the truth. He intimated also to the 
Cmaeveans, that they spoke unguardedly and impropeily 
on the subject of predestination; and that their desire to 
tli^^ithrow Pelagius made them deal their words with more 
teat than discretion.]: Mr. Broughton was so celebrated 

"9. 8trype*s Whitglft, p. 482^ 488.— Strype's Aylmer^ p. iMSy%^% 
f Biog. Britao. yqK ii. p. 609. . ^ t Wii. 


in all kinds of Hebrew learning, that be was invitfid tn^ 
Constantinople, for the purpose of instructing the Jews :ia 
the christian religion ; and King James of Scotland in- 
vited him to become professor of Hebrew in one of Die 
Scotch universities.* 

Mr. Broughton, after his second return to his natiTe 
country, wrote two letters to Lord EUsmer, the lord chan- 
cellor of England; in which he gives a circumstantial, 
account of his various literary pursuits, and warmly cea- 
Bures the ungenerous and cruel treatment he received frqa 
the Archbishop of Canterbury. ^^ I have," says he, << ooni- 

Eiled two books, a beginning for many in the kind. One il 
[cbrew, exactly in the prophets^ Hebrew, with a labfaju 
epistle, in rabbin style. The other is Elcclesiastes appUod 
to that question. Wherefore was the book made ? 1 was 
greatly injured. For the rabbin. Archbishop WhitgifL 
sent mc word, that he would allow for answering, if I woqid 
entreat him. I returned, entreated I will, but not enticit 
to have a burden, which I wish others would bear* Sega 
after, he libelleth that I forged the epi^e. If for that he 
had been rent in pieces by wild horses, his .punishment had 
been too little, as a forgerer deserved. So since he Inxp* 
rowed the oath to that viilany, God never ceased to pLpfo^ 
the realm, and not a little by giving bishops over to t^^ 
that our Lord went down hence to hell. To repent of tlu^ 
and promise j^400 per annum to their teacher to confinn .; 
the truth, and then to bark like a Ccrljerus against the tmtk { 
and themselves. Then to feign an impossibility in Greek| ] 
that our Lord went from paradise to hades, which no | 
Grecian would ever say."f I 

Mr. Broughton was a most profound scholar, particulailj 
in critical and exact knowlec^e of Greek and Ilebrew. at 
directed his elaborate studies chiefly to a minute examina* 
tion of the scriptures in their original languages. He 
found the authorized English translation extremiely de- 
fective, and therefore used his utmost endeavours to 
obtain a new translation. With a view to accompluk 
this great object, he addressed the following letter ^To 
the right honourable Sir William Cecily lord h^ 
treasurer :"t 
" Kight Honourable. 
<^ Sundry lords, and amongst them some bishops, bended 
doctors and othejr inferiors of all sorts, have requested — ' 

• Strypc'8 Whitglft, p. 432, 626—530. + HarleiaD M88. No.-ieT. 

t Baker*! MS. CoUec. vol. ^t. p. 94. . . r 

r - - 


to bestow my long studies in Hebrew and Greek 'Writen, 

Upon some clearing of the Bible's translation. They jadged 

lightly that it must be amended ; but in what points, I 

tfamk it not good largely to tell in words till it be per« 

fiyrmed in work ; that it be less disgraced which we now 

tiae. All of knowledge and conscience will grant, that 

much better it may be. This motion hath been made long 

ago ; and her majesty sent word and message to Sir Francis 

Walsingham, that it must be considered. His highness 

Aieant to take opportunity, but other weighty affairs suffered 

kuDl not All this while my prayer and charge have been 

•pent in preparaticm that way. And, furthermore, I thought 

gtod lAyseli to m^e motion to such as I held woilJiiest 

ttid fittest to be contributors to the charge, findii^ by 

experience lAiat- pcrblic motions take further time of delay 

than the whole work requireth : and your lordship I held 

one of the worthiest to be a contributor, for the main- 

taSante of some six of us, the longest students in the tongues, 

fe join together; as well not to alter any thing which 

iBay 'Aland still, (as in Moses and all the stories neraeth not 

aiach- amendment,) as to omit nothing which carrieth open 

ttiitriith ag^dnst the story and religion, or darkness dis- 

atanidlihff the writer. In which kind. Job and the prophets 

aiay be brought- to speak far better unto us; and all may 

baye sh(»rt notes of large use, with maps of geography 

USd tables of chronology. To this, if it please your lord- 

ihip to be a ready helper, your example will stir others 

to a more needful concern than was the amendment of the 

temple in King Josiah's time. 

'^ Your lordship's to command, 

*< Hugh Broughtokt." 

In thfe above generous proposal, Mr. Broughton had to 
cnoouhter insurmountable difficulties ; and howeyer desirous 
foe treasurer might be to promote so excellent and laudable 
an undertaking, the worthy design utterly failed. Not 
long after he addressed another letter to this celebrated 
Jl^tesman,.of which the following is a copy :• 
*Ht To the Right Honourable my Lord Treasurer. 

' }^ My duty remembered to your lordship. I have two 
fctitiefts at once to your honour ; but such as neither, I 
Wiwj need greatly trouUe you. I have been requested by 
Ajers^^ for Myself, to make motion for the archbishopric 
tf^'Tfiam (hot worth above jf SOO) in Ireland. By reasim 

• Baker*! MS. CoUec; yoI. fr. p. 94. 


tliat tft yean a^, I took a littk soil tlmey I CMild muxft 
of it, if her majeslj will, and it be no trouble to jam 
booour to speak to her hie hness for it. Bmi I kave it to 
your saire direction. The oQier petition is of somevbat ks 
pains. The rcrerend and learned man. Dr. Rainohk, vho, 
at I fhink, hath ereatl^ hindered all his own and our 
religion, is now, 1 think, in London : with whom, if I 
might talk but two words, before your hxdship^ a pncififit- 
tion, as I judge, might be made. I would demand what one 
woid of my book he dare blame, with any colour of icmqu; 
and shew that if iiLs course had not been ^^^^ he ofend 
adyantage to turn all the sway of the BiUe aeaimt him. 
By open speech it may best be declared. Your hononr belt 
knoweth your own leibuie. So I conunend boCb the 
causes to yourself, and your health to God. LnndflPj 
May 16, 1595. 

^^ Your lordship^B io command, 

^ Hugh Brouohtov." 

It does not appear what answer BIr. Brongbton leodfri 
to this letter; but he certainly failed <x gaining tiha 
object of his former petiticm, if not of the latter abo. Hii 
second return to EWlaiid was at the time when the plspin 
was in London. His old friends were much suipnsea to 
see him in a season of so much affliction.. He was piiti- 
cularly cheerful and happy, and not the least afiraid tfille 
distemper. His conversation very much sayooied of the 
kingdom of God, and he spoke upon divine sulgects ffu/ij 
io their edification. In the year 160S, he preached ufae 
Prince Henry at Oatlands. He did not, however, oontiBae 
long in his native country, but went abroad a Uiird tim^ 
and was chosen preacher to the English congK« 
Middleburg. During his abode at this place^ be sept a 
curious petition to King James, now of En^and^ leqnoU 
ing the favour of a pension, aa the rewara of bis mmi- 
foul labours and suuerings ; of which the foUowing » 
a copy:* 

<< Most gracious Sovereign. . 
^^ Your nmesty's most humble subjecft, Hugh Brongb- 
ton, having suTOred many years danger iot pnbluhing yW 
right and God's truth, by your unlearned bisbona, wb 
spent two impressions of libels to disgrace their Sc 
mist; which libels their stationers deny that ever 
sold. He requesteth your majesty's favour for a pcoM* 

• Harkian MSS. No. 787. 

«J6 « 

• 6R0UGHT0N. fm 

0t for bis age, study,* and past travels, bearing always a 
aoet dytiyiUl your majesty. From Auddleburg^ 
Aug. 1604. 

" Your most bumble servant, 
' - , " Hugh Bboughton.'* 

* Wbile pur divine was at Middleburg, besides the cai# 
fOi his congregation, he published his smart discourse 
.against Archbishop Biancron, and sent the whole impression 
to Mr.. William Cotton j younger brother to Sir Rowland 
](^Q|tton, livinff in. London; v^^^h a request, if he dare 
.tniture, to ddiver a cdpy into the hands of the archbishop. 
Mr. Cotton was not without apprehension of danger; yet 
lie could not well deny Mr. Broughtoa's request. Thereforej 
lie waited upon the archbishop, and, after making the 
DBquisite apology, delivered a copy of the book into hi$ 
lands, politely asking pardon for his great boldness. 
[rj[y>il#h his grace treated him with all the civility that 
,pral4 jb^ve been desired, he was no sooner dismissed than 
ihe arctibishop^s officers came to his lodgings, seized all the 
books tbi^ could find, and carried them away. This was 
Btacroft's short and easy method of refuting the arguments 
it his learnjsd opponent !''* 

' Mr. Broiighton having a complaint settled on his lungs^ 
■nd being desirous of dying in his own country, returned 
■t' length the third and last time to England. In the 
iQCMith of November, 1611, he landed at Gravesend; and 
vjpcm his arrival in London, told his friends that he was 
oome to die in his native country ; and if it was the will 
of. God, he wished to die in Shropshire, his native county. 
Therefore, Sir Rowland Cotton, formerly his pupil, pro- 
fided suitable accommodations for him, at his house in 
Shropshire. Herein, however, both the pupil and the 
^iknr were disappointed.' He continued in JLondon during 
Ae .winter, and in the following spring removed to a 
tfoiteble situation in the vicinity. 

During his confinement imder affliction, Mr. Broughton 

Stye his friends many pious and profitable Exhortations. 
eoS/ea urged them to observe practical religion, saying, 
"^Stildy your Bible. Labour for the salvation of one 
JH^ iinother. Be peaceable. Meddle with your oiifn matters. 
wlSkfme judgment will come upon this kingdom. Never 
i*fear popery : It will never overflow the findw But the 
If eooirse which the bishops take will fili the land with 

* Clark*! LtTWy p. 6. 


<< atheism. Meddle not in the quarrel." As he drew near lui 
end, he said, <* Satan hath assatdted me: but the^Sonitf 
<< God hath rebuked him, and spoken comfortable words to 
<< my soul." A litde before nis departure, he became 
speechless: yet his friends asking whether they should 

gray with him, he signified his warmest approbation bj 
fling up both his hands. Soon aft^r the prayer was endco^ 
he breathed his last, August 4, 1612, aged iij(ty-ftiee 
years. His remains were mterred in St. Autholin|8 churcL 
London, with great funeral solemnity; and his fuMfU 
sermon was preached by Mr. Speght, from John zi. 8; 
but the bishops would not allow it to be printed.* . 

iif r. Brougpton was an indefati^ble studefit, and a moit 
celebrated scholar, which rendered his temper too austere; 
yet, to his friends, his spirit was sweet, Bmd>l6, and dfo 
tionate. He was bold and severe in opposing all error an 
impiety, and would sharply reprove them, whatever it ooit 
him. He was free and comoiunicative to all who wished^ 
learn ; but sometimes offended when his scholars did W 
imderstand him, accounting it a shame to live in igaaanibtJ 
As a writer, his style is rather harsh and obscnie. at 
appears too vain and too severe agaiiist his opponents; 'Bbt 
when it is recollected what kind of treatment ne met with; 
how lie was tossed to and fro, and often obliged to femore 
from one place to another, it will not appear soniiiaii^ 
that so great a scholar sometimes forgot himself. IJpflb hu 
death-b^d, he confessed and lamented his infirmity. In hii 
writings, adds our author, the impartial reader will fijod as 
much light thrown upon the scriptures, especially the moit 
difficult passages, as can be found in any other author what- 
ever ; and they carry in them so happy a fascination, that 
the serious reader is constrained, by a sort of holy violence, 
to search the sacred scriptures.} 

This learned divine has b^ reproached with great 

♦ aark*i Livei, p. 6, 7. 

•f This was exemplified in the foUowiDg aoecdote.-^WhUe Mr. Broogbfta 
was at Meotz In Germany, a yovng man of the name of M^rtonf, hm 
£nf(land, came to him continoaUy, asking him qaettionty and fcaalfiiK 
lofttractions. When the young pupil miderstood not his anawen, bat daitni 
further explanation, Mr. Brooghton would be angry, and call him dMUui 
vnlearned. Upon this, when Morton asked bim any question, be Mfel 
pleasantly to say, ** I piay you,' whatsoever doUi or dnllmrdt I aste be 
called, call me so before we begin, that your discourse and mine 
attention be not interrupted :" which, it is said, Mr. Broughton took as 

Sleasantly from him. This person, it is added, was afterwards tbe ftaioBS 
)t. Morion, bishop of DufhaiD.— /M. p. 6. 
t Ibid, p. 7, 8. 

BR0U6HT0N. f8» 

severity by some of our historians; and by none with 
greater rancour than by Mr. William Gilpin.* This 
miter says, ^< that Mr. Brou^hton acted the basest, and most 
^ ungratefol part towards Mr. Bernard Gilpin, who had 
^educated and maintained him, both at school and th^ 
•f nniversity. He was vile enough to endeavour to ^p- 
^ plant the yei^ patron who had raised him up." If iVur* 
Koughton really acted in the manner here represented, 
9 would be difficult to censure him with too much severity : 
mt, we think, there is no sufficient evidence for the charges 
dkged ; at least Mr. Gilpin hath not produced it ; and it 
■eepoB hardly just to bring such black charges against a 
pian /without some substantial proof. Bishop Carlton, the 
mi writer by whom any accusation appears to be brought 
i||8t Mr. Brou^ton, speaks of his exciting the Bishop of 
rhain against Bemara Gilpin merely as a repari;. and, 
ihis rejmt were true, though ihexe is no proof aUegod, 
seems very doubtful whether he was excitra to it from a 
of obtaining Gilpin^s living. 
Pilpin says of JBrou^hton, ^ that London was the 
■oene whei^B he mnst e!xposed himsdf. . Here, for some time^ 
IPS piLi4 ^ servile court to the vulgar, in the capacitifr of.:a 
g^pIiM: pieacber." But of thb we can meet with mo 
ffl^enc^ Indeed, servility to persons of any class, does 
Mt.apjpe^r to have been any part of Mr. Broughton's ohay» 
riipier ; and the charge, we think, is sufficiently refuted ia 
liie foregoing narrative, as collected from the most authentic 

; Mr. GQpjui isays, that Broughton had ^ lived out all 
|l|S.are^t, mid became even the jest cS the sta|;e." It is 
fivtain, as our author observes, that be was satirized on the 
S^lge. . .3ul; a man's being ridiculed in a dramatic exhibi* 
tibpi is op proof of his &ving out-lived either his credit 
OK hi^ friends ; nor does this aj^iear to have been the case, 
1ml thq coi^trary,. with Mr. Brwghton.f 

He ^iaa( sayo, ^^ Broughton was, indeed, famous in his 
lime, an^ as 9 inan of fetters esteemed by many^ but in 
fveiy other ie$pect despicable." The numerous ;iuthentic 
feiti^nicjB given in the foi^going narrative, affiird a suffi* 
fimt refutation of this charg;?. > The learned Dr. Lightfoot, 
who wrote Mr. Broughton*s life, declares himself a mere 
child in onnparison of this great master of Hdiirewand 

• Gilplp't Uf(t of BcfMfd Gilpin, p. 2S3, 834, 293, 300; EdiL ITIO. 
t Blogmpkia Briteiuiics, Vol. ii. p. 606—610. . - ^ > 


rabbinical Icamin?.* Mr. Strjpe declares that he was one 
of the greatest scholars in Christendom, in Latin, Grodk, 
Hebrew, and all Talinudical literature.f 

Most of his works were collected and printed in London, 
in 166*2, with his life prefixed by Dr. Li^htfoot, entitbdn 
** The Works of the great Albioncan Divine, renowned ib 
many Nations for rare Skill in Salems and Athens Tongnei^ 
and familiar Acquaintance with all Rabbinical Learning, 
Mr. Hugh Broughton." This edition of his works, thou^ 
bound in one large yolunlc folio, is divided into foiir Unoa, 
Towards the last tome is Mr. Broughlon's funeral sennon 
by Mr. Speght, in which the preacher says, <^ Touching tke 
fruit of his sowing, viz. his private reading in the time, and 
with the approbation of the reverend and learned Bishop 
Aylmer ; and of his public preaching in Christ^s ohurcOi 
in St. Peter's, and in my church ; how many are theie (jet 
some alive) who may thank God daily, that ever they kmr 
and heard him ? For myself, 1 confess, and profess flQ 
much, and shall ever do so whilst I breathe/'t 

There are many of Mr. Brous^htonVi manuscripta| ih his 
own hand, still preserved in the Uritish Museum. Soniie of 
them are the literary productions of his pen ; otheii idi^ 
to the controversies in which he engaged ; and the lest are 
miscellaneous. These, in all thirty-five, are bound in one 
volume quarto.^ There is also his manuscript ^< Hannonj 
of the Bible.'^l 

William Btrton, A. B. — This pious ministor WIM hon^ 
in the city of Winchester, and educated first at WicUiam 
school, then in New College, Oxford, where be was chosen 
fellow. He was afterwards beneficed in the city of Nor- 
wich, where Sir William Ferryman, afterwards lord chief 
baron, a worthy religious person, and a gteiAt prmnoter of 
christian piety, was his ^at friend and patron. In ISSSi 
his name is among the Norfolk divines, above sixty in all, . 
who scrupled subscription to Whitgift's three aitides.! 
Whether, on account of his nonconformity, he felt &e iron 
hand of the archbishop, by suspension, deprivation, ov 
imprisonment, as was the case with many of his bretben^ 

• British Biography, vol. iii. p. ISO, . .. 

f Strype*8 Annals, vol. ii. p. 612, t Biog. Britan. vol. ii. p. 612. 

S Sloaae's MSS. No. S088. || Harleian MS8. KoJ W5. 
9 MS. Register^ p. 436. - > . 


We have not been able to learn. His being under the wing 
pt jBO honourable and worthy a patron, might prove a suffi- 
cient protection. One of the same name, and probably the 
Ifune person, was afterwards a minister in Bristol, then at 
Reading in Berkshire, and lastly at St. Sepulchre's, London, 
where he died about November, 16 12.» There were two 
other Mr. William Burtons, both persons of distinguished 
tfoinencc, who lived about the same time.f 

J ■ His Works. — 1. A Sermon preached at Norwich, on Jer. iii. 14., 
1689* — ^2. A Catechism containing certain Questions and Answers 
cbnceming the Knowledge of God, and the right use of the Law, 
1691.-^. Dwnd's Evidence; or, the Assurance of God's Love, 
14)62.— ^4. A Caveat for Sureties, 1593.-^6. Exposition of the Lord's 
Iteyer, drawn into Questions and Answers, 1594.-^-^. The Rousing 
•C the 3iuggard, 1596. — 7. Conclusions of Peace between God and 
|l{jan, containing comfQrta)[))e Meditations for the Children of God, 
.|595^->-8. Sermons on the Church's Love tp Clirist her Hi)sban4, 169fiu 
^-^. DavicTs llianksgivjng for the Arraignment of the Man of 
£«tb, 1598.-^10. Ten Sermons on Matt. y. 3, 4., 1602.-^11. The 
Anatomy of Belial, 1603. — 12. Certain Questions and Answers con- 
cerning th^ Attributes of God, 1602. — 13. Questions and Answers 
conceriiiiig the right use of the Law of God, 1602. — 14. An Abstract 
Hi the Doctrine of the Sabbath, briefly, yet fully and plainly set 
ftrth, 1606, 

Richard Rogers. — This excellent divine was educated 
at Cambridge, and was afterwards for many years (he labori- 
oos and useful minister of AVethersfield in Essex. He was 
a zealous, faithful, and profitable labourer in the vineyard 
<if the Lord, for the space of forty-six years. He was a 
man of considerable learning, and of a most humble, peace- 
ible, and exemplary life; but a great sufferer for noncQn- 
fiHrftiity. In the year 1583, upon the publication of Whit- 

gft's three articles, and the severites which accompanied 
em, Mr, Rogers, with twenty-six of his brethren, all 
ministers of Essex, presented their petition to the lords of 
,l|ie council for relief^ an abstract of which is given in 
ajlother placet 

*^; This petition does not seem to have produced the desired 
'efFect : for WhitgUl suspended and silenced than all, and 
iHotested tl^it not one of them should preach without Sub- 
(scription and an exact conformity. What kind of treat- 

• Wood's Athene Oxod. Vol. i. p. 286, 287. 
f Biog. Britan. vol. iii. p. 42. Edit. 1778. 
t See Art. George Gifford. 



ment they afterwards met with, appears from ao aco0ail 
new before me, wherein it is said, ^'that thirty-eight 
ministers, denominated the learned and painful ministen of 
Essex, were oftentimes troubled and molested, for rdteing 
to subscribe, to wear the surplice, or use the cross in bnp- 
tism."* Though our divine had his share in these tynuu 
nical proceedings, he was afterwards sheltered under the 
wing of a most worthy patron. . Sir Robert Wroth wanply 
espoused his cause ; who, notwithstanding the protestatioa 
and censure of the archbishop, ordered nim to renew hii 
preaching, and he would stand forwards in bis ddSaace. 
After enduring suspension about eight months, he was re- 
stored to his ministry. lie continual for many yean(*3Uidtr 
the protection of Sir Robert, enjoying the peaceabkexor* 
cise of his ministry. He was particularly anxious to obtain 
a more pure reformation of the church ; he therefore united 
with many of his brethren in subscribing the '< Book- of 
Discipline/V In the year 1598, one Mr. Rogers, most po- 
bably this pious divine, was cited to appear before thi 
hi^h commission; but whether he received any .eccle8iaiG5 
cal censure, we are unable to ascertain.} 

In the year 1603, Mr. Rogers and six other mipisters£# 
the weight of the archbishop's outstretched arm; and fis 
refusing to take the oath ex officio^ he suspended than alL 
Upon their suspension they were further 'iwnmoned' to 
appear before his lordship ; but it is said the archlnsbop 
died on the very day of their appearance ; when they :^^^ 
discharged by the rest of the commissioners. But in the 
foUowiuj^ year they were exceedingly molested byBancnifi^ 
Whitgift's successor. During the whole suminer they were 
continually cited before him, which, in addition to many 
other hardships, caused them to take numerous, long, aw 
expensive journies.^ In these tribulations Mr. Rogers bore 
an equal share with his brethren. 

Dr. Ravio succeeded Bancroft in the diocese of .London^ 
and appears to have been of the same cruel, peiBftputki^ 
spirit as his predecessor. He was no sooner seated in htf 
episcopal chair, than he began to prosecute the noncon- 
formists. Among otliers, he cited Mr. Rogers to app^u 
before him, and protested in his presence^ sayingy ^ Bj 

♦ MS. Cbrooolojry, vol. ii. p. 689. (10.) 

-t- Neal's Puritans, vol. i. p. 423. 

t Baker's MS. Collec. vol. zi. p. S44. 

S MS. Cbrooology, toI. ii. p. 503. (7.) 589. (100 


the hdp <^je8us, I will not leave one preacher in mj diocese 
who doth not subscribe and conform." But^ poor man * he 
^ed soon after, and so was disappointed. • 

Mr. Rogers, in his own private diary, April 25, 1605, 
noAkes the , following reflections^ << I was much in prayer 
lJ>out my troubles, and my God granted, me the desire 
o( my heart. For, by the favour and influence of 
.WiUiam Lord KnoUys, God hath, to my own comfort, and 
ithe comfort of my people, delivered me once more out of 
all my troubles. Oh that I may make a holy use of m j 
liberty I JPut it greatly troubles me,'" adds the good man, 
^« that after labouring betwixt thirty and forty years in the 
ministry, I ;un now accounted imworthy to preach ; while 
60 many idle and scandalous persons enjoy their ease and 

' Uppn Dr. Yaughan's translation to the see of London^ 
and njB restoration of many of the suspended ministers, Mr. 
Rogers makes these reflections. May 30, 1606: <<If I 
pfeaph DO more, I heartily thank God for my liberty, both 
lit licgme .and abroad, for this year and a half, and I hope 
with ^ome fruit. The bishop has been my friend. April 
S, 1607, this week came the painful news of our Bishop 
Yauffhan^s death ; who, for twenty -weight months, being all 
thetune he continued,. he permitted all the godly ministers 
to live p^u^eafily, and to enjoy liberty in their ministry .'';( 
On .another occasion, Mr. Rogers having been in great 
idangfr of suspension, and many of his . brethren being 
silenced, makes this reflection : '^ By God^s great mercy, 
i have gained twelve weeks more liberty than I looked for. 
Therefor^ I have the greater cause to be content when 
pileacin^ pometh, especially as many are silenced before 
iiie.'H Mx. Rogers was living in the yeiar 1612; but we 
are unable to ascertain the exact period of his deaths 

* Wood says, that this prelate was preferred first to the see of Gloucester, 
ooaetoontof his great learDing, gravity, and prudence; and that, though his 
'4kicc»e *^ ^ras pretty weU stoclied with those who could not bear the name 
ofj» bishop, yet, by his episcopal living aniQng them, he obtained their love 
mud a good report from them.*' He seems, however, to have changed bit 
coorse upon his translation to the see of London ; where he presently died, 
^* havlilg,^* it is said, ** for many years, with much vigilance, served his 
charch, his king, and his country.'* — Wood's Atheiue Oxon, vol. i. p. 61T. 
[ , f MS. Chronology, vol. ii. p. 589. (10.) 

X Br. Richard Vaughan, successively Bishop of Bangor, Chester, and 
Xondon, was a person of great learning, piety, and moderation, and an 
jidmired preacher. As Fuller says,, '* be was a very corpulent man, but 
tpiritually minded," and a person of an excellent character.-— S<r3l!fe*ff 
Jlifhner^ p. S95. — Gratiger'M Biog. Hist, vol, i. p. 34Sy S44. 

§ MS. X^bronology, vol. if. pi 689. (12.) 


Mn Kne\vstabs preached bis funeral sermon. Messrs. Danid 
and Ezekiel Rogers, both eminent puritan divines, were hk 
sons. Mr. Stephen Marshall was his immediate sacccBior 
nt Wethersfield. 

He was eminently faithful and laborious in the minisftrf ; 
and it is said, ^' the Lord honoured none more in the con* 
version of souls." He was styled the Enoch of his day, 
a man walking with God; and he used to say, / should be 
sorri/ if ercery day were not employed as if it z&erc my latL 
He was an admired preacher ;* and Bishop Kennet says^ 
<^ that England hardly ever brought forth a nian who walked 
more closely with God."+ Mr. Rogers was always re- 
markable for seriousness and gravity, in all kinds of com- 
pany. Being once in company with a gentleman of 
respectability, whp said to him, ^^ Mr. Rogers, I like yoB 
and your company very well, only you are too precise:^ 
" Ohy sir^'^^ replied Mr. Rogers, " / serve a precise Cfod/^t 

Mr. Rogers was author o? *' The Seven Treatises,'* 1688; 
which was highly esteemed. ^^ A Commentry upon the 
whole Book of Jud^," 1615. In his dedication c{ this 
>7ork, he says he had beep in the ministry forty yean* 

Randall Bates was a most holy man, an ezoeUenl 
preacher, and a zealous nonconformist, for which he was 
prosecuted in the ecclrsiastical courts, and ^comnutM to 
the Gatehouse; where, after a confinement of twiMy 
months, he died through the hardships of the prison. * Mr. ' 
John Cotton, who was his contemporary, den(H]&inat^'4iai 
" an heavenly saint ;" and says, " he suffered in the eanse ' 
of nonconformity, being choked in prison.^' Nor cotald his 
release be obtained, though Dr. Hering, a learned and ex- 
cellent physician, earnestly solicited Sishop Neile for his 
enlargement, declaring that his life was in danger.^ But tbe 
suit of the physician was repulsed with reproaches, and the 
blood of bis patient was spilt through the ex:treme rigour of 
his confinement. He died in the year 1613.|| Datifig^Mr. * 

* Graqgefs Biog. Hist. vql. i. p. 219. 4 Keonet's Cbrontcle, p. 60$i 

t Firmio*8 Real Christian, p. 67. Ldit. 1670. 

§ Bishop Neile, it is said, ^* was always reputed a popish and Annloln 
prelate, a persecutor of all ortliodoz apd godly tninisters, and Ode who pre- 
ferred popish aod-Armipian clergy, making choice of them for bit chap- 
lains." He was accused of these things to his nuyesty by the hooie of 
commons, in 1628, and complained of in several parliaiDeDt8.«^Pr^iM*« 
Cant. Doome, p. 531 • 

Cotioo's Answer to Williams, p. 117.— Princess Chiroo. Hbt TOl.!. 
p. 28. 



Bfrfes^s imprisonment he wrote a book, entitled, << Medita- 
tions whilst he was prisoner in the Gratehouse, Westminster,** 
irhich shews him to have been a person of great humility 
and piety. It discovers a mind strongly attached to the 
author^s views of christian doctrine and church discipline. 
His views of the latter appear to have been a compound of 
presbyterianism and independency, as some of his expres- 
sions favour the one, and some the other form of church 

Daniel Dyke, B. D. — This excellent divine was bom 
at Hempstead in Hertfordshire, where his father was a 
worthy minister, and. silenced for nonconformity.* He 
ireceived his ieducatioh at Cambridge, and became a most 
fitithfiil and useful preacher ; but, like his honoured father, 
l¥as exceedingly persecuted by the intolerant prdates. He 
T^as for some time minister of Coggeshall in Essex; but, 
upon the publication of Whitgift's three articles, in 1583, he 
was suspended by Bishop Aylmer, and driven out of the 
county .f Afterwards he settled at St. Albans, in his native 
cpunty, where his ministry was particularly acceptable and 
profitable to the people. He united with his brethren in 
attemcKting to promote a more pure reformation of the 
chutcn, and, with this object in view, assembled with them 
in their private associations. :( But in this, as in his former 
situation, the watchful eye of Aylmer was upon him, and he 
was involved in fresh troubles. Because he continued a 
deacon^ and did not enter iato priests^ orders, which the bishop 
supposed he accounted popish ; and because he refused to 
wear the surplice, and troubled his auditory, as his grace sig- 
iufiied,with notions which thwarted the established religion, 
lie was again suspended, and at last deprived. This was in 
Hie year 1589.§ , The distressed parishioners being con- 
cerned for the loss of their minister, petitioned the Lord 
Treasurer Burleigh, who had been Mr. Dyke's^reat friend, 
to interdsde with the^bishop in their behalf. This petition 
sets forth, " That they had been without any ordinary 
preaching till within this four or five years ; by the want 
of which they were unacquainted with their duty to God, 
tiieir sovereign, and their neighbours ; and so ignorance and 
disorder had greatly prevailed among them, for want of 

' ♦ Foller*8 Worthies, part ii. p. 28. + MS. Register, p. 741. 

fBaker*8 MS. Collec. yoh zv. p. 79. 
MS. JMfiAt^i p. 586.— Strype*s Aylmer^ p. 1^. 


beiiiff taught their duty : but that of late it had pleaaed the 
Lord (o visit them with the means of salvation, b;^ Um oidi* 
nary ministry of Mr. Dyke, an authorized minislery wb^ 
according to his function, had been painftil and profitafaihy 
and had carrfa^ himself so peaceably and dutifiuly among 
them, both in his life and doctrine, that no man could justly 
find fault i?ith him, except of malice. There were ^omei 
indeed, who could not b^ to hear their fiiults reproved ; 
but through his preaching many bad been brought fiom 
their ignorance and evil ways, to a better life ; to be frequent 
bearers of God's word ; and their servants were in better 
order than heretofore." 

They then, inform his lordship, ^' that their minister was 
suspended by the Bishop of London ; and that they were as 
sheep without a shepherd, exposed to manifold 'dan^en^ 
even to return to their former ignorance and cursed vanities. 
That the Lord had spoken it, tlierefore it must be tme^ 
Where no vision is^ the people perish. And having expend 
enced his honourable care for them in the like case hereto- 
fore, which they thankfully acknowledged, they earnestly 
pray his lordship, in the bowels of his compassion,- to pity 
them in their present misery, and become a means that they 
may again enjoy their preacher.^'* 

The treasurer, upon the reception of this petition, wrote 
to the bishop, and requested Mr. Dyke's restoration to his 
ministry, promising that if be troubled his congr^ration with 
innovations in future, he would join his lordship agaiiM 
him; but the bishop excused himself, insinuating that Mn 
Dyke was guUty of incontinency. This occasioned a 
further inve^igation of his character. He was tried at the 
sessions at St. Albans, when the woman herself who ac- 
cused him, confessed her wicked contrivance, and asked 
him forgiveness in open court. Mr. Dyke bring thus pub< 
licly cleared and honourably acquitted, the treasurer wiii 
the more urg(?nt with the bishop to restore him ; '^ because,'^ 
said he, '' tlie Ix^t minister in the nation may be thus 
slandered ; and the people of St. Albans have no tendiiwi 
only they have for their curate an insufficient ddtioj|^ oU 
man. For this favour/' said the worthy treasurer, ** lidiali 
thank your lordship, and will not solicit you any more^ if he 
shall hereafter give just cause of public ofience against the) 
ordurs of the church established.''^ But all that the treasun^ 
could do proved iueflectual. The good man was ther^pre 

* MS. Register, p. 303— SOS. 4 Ibid. p. aOft— aOlL 

tL I^ARKBR. ' 18* 

ilsft luideir the unknerciful censure of this prelate, fiut bow 
lon^^e lemamed so, or-whedier the bisnop eyer restored 
hi% yte are not able to learn. He died about the year 1614 > 
fiisVi^ine, or the name .of his brother, Mr. Jeremiah D;fke, 
abdlher e2l:cellef^ puritan divine, is among those who sub- 
iPcriBed ihe ^^ Book of Discipline.^> Mr. Dyke was a man 
lAf ah unblemished character, a divine of great learning and 
piefy^ and a preacher of sound, heart-searching doctrine.; 
' Wpod'denominates him an eminent preacher.^ His writing 
ure e)tcellcnt for the time, and are still much admirra. 
-Bfslk>p Wilkins classes his sermons among the most excel- 
lent in .g His works, containing various pieces, were 
fcoU^clefl and published in 16S5, in tw6 volumes quarto. 
His "Mystery of Self-deceiving," was often published, and 
"was translated into High Dutch. ^' It is a book,^' says 
Fuller, " that will be owned for a trtUhy while men have 
any badness in them ; and will be owned as a treasure^ while 
theV have wiy' goodness in them."i This work, and his 
^ Treatises on Ifepentance," . are very searching. His doc- 
^tmt fklls as the small rain upon the tender herb, and as 
the showers upon the grass.«* 

• Robert Parker. — ^This learned and celebrated puritan 
%i$caitaie rector of North-Benflete in Es^ex, in the year 
•1571; 'but, resigning the benefice the year following, he 
tiecianie rector of West-Henningfield, in the same county, 
Vhich he held several years.++ Afterwards he became 
p«\stor of the church at Dedham, in the same county, 
yHh^t^ he was predecessor to the famous Mr. John Rogers. 
fie wais suspended by Bishop Aylraer, for refusing subscrip- 
ikin to Whitgift's three articles. Being afterwards, by some 
"feiie&ns, restored to his ministry, a day was appointed when 
ii^- Should be deprived, if he still persisted in refusing to 
^ear the surplice ; when he most probably received the 
^Cfesiastical censure.Jt Having encfured these troubles, he 
llftft the county, and was afterwards beneficed at Wilton in 
•^iltshire, where he continued many years. 
' In the year 1598, Bishop Bilson having published to the 

r • Fidler'i Worthies, part ii. p. 39. f Neal*s Puritans vol. i. p. 43S. 
. 1 Mr. Dyke's «' DeceitfulDess of the Heart/' Dedica. Edit. ieS3. 
' \ AthenflB Ozoik vol. i. p. 788. U Discourse oa Preachiog, p. 62, 83. 
'' "i Worthies^ part if. p. 29. 

•• WiHiams's Christian Preacher, p. 454. 

f f N«vcpart*8.Repert. Bed. vol. ii. p. 46| 310. 

tt MS. Sejcbier, p. 664, 74]. 


world that Jesus Christ, after his death upon the cross, actu^ 
ally descended into the regions of the damned ; many learned 
divines undertook a refutation of his opinion, and to estab- 
lish the contrary sentiment. Among these was Mr. Ptoker, 
who published a learned piece, entitled, ^< De descensu 
Christi ad Infernos." In the year 1607 he published a 
Treatise on the Cross in Baptism, entitled, << A l^o-> 
lasticall Discourse against Symbolizing with Antichnk in 
Ceremonies, especially the Signe of the Crosse." Dr. Grey 
is pleased to treat Mr. Peircc and Mr. Neal with consider- 
able ridicule for callinn: it a xitry learned work, and the 
author himself with mucli contempt, because he was ol^^[ed 
to leave the comitry for publishing that which in Ids cgglidioo 
contains things very scandalous and offensive.* That .the 
work contains things very scandalous, except to those who 
tyrannize over the consciences of their brethren, was never 
yet proved ; but that it contains things very qffensm to all 
who persecute their brethren for refusing to observe their 
anticnristian impositions, was never doubted. The ode- 
brated Dr. Ames says, ^^ It is a work^ in truth, of sach- 
strength and beauty, that it dazzles the eyes even ,of envy 
itself."f The learned prelates would, indeed, have done 
their cause no harm, if, when it was published, or at any 
future period, they had shewn themselves abletp AttWcr it. 
But they went a shorter way to work ; and, instead of at^ 
tempting any answer, they persuaded the kii^ to issue hit 
royal proclamation, with the ofier of a reward, for WUPer 
bending the author, which obliged him to hide himfidtm a 
season, and then retire into a foreign land. 

These troubles came upon him chiefly by the instigation 
of Archbishop Bancroft ; who receiving information thai he 
was concealol in a certain citizen^s house in London, ,iia- 
mediately sent a person to watch the house, while otii^ 
were prepared with a warrant to search for him. The per- 
son having fixed himself at the door, boasted that he liad 
him now secure. Mr. Parker, at this juncture, resolved'to 
dress himself in the habit of a citizen, and venture 00^ 
whereby he might possibly escape ; but if he remained in 
the house he would be sure to be taken. Accordiii|;ly. hi 
his strange garb he went forth ; and God so otdaed it, wL 
just at the moment of his going out, the watchman at the 
door spied his intended bride passbg on the other side 
the street ; and while he just stepped over to speak to he^ 

» GK7*t EamiaatioD, Tot. i. p. 59. f Amal% ftafc M^FML 


the good man escaped. When the officers came with the 
"warrant to search the house^ to their great mortification he 
could not be found.* . 

After this signal providential deliverance, be retired to 
the house of a frigid in the neighbourhood of l^ondon, 
where a treach^ous servant in the family gave information 
to the bishop's officers, who came and actually searched the 
house where he was ; but, by the special providence of Giod, 
he was drain most remarkably preserved. For the only 
room in the house which they neglected to search, was that 
in which be was concealed, from whence he heard them 
swearing and quarrelling one with another ; one protesting 
that they had not searched that room, and another as con-, 
fidently asserting the contrary, and refusing to suffer it to 
be searched again. Had he been taken, he must have been 
cast into prison ; where, without doubt, says our author, he 
must have <}ied.+ 

Mr. Panker having been favoured with these remarkable 
inteippsUions of providence, fled from the storm and went 
to Holland, and would have been chosen pastor to the 
Englikh church at Amsterdam, had not the magistrates been 
afhud of disobliging King James, ^or the burgomasters 
>of the city informed them, ^' that, as they desired to keep 
Criendship with his majesty of Great Britain, they should 
pot a stop to that business.''^ His settlement at Amsterdam 
being thus prevented, he went to Doesburg, and became 
imeacher to the garrison ; where, about ei^t months after 
Lis lemoval, he died^ in the year 1614.§ During his short 
abode at Doesburg, he wrote several very affectionate letters 
Id Air. John Paget, minister at Amsterdam; in which he 
discovers a becoming resignation to the will of God, saying, 
'^ I thank you for the pains you have taken for me, though 
without success ; at which I am not dismayed, nor at aU 
moved. I am assured it is come to pass by the will of the 
Lord; who, I know, wiU be my Grod, as well out of Am- 
sterdam as in it."! Mr. Parker was an able writer, a man 
irf great learning and pi^y, a judicious, &ithful, and 
laborious preacher.! 

• ' Inaddition to the work already noticed, Mr« Parker was 
author of ^< De Politia Ecclesiastica ;" in which he main- 

• Claffk*8 Lives, littt t«1« part i. p. S8, 2S. 
t Peiice*! Viodication, part i. ^ 170, 171. 

{Pa^t'y Aos. to Best and Davenport, p. 87. 
Fta^*s Defeoce of Chnrcb Gov. Pref. I Ibid, 

f avk*a Llvc^ put i. p. 89.— Ames's Fretii Salt, Pref. * 


fains, that what^er relates to the church of Chrifit, must be 
deduced from scripture. <^ We deny no authority to the 
king in matters ecclesiastical," says he, <<but only that 
which Jesus Christ, the only head of the church, hath 
directly and precisely appropriated unto himself, and hath 
denied to communicate to any creature or creature in the 
world. We hold that Christ alone is the doctor or teacher 
of the church in matters of religion ; and that the word of 
Christ, which he hath given to his church, is of absolute 
perfection, containing all parts of true religioti, both for 
substance and ceremony, and a perfect direction in all ecde* 
siastical matters whatsoever, unto which it is not lawfiil fiir 
any man or angel to add, or from which to detract:"* 

Mr. John PSget of Amsterdam, who was well acquaitited 
with him, gives the following account of his views of chtttth 
government : ^' When he came from Leyden, where he and 
Mr, Jacob had sojourned together for some time, he pro- 
fessed at his first coming to Amsterdam, that the use of 
synods was for counsel and advice only, but had no autho- 
rity to give a definitive sentence. After much conferoice 
with him, when he had more seriously and maturely cgn- 
sidered this question, he plainly changed his opinion, as be 

Srofessed, not only to me, but to others : so tnat eohle' of 
Ir. Jacobus opinion were offended at him, and expostulded 
not only with him, but also with me, for having occasibned 
the alteration of his judgment. I had the means of uaditti^ 
standing his mind aright, and better than those who "petted 
his meaning, since he was not only a member of the same 
church, but a member of the same family, and livcfd with 
me under the same roof; where we had daily conversatton 
of these things, even at the time when Mr. Jacob published 
his unsound writing upon this question. He was merwards 
a member of the same elde(rship, and, by (fffice, sat with us 
daily to hear and judge the causes of our church, end so 
became a member of our classical combination; yet did he 
never testify against the undue power of the classui, tut c6m* 
plain that we were not a free people^ though the chssii 
exercised the same authority then as it doth now. He was 
also for a time the scribe of our consistory, and the acts of pur 
eldership and church were recorded by his own hand/V 

Mr. Thomas Parker, another excellent puritan, of whom 
a memoir will be given, was his ton. 

« Trdngbtoo's Apology, p. 80, 90. Edit. 16ei. 
+ P«get*t Defence, p. 10&. 

GAWTON. «41 

' AiCHARD Gawton. — This zealous puritan was minister 
of SnoriM in Norfolk, and afterwards in the city of Nor- 
wich. Mr. Strype stigmatizes him with having formerly 
been a man of trade, and then becoming a curate in the 
church. _, This may be true, and yet he might be a 
letoied, faithful, and pious minister of Christ, and not 
tbter the church merely for a piece of bread, as was too 
much the custom of those times. Upon his entrance 
into the sacred office, he met with barbarous usage from the 
hands of Archbishop Parker. Having obtained a pre- 
sentation to the benefice of Snoring, the archbishop peremp- 
torily required him to sign a bond of a hundred marks, to 
pay Dr. Willoughby, the former incumbent, fourteen pounds 
a year ; though Willoughby, through mere carelessness, had 
lost the living. If he had refused to pay it, he must have 

S'' ne to prison.^ Afterwards, the poor man finding so much 
ficulty in paying this annuity, was glad to quit the place^ 
and resign the living into the hands of his patron.* 

Upon the resignation of his benefice, he became a preacher 
in the city of Norwich, but, in the year 1376, was cited 
before Dr. Freke, his diocesan, for nonconformity. + Ap- 
pearing before the bishop, he was charged with refusing to 
webr the surplice, and with declining from the exact order 
of the Book of Common Prayer. He confessed the former^ 
fuid acknowledged that he did not keep exactly to the 
rubric, but saicl, that, in other things, he was conformable. 
Several other charges were alleged against him, as will 
appear from the following examination before the bishop 
and others, dated August lo, 1576 : 
; Bishop. You have taken upon you in your pulpit to 
denote my chaplain's sermon, and have admonished your 
parishioners to beware of false doctrine. 

Gawton. Was it not meet for me so to do, seeing he 
preached that man has power sufficient to draw himself 
unto God ? 

"B. You did this the Sunday after he had preached, 
ttjough be gave you all reasonable satisfaction. 

XtTIu attempting to do this, he made his case worse .than 
it was at first. 

B. Wherein hath he made it worse ? 

• Parle of a Register, p. 394.— Strype's Parker, p. 8TS. 

f Bishop Freke was so outrageously violent io the persecution of the 
paritaas, that, in the year 1584, the ministers of ' Suffolk and Norfolk 
vaitedly presented their complaints against him to the privy council.— 
M8. CkTMohgy^ ToK ii. p. 489. (10.) 

VOL. II. n 


G« In his last sennon, he said, that hearing was calliiif ; 
and Paul saitb, faith cometh hy hearing ; out hearing is 
a natural ffift ; therefore ve have faith, uid, consequently! 
are saved oy the exercise of our natural powers. 

B. I will call him to dispute with you. 

G. I am ready at any time to confute his fiJse doctrine. 

B. That is not the cause why I sent for you. I have 
other matters against you. How many benefices have 

G. I have too many by one ; holding one merely by 
name, and against my will. 

B. Vou have two benefices more. 

G. I am sure I have not. 

B. Have you not one benefice in Wales ? 

G. I have not. 

B. We shall sequester the first-fruits c£ Snoring benefice^ 
because you have not compounded for the fruits of a 
benefice in Wales. 

G. Sequester, and spare not; for I have no beneficain 

B. That is not the thing for which I sent for yoQ. But 
because you do not wear the surplice, nor observe the order 
of the queen's book, either in public prayers or lbs 
administration of the sacraments; but are altogether oat 
of order. 

G. I confess that I wear not the surplice; but I am 
iiqjustly charged with not observing the order of the book* 
I was lately told at court, that you did not much like tbe 
surplice ; and, therefore, I fear that worldly dignity hatb 
led you to act against your own conscience. 

B, There is no reason why any persons should tliink 
thus of me, seeing I wear the surplice, or that a^^pard 
which is the same; and if I were to say the service or 
administer the sacraments, I would wear the surplice. 

G. I am the more sorry for it. 

B. Have you served in any cure in Norwich, or in 
the diocese of Norwich ? 

G. I have served a cure at Beast-street Grate, in the dty. 

B. Have you then acknowledged yourself subject to thi 
jurisdiction of the bishop ? 

G. I do not acknowledge myself subject to that jurisdlo 
tion which is claimed and exercised by the bishop. 

B. Beware how you deny authority. 

G. I am not afraid to deny the unlawful authority (f 
bishops, archdeacons, chancellors, commissaries^ and iQCb 

GA^)^rTON. 243 

Uke; thoqgii to dmy their authority^ it is said, approacheB 
near to treason. / 

Deatfl They ate your fellows who have so reported it. 

G. Nay ; they are your fellows, who would fein have it so. 

D. Their saying was, that whosoever denies that the 
queen hiis ecclesiastical jurisdiction, is in danger of treason. 

G. Whosoever hath said so, is worthy to be so accountedi 

B. Do you allow that the queen hath ecclesiastical 
jurisdiction ? 

G. I do. 

B. The queen hath ecclesiastical jurisdiction^ which 
Jurisdiction ime hath committed to me; thereifore I have 
ecclesiastical jurisdiction. 

G. Though the queen have ecclesiastical jurisdiction, it 
is not absolute, or. to do what she pleases. But with all 
humble suhinission, I acknowledge all the jurisdiction she 
claimeth. For her own words declare, that she claimeth no 
farther jurisdiction than the word of God doth allow. 
" B. I perceive what you mean, and know where that 

:^anation is given. 

G. Did the queen then give that explanation merely as 
Wi Uknnany or as queen? If she gave it as queen, it must 
neieds be a. declaration of the authority which she claimeth. 

B. What do you dislike in the jurisdiction which I 
diaim? . 

G. What authority haye you from the word of God to | 
claim the title of lord-Mshopj and to exercise government r 
over your feUow-mmisters ? *^ 

B. What part of the word of God is against it ? 

G. Matthew xx. ; where Christ forbids his disciples 
claiming superior titles, and exercising superior authority 
cnrer one another. 

B; You have read no good expositor who so interprets itA 

G. Yes, Calvin, Beza, and Musculus. And Beza upon/ 
Acts xiii. declares, that in all the New Testament there are \ 
no dignified titles ffiven to the apostles. ^ 

B. Doth not Christ say, " i e call me Master, and 
Lord ; and ye say well ; for so I am ?" Why then should 
you so much dislike the name ? 'X 

G. Though the name be due to Christ, it is not due to v 
toy mere man. 

B. What not domine ? Is that so much ? 

G. The word domine signifies sir, as well as lord. 

B. The queen in her letters patent, directed tp the varioos 


states^ willed them to receive me de 'domim xistroj which, if 
you render sir, will be absurd. 

G. The queen accounteth none of j^m as lords'; gbIj bj 
custom from your predecessors, the popbh biahopB, you an 
called hrds* 

B. In the acts of parliament we are called lords apiiitiialy 
as the others are called lords temporal. 

G. That is merely through custom, as before. 

D. Bullinger, Gaulter, and other learned men abroad, ia 
their late letter to the Bishop of Norwich, called him.&nf'' 

G. The bishop shewed me their letters^-and ibey calbd 
him not by the name of lord. 

B. But you observe not the order prescribed in the 
queen's book. 

G. i do not think myself bound by law, to observe pie^ 
cisely eyery part of the queen's book< 

B. You do not read the service as appointed by the hooki 

G. I say the service a6 appointed, except, for the sake of 
preaching, I omit some parts ; as I may by law. I observe 
the rest, except the cross and vows in baptism, which I did 
not consider myself as bound precisely to observe. 

B. But you wear not the surplice. 

G. I wear it not; and seeing it was established in tbe 
church not according to the word of Gfod, I daie not 
wear it. 

B. There are many godly, zealous, and learned men wbo 
wear it. Do you then condemn them all ? 

G. I utterly dislike their wearing it. And you, Mr. Dean^ 
did publicly preach against it, and condemned those who 
wore it, calling it a superstitious and popish gannioit. 

B. You have preached without renewing your license, 
since the day appointed in the canons. 

G. I was minister of the word of God, and, theiefine, 
bad sufficient authority to preach the word in my palish 
without any further license. Yet I despised not your 
licenses, so far as they tend to shut out those who wotaiA 
teach popery and false doctrine. 

B. You deny our authority, and wear not flie surplice.. 
You shall, therefore, be put from the ministry^ and retom' 
to your occupation. 

G. I thank God that I have an occupation io go tajmd , 
am not ashamed of it. Jesus Christ and the apostle nnil 
had an occuoatien. 

GAWTON. 845 

D. That Jesus Christ had aa occupation cannot be 
{fathered out of the text. It was only tht opinion of the 
people of Nazareth, who said he was a carpenter. 

G. And who could tell better than the people of Naza-) 
reth, among whom he lived ? I think they c6uld best tell r 
irhat was his occupation. ^ 

Here the bishop pronounced the sentence of suspension 
upon Mr. Gawton, and the register entered it upon record. 

G. I now perceive, that if one had tbe eloquence of 
ChiysQstom, the learning of Austin, and the divinity of St. 
Paul, if he did not wear the surplice, you would put him 
^<mt o( the ministry. 

B. So we would. And if St. Paul were here, he would 
wear a fool ^^s coaty rather than be put to silence. 

G. He would then act contrary to his own doctrine. For 
he saith, he w(»ild eat no flesh while the world standetlu^ 
rather than offend a weak brother; and, surely, he would 
be equally scrupulous in offending hijs brethren by -wearing' 
superstitiQus and popish garments. Your dealing thus 
with us in comers, will not further your cause, but hinder 
it, and further ours; for all men will see you fear the light. ^ 
You have now authority on your side; but we are not 
above half a dozen unconformable ministers in this city; 
and if yoa will confer with us by learning, we will yield 
up our lives, if we are tiot able to prove the doctrines we' 
hold to be consonant to the word of Grod. 

B* That is uncharitably spoken; for no man sought 
your lives. 

G. The dean here says, that he who seeks our livings, 
seeks our lives. 

D. You are like the apothecaries, seating papers on 
empty boxes. 

Cf. You, indeed, may very properly be so denominated. 
For if you were otherwise than as empty boxes, you would 
not be afraid to have the cause tried.* 

The examination thus closed, and the good man, being 
suspended, was dismissed from hi$ lordship*s presence. 
Upon his suspension, Mr. Neal, by mistake, says, that be 
8cnt a bold letter to the bishop. This letter was eviden^y 
written by another person. + We find, however, fhat after 
receiving the episcopal censure, Mr. Gawton and several 
of his brethren, wrote an excellent letter to Mr. Thomas 
Gartwright, wherein they express, with considerable freedom, 

• Parie of a Register, p. 393—400. 

t 8^ Art. R. Harycy.— Ncai'i Puritans, vol. i. p. 306. 


their firmness in the cause of nonconformity. This letter, 
dated from London, May S3, 1577, was as follows: 

<^ We stand resolved that what we have done ooiit 
<< ceming the ceremonies, the cross in baptism, &c. is mogt 
<^ agreeable to the word of God and the tcstimcmy of a 
<^ ^od conscience. By the help of God, we will laboof 
<^ even in all things, to tlie utmost of our power, to be 
^' found faithful and approved before God and men; and| 
^^ therefore, we will not betray that truth which it .hath 
<< pleased God, in his great goodness, to make known unlo 
<^ us. You will know we do nothing contentious/^ : thereia 
'^ we are clear before God and men. But we wiA you to 
<< understand, that the iniquitous times in which we live, 
^^ and the great trials which we, as well as you, hacre to 
<^ endure in the cause of Grod, and a thousand such aflio 
<< tions, shall not, the Lord helping us, make us shrink £raBi 
^< the maintenance of his truth. The same good opinioa wf 
<^ have conceived of you, not doubting that he who hulk 
<^ hitherto made you a glorious witness of truth, will still 
<< enable you to go forwards in the same comse. ■ And yet 
<^. we Uiink it meet, both on account of our own dubiaii^ 
^' and the evil days come upon us, that we should qaicken 
<< one another in so good a cause. We deal thus with you, 
^' whom, both for learning and godliness, we yery mudh 
<^ love and reverence in the Lord ; and we commit you to 
<^ Grod, and the word of his grace, which is able, and m 
<^ doubt will, in due time, fur&er buUd up both you and u% 
^^ to the glory of his name, and our endless comfoit' ii| 

" Richard Gawton, Gyles Sethtclbb, 

" Thoma9 Penny, Nicholas Standox^ 

*^ Nathaniel Baxter, John Field, 

" George Gyldrep, Thomas Wilcocm,*V 
" Nicholas Crane, 

It does not appear how long Mr. Gawtoii continned ia 
a state of suspension; only in the yes^ 1581, he wai^ 
preacher at Bury St. Edmunds ; but I am apt to thiidL| saya 
pur learned historian, seeing his opinions and practice were 
still the same, this was owing to the want of prppqr disci-: 
pline, and to tbe countenance he there mc^ with) iiotwith? 
standing his suspension.f Admitting this l^xc^t to be 
correct, his suspension must have continued at l^ast five 

• MS. Registery p. S96. f Strype*9 Annals, yol. m. p, 9P* 

AIRAT. 847 

yean. In the year I60S, a miDister of the same name, and 
most probably the same person, became vicar of Kedbum 
in Hertfordshire, where he continued till June, 1616, when 

Heitrt Airat, D. D. — This learned person was bom in 
Westmoreland, in the year 1560, and received his grammar 
learning under the famous Mr. Bernard Gilpin, who, at 
ihe age of nineteen, sent him to £dmund's*hall, Oxford ; 
but aiterwards he removed to Queen's college. Having 
taken his degrees, he became a frequent and zealous preacher^ 
was chosen provost of the college, and afterwards vice* 
chancellor of the university. In each -of these departments, 
says Wood, he shewed bimsdf a zealous Calvinist, and a 
^ ^reat promoter of those of his Own opinion, but went 
beyond the number of true.£nglish churchmen. And he 
adds, that though he condemned himself to obscurity, and 
infected a retired life, being generally adnrired and esteemed 
fN his holiness, integrity, learning, gravity, and inde* 
fttigable pains in the ministerial function, he could not keep 
kfanself nrom public notice.f By his singular wisdom, 
lenming, and prudence, in the government of his collie, 
many scholars went forth, who became bright ornaments 
both in church and state. Another writer oteerves, that he 
was so upright and unrebukable through the whole of his 
conversation, that he was reproached by some as a precisian. 
But how much he condemned the injurious zeal of the 
separatists ; how far he disliked a)l the busy disturbers of 
tbe church's peace ; how partially he reverenced his holy 
mother, the. church of England; and how willingl;^ h6 
conformed himself to her seemly ceremonies and injunctions, 
his practice and his friends are witness. He was, it is added, 
an humble and obedient son of the church, and no less an 
enemy to faction than to separaticm.f 

However much Dr* Alray tni^ht oppose the separatists, 
or jMtrtialhp' reverence the church of England, or willingly 
conform himsdf to her seemfy iceremonies and injunctions, 
It IB an indubitable fact, tha^ he was a true lionconfomiisti 
When he wias provost of Queen'^ college, he was called hi 
question by the vice*chancellor, for his nonconformity 
to the ceremonies and discipline of the church. And on 

• Newcoart'i Repert. Eccl. toI. i. p. 859. 
f Wood's Atbenae Oxon. toI. i. p. 348. 
t Ainty on PbU. Prcf. Edit. ICIS. 


account of his zeal in the same cause, he very narrowly 
escaped being constrained to make a public recantation.* 
He wrote and published a ^' Treatise against Bowing at the 
name of Jesus," shewing the superstition and absurdity af 
that popish relict. 

In the year 1606, Mr. William Laud, afterwards the 
famous archbishop, having preached at Oxford, his 9ennQD 
contained many scandalous and popish sentiments; for 
which he was called before Dr. Airay the vice-chancellor, 
to give an account of what he had delivered. It was the 
opinion of many that he was a papist, or very much 
inclined to popery ; and he narrowly escaped making a 
public recantation.f Dr. Airay having accomplished his 
days upon earth, meekly and patiently surrendered himsdf 
to God^ earnesUy desiring to depart and to be with Christ 
And having devoutly committed his soul to the caire of his 
dear Red<^mer, he closed his eyes in peace, and was carried 
to his grave with honour. He died October 6, . 1616, aged 
fifty-six years ; and his remains were interred in die inna 
chapel of Queen'3 college. 

His Works. — I. Lectares upon the whole Epistle to the Phili- 
pians, 1618. — 2, The just and necessary Apology toucniDg^ bis Soli in 
Law, for the Rectory of Charlton on Otmore, in Oxfbrdsmre, 1031.— 
3. A Treatise against Bowing at the Name of Jesus, 

George Withers, D. D. — This person was a'divine of 
good learning, incorporated in both universities, and after- 
wards preacher at Bury St. Edmunds ; but in the year 
1565, refusing to enter into bonds to wear the square cap, 
he was silenced by Archbishop Parker. Afterwardet; how- 
ever, by the urgent entreaties of his people, he wrote a sub- 
missive letter to his lordship, signifying his willingness to 
wear the cap, rather than the godly people should be dis- 
couraged, or the wicked led to triumph4 

Dr. Withers being a learned and popular preacher^ 
was chosen one of the preachers to the university of Cam- 
bridge ; ^nd being an avowed enemy to popery, he lecom- 
meniled to th^ university to pull down the superstitioiis and 
ridiculous paintings in the glass windows. This oc 
9 CQn^ider^.ble noise in the university, and created 


• Wood's Athenae, toI. I. p. 481.— Hist, and Antiq. of Oxod. tqI. ti. 
p. 288. Edit. 1796. 

+ Ibid.— Heylin'sLifcofLandjp. 54. 
t Strype's Fftrker, p. 18T, 188. 


^reat trouble. Arckbisliop Parker cited him before the 
Eigll coiumissioners, to answer fgr what he had done ; and 
upon his appearance, his lordship demanded his license to 
preach in that seat of learning. He therefore produced the 
letters of the university, by which, m the year 1363, he was 
nominated and appointed one of the twelve university 
preachers. The archbishop pronounced this license defec- 
tive, being in the name of the vice-chancellor, masters, and 
scholars alone, without the name of the chancellor. He 
"wrote, at the same time, to Sir William Cecil, the chancel- 
lor, urginff him to exercise his authority.* By these pro- 
ceedings, Dr. Withers was most probably forbidden preach- 
ing any more at Cambridge ; but it does not appear whether 
he sufiered any other punishment. 

Upon the above commotions, he travelled to Geneva, 
Zunch, and other places, where he became intimately acr 
qaainted with^uUinger, Gaulter,and other learned divides. 
Having remained among his new friends a few years, he 
returned to England ; and, in October, 1570, was made 
archdeacon of Colchester; and, in November, 1572, was 
admitted rector of Danbury in Essex. He submitted to the 
ceremonies for the sake of peace, though he never approved 
of them.f In the year 1583, upon the publication of Whit- 
gifl^« three articles, and the oppressive measures which im- 
mediately followed, he wrote to his worthy friend the Lord 
Treasurer Burleigh, expressing his strong objections against 
such rigorous proceedings. In this letter, dated from Dan- 
bury, February 19, 1583^ he addressed the treasurer ail 
follows :t 

^^ My duty to your honour in most humble manner pre- 
mised, with, my most earnest prayer to God for you. \ our 
ponjtinual care of the church, and the importunity of my 
friends, have enforced me to write to your lordship con. 
cerning the present controversies in the church. I have 
long wished the church were rid of some things, in the re- 
taining of which I can see no advantage. The silencing of 
ministers is like a man who, being angry with his shepherd', 
forbids him tq feed his sheep, yet appoints none other in his 

Slace, and so the sheep starve in the fold. Your care to 
ave insufficie^t ijounisters rempved, is commendable and 

*i With regard to the subscription to the Book of Common 

Prayer, how .urged, though I think reverently of the book; 

•- •♦ ' 

• Strype's Parker, p. 192—194. t Ibid. p. 198, 199. 

i Strype*! Anoalsy toI. iii. Appco. ^. 62^-^» 


yet to think that its authors emd in nothing, is a lemeuoe 
due to the canonical books of scriptuie alone, and not to anr 
human author whatever. The things in the book whidi I 
wish reformed are, first, such as cannot be defended : as 
private baptism. How to reconcile it to the docCiine of 
the church as by law established, to me appears imponiUe. 
Also the minister receiving the other sacrament with the sick 
man alone, is cootraiy to the nature of the communion; 
contrary to the doctrine established ; and is cousiii-gcrmBn 
to the private mass. The other things are taken cynt of Ae 

Popish portuis, and translated into the Book of Gommon 
rayer, which serves to confirm our adversaries in popery, 
I wish the weapon were taken out of their hands* 

^^ It is also an inconvenience, that the translation of the 
scripture, as corrupted by the bishops, still remaineth in the 
Bookof Commcmrrayer uncorrected: that the inierrogap 
tories in baptism are directed to infants ; and that the prep 
sent uiging of subscription, instead of prodndnr giealef 
um/y, i fear it will make greater dUvision^ For I uinkflukt 
many who now use the book, and are in other things con* 
formable^ will hardly yield to subscribe according to the 
form now required. Beseeching your lordship to pardon 
my boldness, I commit you to the protection of Alniq|;hty 

♦^ Your lordship's in Christy 

" George Withers.'* 

Dr. Withers quitted the rectory of Danbury iii- 1€05, 
most probably on account of his nonconformity ; bvt re- 
mains archdeacon to his death. He died previous to 
April 10, 1617.* The Oxford historian denominates him, 
« Th6 Puritanical Satirist"+ He published *« The Lay- 
man's Letters," 1585. — " A View of the Marginal Notes ia 
the Popish Testament," 1588. 

Francis Bunney, A. B, — Tliis person was bom at 
Vach, near Chalfont St. Giles, in Buckinghamshire, May 8, 
154S, and educated in the university of Oxford, where he 
became fellow of Magdalen college. He entetea upon the 
ministerial work in 1567, and soon became nn adinued md 
a popular preacher. He was for some time chaplaiii to tiie 
Earl of Bedford ; but, upon tlie resignation of his fi^Iow* 
ship, he retired into the north of England, where he '"*' 

♦ NewGpart*s Repert. Ecd. vol. i. p. 92, 
f Wood*i Atbenae Ozoa. vol. i. p. 484. 

F. BUNNEY. 251 

^^Tered uncommon zeal, constancy, and popularity in his 
ministerial labours. In the year 1573, he became preben* 
dary of Durham ; the year following, upon the resignation 
of Mr. Ralph Lever, he was made archdeacon of Nor^- 
thumberland; and in 1578, he became rector of Ryton, in 
the bishopric of Durham. Though he obtained these pre« 
ferments, he did not hold them all at the same time^ but in 
succession.* Upon his going into the north, the Bishops 
^ilkin^n and Bams, successively of Durham, shewed him 
great Isivour, and his labours were rendered particularly 
usefuLf The former of these prelates was a great friend to 
the puritans and silenced nonccmformists. He often took 
them under his patronage and protection. He connived at 
their nonconformity ; and, to the utmost of his power, pro^ 
moted, encouraged, and sheltered them from the storm. 
Such appears to have been the conduct of this generous 
prelate towards Mr. Bunney* Wood says ^^ he was very 
zeakNis in his way, (meaning the way of puritanism ;) a 
great admirer of John Calvin, a constant preacher, and 
much given to charity; but a stiflF enemy to popery. "j: 
He dira at Ryton, April 16, 1617, in the seventy-fourth 
year of his age. His remains were interred in the chancel 
of the church at that place; and upon the wall over his 
grave is a monumental inscription on a brass plate^ the first 
stanza of which is the following : 

My bark now liavin^ won the haven, 

I fear no stormy seas ; 
God is my hope, my home is heaven. 

My life is happy ease^ 

Mr. Bunney, by his last will and testament, bequeathed 
thirty-three pounds to Magdalen college, Oxford, and one 
btmdred pounds towards the erection of new colleges in that 
university. He was brother to Mr. Edmund Bunney, 
another puritan divine, whose memorial is given in the 
following article^ 

His Works.— 1. A Survey and Trial of the Pope's Supremacy, 1690. 
— ^ A Comparison between the ancient Faith of the Romans and 
the new Romish Religion, 1695. — 3. Answer to a Popish Libel> caUed 
A PeHtian to the BUIu^ps, Preachers^ and Owpellen, 1607. — i. Expo- 
sition on Romans iii. 28, wherein is manifestly proved the Doctnnp 
of Justification by Faith, 1616.-^. A plain and familiar Exposition 
of theTenComm^ndmoots, 1617.— 6. In Joelis Prophetiam enarratio. 
The last was left in manwifcripty and probably never published. 

• Wood*s AtheosB Oxon. vol. i. p. 355, 740. 

f 9trype*8 Aimali, yol. iii. p. 355. . i Atbea» Oxon. fol. i. p. 855. 


Edmund Bonnet, B. D. — This zealous minister 
bom at Vach, near Chalfont St. Giles, in Backinghamshii^ 
in the year 1540, and educated in the university of Oxfoid; 
where, on account of his great knowledge of logic and 
philosophy^ he was elected probationer fellow of Biagdalcn 
college. He wa9 the son of Mr. Richard Bunney of Newtoo, 
usually called Bunneyrhall, near Wakefield in Yorkshire. 
His father, designing him for the law, removed him from 
the university, and sent him to the inns of court, where he 
continued* about four years. Mr. Bunney, not 'liking the 
law, resolved to study divinity, for which his father cast 
him off, and disinherited him.* Upon this he returned to 
Oxfgrd, and in 1565, was elected fellow of Mertcm coU^e, ' 
and admitted to the reading of the sentences. There was not 
at this time a single preacher in his college, and the 

greatest scarcity through the whole university ; but Mr. 
unney was chosen preacher to the society. In this situa- 
tion, he soon became a very eminent, constant, and popular 
pre^her.f He used frequently to visit the university, fbr^ 
many years after he left it ; when he was constantly engaged 
in preaibl^ing; and, by his sound doctrine and holy life, 
was the means of doing unspeakable good, especially 
among the scholars. He also travelled like an apostle, 
oyer most parts of England, every where preaching the word, 
Hereby he incurred the displeasure ana censure of many* 
But, to acquit himself of all blame, he wrote '^ 4- Defence dT 
his Labour in the Work of the Ministry." This he 
dispersed among hi3 friends, though it does not appear that 
it was ever published. But because he was a uoron^ 
Calvinist, and a zealous puritan. Wood denominates hun 
'^ a busy, forward, and conceited man, and a moi^ fliii4 
preacher." According to this writer, he. seldom or never 
studied his sermons, but prayed and preached extempore; 
and, in the opinion of many^ was troubled with the dmnUjf 
squirt: and, he adds, that, by the liberties vrhich he fook in 
his preaching, he did a great deal of harm.t The same 
aiithor, indeed, styles him '^ an excellent writer, an emmnt 
preachei^, and a learnecl theologi^t.''§ Mr. Strype calls htm 
^f an eminent vnriter and divine.") 

About the year 1570, Mr. Bunney became chapbon to 
Grindal, Archbishop of York, who fi;aye lum i^ piebend m 

* Wood's Athense Oxod. toI. i. p. S64. 

+ Wood's Hist, and Antiq. of Oxod. vol. ii. p. 162. 

i Athenae Oxon. vol. i. p. 364, 365. 

Ilbid. p. 396,717.— Hist, and Antiq. toI. ii. p. 158. 
Strjpe'i Apnali, ¥o1. ill. p. 609. ' 


that church, and thfe rectory of Bolton-Percy, near the city 
of York. After holding the rectory twenty-five years, he 
resigned the liring, when he was made sub-dean of York. 
He died at Cawood in that county, February 26, 1617, aged 
fifty-seven years^ His remains were interred in the south 
aisle joining to the choir of the cathedral of York; and 
pvf^r his grave is his e&gy carved in stone and fixed in 
the wall, with a monumental inscription to his memory, of 
which the following is a translation : 

Edmund Bunney, 

born of thd ancient and noble family of the Bunneys, 

was Bachelor of Divinity, 

and once Fellow of Mei^on College, Oxford, 

Pastor of the parish of Bolton-Percy, 

a very worthy Prebendary of St Paul's, London ; 

of St. Peter's, York ; 

and St. Mary's, Carlisle. 

He spent a great part of his time in going about 

from place to place in preaching, 

leaving, for the love he had to Christ, 

the patrimony bequeathed him by his father, 

to his brother Richard. 

He died February 26, 

in the year 1617. 

His Works. — 1. The Summ of the Christian Religion, 1576.—: 
2. An Abridgment of Johtl Calvin's Institutions, 1580.— 3. A Treatise of 
Purification, 1584.->-4. The Coronation of King David, 1588. — 5. A 
necessary Admonition out of the Prophet Joel« concerning the hand 
t>f God-that late was upon us, and is not clean taken off as yet, 1588* 
— 6. A brief Answer to those idle and frivolous Quarrels of R. P. 
(Robert Parsons) against the late edition of the Resolution, 1589. — 
7. Divorce for Adtiltery, and Marrying again, that there is no sufficient 
Warrant so to do, 1610.-'^. The Comer Stone ; or, a form of Teaching 
Jesus Christ out of tibe Scriptures, 1611. 

' EasfiBius Paget.— >This excellent divine was bom at 
Crauford in Northamptonshire, about the year 1542, and 
educated in Christ's Church, Oxford. He went to the 
university at twelve years of age, and became an excellent 
k^cian and philosopher* During his abode at Oxford^ 
be broke his right arm, and was lame of it ever after. 
Removing from the university, he became vicar of Oundle, 
and rector of Langton,* in his native county, but was 
exceedingly harassed on account of his nonconformity. 

* firidgct*s Hilt, of NortiuuDptoiiihirey toI. I. p« 306. 


January 99, 1373, he ivas cited before ScamUeTy Udiop d 
Peterborough, who first suspended him for the space of tnrae 
weeks, then deprived him of his living, worth a Imidnd 
pounds a year. Several others were suspended and dranvri 
at the same time, because they could not, with a good oon- 
science, subscribe to certain promises and cnga^remeall 
proposed to them by the bishop.* Upon their defvivatiaa, 
they presented a supplication to the queen and parliament, 
for their restoration to their beloved ministry ; but ta no 
purpose : They must subscribe, or be buried m silence. A 
circumstantial account of these intolerant proceedings will 
be found in another place.f 

In the year 1576, Mr. Paget was exercised with new 
oppressions. His unfeeling persecutors, not content with 
depriving him of his ministry and his living, ordered him 
to \ye taken into custody, and sent up to JLondon. He 
was, therefore, apprehended, with Mr. John Ozenbridge, 
another leading person in the associations in Northamp- 
tonshire and Warwickshire, and they were both carried 
urisoners to the metropolis, by a special order from Arch- 
Dishop Grindal.^ It docs not, however, appear how long 
they were kept in custody, nor what further persecutiflns 
they suffered. 

Mr. Paget was afterwards preferred to the rectory of 
Kilkhampton in Cornwall. Upon his presentation to the 
benefice, he acquainted both his patron and crJimirVf 
that he could not, with a good conscience, observe all me 
rites, ceremonies, and orders appointed in the Book oF 
Common Prayer ; when they generously promised, that, if 
he would accept the cure, he should not be urged to the 
precise observation of them. On these concutioos, he 
accepted the charge, and was r^ularly admitted and 
inducted.^ He was a lame man; but, in the opinion of 
Mr. Strype, <^ a learned, peaceable, and good divine, who 
had formerly complied with the customs and devoticms of 
the church, and had been inde&tigable in the ministry.'*! 
But Mr. Farmer, curate of Barnstaple, envying his p(^« 

* Dr. Ednrand Scambler, lacceuiTely bitbop of PeterbonMfb 
Norwich, was the first pastor of tbe protestaot coogregatioD In Loodottyla 
the reigo of Queen Mary ; but was compelled, on accoant of tbe Mfferity 
of persecotioD, to relinqoish tbe sitoation. He was a learned nuw, voy 
tealons asaiosttbe papists, and probably driven into a state of iexO«i bai^ 
surely, he forgot his former circomstances wlicn he became a 
persecutor of his brethren in the days of Queen Elizabeth. 

f See Art. Arthur WalLe. % Strype's Grindal, p. S15. 218. 

S MS. Rtfister, p. 57)^. | Strype's Wldlgift, p. STT. 

E. PAGET. i&b 

laritv. eomplaiiied of him to the high oommissiaii ; trheii 
the mloyring charges were exhibited against him : — <^ Tfa^ 
in liis inrayers he never mentioned the queen's supremacy 
over both estates. — That he had said the sacraments were 
only dumb elements^ and would not avail without the word 
preached. — That he had preached that Christ did not 
descend, both body and soul, into hell. — That the pope 
might set ub the feast o{ jubilee, as well as the feasts of 
Easier and l^eM^ost, — That holy days and fast days were 
only the inventions of men, which we are not obliged to 
follow.— That he disallowed of the use of organs in divine 
worship. — That he called ministers who did not preach, 
dumb dogs; and those who have two benefices, knaves,-^ 
And that he preached that tlie late Queen Mary was a 
detestable woman, and a wicked Jezebel."* These were the 
crimes exhibited against our divine; though upon hid 
appearance before Archbishop Whitgifl and other com- 
missioners, January 11, 1584, he was charged only in tho 
coami(»i form^ with refusing to observe the Book of Common 
Krayer, and the ecclesias(tical rites and ceremonies; to 
which he made the following reply :f 

'< I do acknowledge, that by the statute of the 1 Eliz. I am 
bound to use the said Book of Common Prayer, in such 
manner and form as is prescribed, or else abide by such pain^ 
as by the law are imposed upon me. I have not refused to 
' use the Common Prayer, or to minister the sacraments, in 
such Order as the book appoints, though I have not used all 
the rites, ceremonies, and orders set forth in the said book.* 
1. Because^ ix> my knowledge, there is no Common Prayer 
Book in the church. 2. Because I am informed, that you, 
before whom I stand, and mine ordinary, and greatest part 
of the other bishops and ministers, do use greater liberty in 
omitting and altering the said rites, ceremonies, and orders. 
S. Because I am not resolved in my conscience, that I may 
use divers of them. 4. Because, when I took the charge of 
that church, I was promised by mine ordinary, that I should 
not be urged to such ceremonies ; which, I am informed, 
he might do by law. 

^^ In those things which I have omitted, I have done 
nothing obstinatdy; neither have I used any other rite, 
ceremony, order, iform, or manner of administration of the 
sacramaits or open prayers, than is mentioned in the said 
book; although there are some things which I doubt 

• MS. Retistert p. 574, 575. f Ibid. p. 670. 


"whether I may use or practise. Wherefore, I humblj 
pray, that J may have the liberty allowed by the said book| 
of having in some convenient time, a favourable confereno^ 
either with mine ordinary, or with some other by yoa 
appointed. This I seek not for any desire I have to Imp 
. the said living, but only for the better resolution and satis- 
faction of my own conscience, as God knoweth. Subscribed 
by me, 

" Lame, Euserius Paget.** " 

This answer proving unsatisfactory to Whitgiflt and hii 
bretliren, Mr. Pa^t was immediately suspended ; ' and 
venturing to preacTi after his suspension, he was deprived of 
his benefice. The principle reasons of his dcprivatioii| 
were, ^' The omission of part of the public prayers, the craa 
in baptism, and the surplice ; and the irregularity of deal- 
ing in the fnihistry after his susi)ension." 

In the opinion of the learned civilians, however, these 
things were not sufficient cause of deprivation, and, conse- 

auently, the proceedings of the high comnsission weie 
eemed unwarrantable. The Case was argued at some 
length; and being now before me, the reader is here 
favoured with the reasons on which the opinion is founded. 
His deprivation was accounted unwarrantable, because he 
had not time, nor conference, as he desired, and as the statute 
in doubtful cases warranted. He had not three aevc^d 
admonitions, nor so much as o;ie, to observe those things in 
due time, as the law required. If this had been done, and^ 
after such respite and admonition, he had not confonned, 
then the law would have deemed him a recusant, but not 
otherwise. And if the whole of this process had been 
regularly observed, Mr. Paget's omissions had so many 
favourable circumstances, as, that the parish had not pro- 
vided a Prayer Book, and his ordinary had promised that 
he should not t)e urged to observe all the ceremonies,, that 
it was hardly consistent with prudence and charity to 
deprive him so suddenly. 

As to his irregularity in preaching after his sugpensioo, 
the civilians were of opinion, that the suspension was void, 
because founded upon a process not within the cogmxanoe 
of those who pronounced the sentence. For the ground of 
the sentence was his refusing to subscribe to aiticM 
devised and tendered by the ecclesiastical c(NnmissioiienL]irh6 
had no warrant whatever to offer any such articles. Thai 
authority, as expressed in their commission, extended no 
farther than to reform and correct those things which weie 

E. PAGET. ^7 

contrary to, certain statutes, and other ecclesiastical laws; 
ttfeie being no clause in the commission allowing them to 
ire subscription to articles of their own invention;' 
ley further argued, that, on supposition the suspension 
* been warrantable, all irregularity was done away by. 
Hie queen's pardon, long before his deprivation. Besides, 
|Ir. Facet cud not exercise himself in the ministry after his 
jpispension, nor even, attempt to do it, till after he had 
gdbtained from the archbishop himself a release from that 
ifospension; which he apprehended, in such a case, to be 
fufficient, seeing his grace was chief in the commission. And 
in addition to this, all the canonists allowed, that mistake 
f£ ignorance, being void of wilful contempt, as in the 
present case, were a lawful excuse from irregularity.* Notf 
withstanding these arguments in favour of the poor, lame 
minister of Christ, the learned prelates remained inflexible | 
and, right or wrong, were determined to abide by what 
tfae^ had decreed ; therefore, the patron disposed of the 
liying to another. 

\ Mf. Paget's enemies were resolved to ruin him. From 
the above statement, his case was, indeed, very pitiablcf. 
This, however, was not the conclusion of his troubles : his 
iiitare hardships were still more lamentable. After being 
deprived both of his ministry and benefice, and having t6 
pyovide for a numerous family, the poor man set up a 
small school : but there the extended arms of the higU 
commissioners reached him. For, as he was required to 
bke out a license, and to subscribe to the articles of reli- 

£*3n, which he could not do with a good conscience, they 
at up his school, as they had before shut him out of the 
church, and left him to sufier in extreme poverty and want. 
In tiMs painful condition, he sent an account of his case in 
'% Idter to the lord admiral, to whom he was well known. 
and by whom he was much beloved. In this letter, dated 
June 3, 1591, he expressed himself as follows :f 

^^ I never gathered any separate assembly from the church, 
nor was I ever present in them ; but always abhorred them. 
I always resorted to my parish church, and was present at 
Msrvice ' and preaching, and received the sacrament ac- 
OUfding to the book. I thought it my duty not to forsake 
(be church because it had some blemishes ; but while I 
have endeavoured to live in peace, others have prepared 
tlianselves for war. I was turned out of my living by 

« ]|8. Reguter/p. 572, 573. -f Strype*8 Wbit^^ft, Appta. p. 106^ 167. 
▼OL. II. . 8 


eommandraait. Afterwards, I preached wifhoot Ihrin^' 
and without stipend ; and when I was fiMrbiddeny I oe8ie£' 
I then tanffht a few children, to obtain a little bread fm 
myself and my family; and when some disliked this, mbA 
commanded me to give it up, I obeyed and gave it B|iw 

<^ I beseech your lordship to continue yonr great laioar 
towards me, that I may not be turned out of bowe aad 
calling, and be obliged, as an idle rogue and yagabondj lo 
go frond door to door, begging my bread, while I am me 
to obtain it in a lawful calling. And I beseech 3^00 to be a 
means of obtaining her majesty's favour, thart I may bs 
allowed to live in some place and calling, as beooraeth a 
f)eaceable subject. And i beseech the Ixffd God tohkai 
and prosper your honour for ever. Your loidship^B most 
obedient servant, 

** liame, Eusebivs Pagbt.** 

How long the good man continued under the eoeksiaf- 
tical censure, we are not able to learn. It i% howeim 
probable he continued some years. Mr. Paget wJucribm 
the ^^ Book of Discipline.^'* But we find no fiiitbs 
account of him till September 21, 1604, when he became 
rector of St. Ann and Agnes, in Aldersgate-stieety tdmdob^ 
There he laboured in the Lord's vineyard, till lie finished 
his work, dying in May, 1617, aged seventy-five . yeaiii 
His remains were interred in his own church. Wood sayk 
^ he was many years a ccHistant and fiulhful preacher of 
God^s word."f And Fuller styles him << the golden 80>- 
phister, a painful preacher," and author c^ an eBcdfcnl 
"History of the Bible."t 

His Works.— 1. Sermon on Tithes, 1583.— 2. A Cateehi■■^ IBOl 
The History of the Bihle, hriefly collected by way of QoaliMi 
and Answer, 1097.-4. Sermon on Election. — 6. A TraaslatiM d 
Calvin's Harmony of Matthew, Maik, and links. He was aatkr 
also of some other pieces. 

Thomas Stone. — This pious divine was educated b 
Christ's Church, Oxford, chosen one of the proctors (^ dii^ 
university, and became rector of Warkton in Norduunpr 
tonshire. He was a person of good leamin|^ and giw 
worthy a zealous puritan, and a member of the datfii^ 

• Neal»« Puritans, ▼ol. i. p. 493. 

+ Wood's AtbeosB Oxon. ▼ol. i. p. 367.^Newcoarf s Repeit BcA 
?ol. i. p. «7a ' . 

t Filler** Worthies, part ii. p. 890. 


bi^^ sometimes chosen moderator. He united with his 
biethren in subscribing the ^^ Book of Discipline ;"• but was 
■Jferwanl^ brought into trouble for nonconformity, and his 
Esncem to reform church discipline. July 27, 1590, he 
f^as app:ehended and brought before Attomey-Gieneral 
Bepliam, and required to take the oath ex officio. The day 
BlUowing he was examined in the star-chamber, from AjL 
D^dock in the morning till seven at night; and required 
Jjtai his oath, to give his answer to thirty-three articles.f 
mne oi the puritans thought, that when they were ex* 
Mtained before their spiritual judges, it was their duty to 
•onfesB all they knew. This was Mr. Stone's opinion in the 
brfore us. His examination chiefly related to the classical 
nblies; and though he could not give a direct answer 
to all the interrogatories, he gave an account of the greater 
and lesser assemblies; where they met; how often; and 
Hrhat persons officiated. He answered several questions 
j^QDCefniiiff the authority by which they met together ; who 
^pete mo&rators; upon what points they debated; and 
|Alrt censures were exercised. But, in order that this may 
^ffffcxf to greater advantage, it will be proper to give those 
itHDcles upon which he spoke explicitly, with the substance 
gf his answers ; which were the following : 
^ 1. Who and how many assembled at their classis ? where^ 
and when, and how often were they held ? 
V In answer to this article, he -specified the names of about 
fiuly ministers X ^ho attended these assemblies, though not 
dl lit one .time ; and that they had held them in London, 
Cambridge, Northampton, and Kettering. 

8. Who called these assemblies, by what authority, and 
ib what manner ? 

^ I know not, says Mr. Stone, by whom they were called ; 
mm do I know any other authority therein, only that which 
tjffts voluntary, by giving one another intelligence sometimes 
hf letter, and sometimes by word of mouth, as occasion 
* S. Who were moderators in them, and what was their 

I I remember not who were moiderators in any assembly 
l^irticidarly, excepting .once at Northampton, when Mr. 

« Real's Puritans, vol. i. p. 483. 
' i- FaUer't Church Hist. b. ix. p. 206. 

X From a list of the ministers, now before me, who attended these assem- 
bf tei, tbere were, in all, upwards of ei|;hty.— JfS. Chronology^ yol. ii. 
p. 4d5. (6.) 


Johnson ¥ras admonished, and that was Mr. Snape te. 
myself, I am not certain which. • 

4. Wliat things were debated in those meetings ar as- 
semblies? . 

The principal things considered in tliose assembUei^ "W^SBtf 
how far ministers might yield to subscribe unto the Book 
of Common Prayer, rather than forego their miniatrj. The 
<^ Book of Discipline" was oflen perused and ^sciMBed. 
Three petitions were agreed upon to be drawn up aod- 
presented, one to her majesty, another to the Icwds of tk 
council, and another to the bishops. As to the particolat 
things debated, I remember only, the perfecting of the 
<< Book of Discipline,'^ and the subscription to it at Cam- 
bridge. Also, whether it was convenient for Mr. Cartwririit 
to reveal the circumstances of the assemblies, a little beroce 
he was committed. Likewise the admonition of Mr. Johnsoni. 
at Northampton. And whether the books of Apocrypha 
might be warrantably read in public worship, as the 
canonical scriptures. . . ^ 

. 5. Were any censures exercised ; what kinds, when, wheie, 
upon whom, by whom, and for what cause ? 

I never saw any censure exercised, excepting admonitkiD 
once given to Mr. Johnson of Northampton, for impipper 
conversation, to the scandal of his calling : nor waa uut 
used with any kind of authority, but by voluntary and 
mutual agreement, as well by him who was admonished, as 
him who gave the admonition. 

6. Have any of the said defendants moved or persuaded 
any to refuse an oath, and in what case ? 

I never knew any of the defendants to use words of 
persuasion to refuse any oath; only Mr. Snape .sent. me 
certain reasons gathered out of scripture, which led 
him to refuse the oath ex officio; which, I am persuaded, 
he sent for no other purpose, than to declare, that ]|B 
refused to swear, not of contempt, but for consdcnoe 

This is the substance of what is preserved by our h^jrio* 
rians. Mr. Stone, however, by his long examination, brou^ 
many things to light, extremely offensive to the mlu^ 

Prelates ; but which, till that time, were perfectly unknowiu 
'hough he did not, it seems, give this information out of 
any ill design, but because he was required upon his o$0i 
so to do ; yet many of the puritans were inclined to 

• Funer's Church Hist. b. ix. p. 307— 209.^Strjpe'i Whilsift, Appcf. 
p. 159-^166. 

BAYNES. 261 

complain of his adding affliction to their bonds, seeing it 
"twop^ht them into many troubles. Mr. Stone, therefore, to 
acqmt himself of the blame attached to him by his brethren, 
drew up and published a vindication of what he had done. 
^Ilie reasons alleged in his own defence^ were in ^U sixteen ; 
bat the principal were, '' That he thought it was unlawful to 
refuse an oath, when offered by a lawful magistrate.-^That, 
baying taken the oath, he was not at liberty to say nothing, 
much less to deliver an untruth^ — ^And he saw no pro- 
bability, nor fsven possibility, of things being any longer 

Mr. Stpne, with several others, having fully discovered 
^be classipal associations^ many of hi;s brethren were ca^ 
into prison, where they remained a long time under extreme 
bardabips ; but he was himself released. Having obtained 
bis liberty, he returned to his ministerial charge at Warkton ; 
Inhere he continued without further molestation the r^ 
mainder ci his life. He di^ an old man and full of days« 
.in the year 1617. Bridges observes, that he was inducted 
into tlije living of Warkton in the year 1553.f If this 
fltntemei^t be correct, he must have been rector of that place 
jnxty-four years. He was a learned man, of great upright* 
negB, and uncommon plainness of spirit, minding not the 
filings of this world ; yet, according to Wood, « a stiff 
nonconformist, and a jealous presb^terian."{: 

Paul Batnes, A. M. — This excellent divine was born 
in London, and educated in Christ's college, Cambridge, 
whare he was chosen fellow* His qonduct at the university 
was, at first, so exceedingly irregular, that his father was 
much displeased with him; and, at his death, left forty 

fi[>llnds a year, to the disposal of his friend Mr. Wilson of 
irchin*>lane, desiring, that if his son should forsake his 
ievil 'V^ys, and become steady, he would give it him; but 
if he did not, that he should withhold it from him. Not 
lon^ after his fiither^s death, it pleased God to Convince him 
oi bis sins, and bring him to repentance. He forsook the 
paths of vice, and jsoon became eminent for piety and holiness. 
Much being forgiven him, he Ipved much^ Mr. Wilson, 
being taken dangerously ill, and having heard what the 

• . • Fuller's Cborch Hist. b. ix. p. 800, 810. 

:■ -¥ Bridges*i Hist, of NorthamptoosbiiY, vol. i. p. 274. 

. .4 IWcf's Cliwrcb Hist. b. Ix. p. 810. —Wood's Athenas Ozoa, 

vol. i. p. 749. 


Lord had done for Mr. Bnynes, sent for him, when lie 
was much delighted and profited by his fervent prayers and 
holy conversation. Therefore, according to the tnul 
reposed in him, be made known to Mr. Baynes the agree* 
ment into which he had entered with his father, and de- 
livered to him the securities of the above annuity. 

Mr. Baynes, it is said, was inferior to non& m sharpnctt 
of wit, in depth of judmnent, in variety of reading, ii 
aptness to teach, and in holy, pleasant, and heavenly co^ 
yersatioii. Indeed, his fame was so great at Cambridge^ 
that, upon the death of the celebrated Mr. Perkins, no onf 
was deemed so suitable to succeed him in the lecture at 8t 
Andrew's. In this public situation, he was much admired 
and followed; multitudes rejoiced under his ministry; and 
he so conducted himself, that impiety alone had cause to 
complain.* Here he was instrumental, under Grod, in the 
conversion of many souls. Among these was the holy and 
celebrated Dr. Sibbs. 

His excellent endowments, together with his extensiTe 
usefulness, could not screen him from the oppressions of 
the times. Dr. Harsnet, chancellor to Archbishop Bancnf^ 
visiting the university, silenced him, and put down hi 
lecture, for refusing sul^ription. Mr. Baynes vras reqniied 
to preach at this visitation, when his sermon was sound and 
unexceptionable. But being of a weak constitution, he 
retired at the close of the service, for some refreshm^; 
and being called during his absence, and not answering, he 
was immediately silenced. Nor were his enemies satufied 
with this, but, to make sure work of it, the reverend dtsn- 
cellor silenced him over again ; all of which Mr. Baynes 
received with a pleasant smile on his countenam:e.f 
Having received the ecclesiastical censure, he appealed to the 
archbishop ; but his grace stood inflexible to the deteimi* 
nation of his chancellor, and threatened to lay the ffood M 
man by the heels, for appearing before him with ar.ffi^ 
black edging on his cuffs.X 

After receiving the above coisure, Mr. Baynes preached 
only occasionally, as he found opportunity, and war 

• Clark *8 Lives aoiiexed to his Martyrologie, p. SSy 88. 

■f* Baynes^s Diocesaas Tryall, Pref. Edit. 108K 

X Ibid.—How a little blaclL edging could offend his lordsUp, If certalsiy 
not easy to discover. It was not prohibited by any of the canon, nor WKf 
violatioo of the ecclesiastical constitotioDs. Therefore, onleMi ^ nich- 
bisbop had some enmity against the good man pre^omly in kli Ivnrt, it 
foems dificuU to say how he could have been offmdod wifck to Sriviil 
a matter. 



t e dtt c cd to ereat poyerty and -want Notwitbatanding this, 
lie never faTamea himself for his nonconformity. But of 
Hie persecuting prelates he used pleasantly to say, '^ Thej 
aue a generation of the earth, earthly, and savour not the- 
ways of God." He was an excellent casuist, acnd great 
Bumbers under distress of conscience resorted to him for 
instruction and comfort. This the bishops denominated 
keeping conventicles; and for this marvellous crime, Bishop 
fiiirsaet. Iris most furious persecutor, intended to have 
•mocuied his banishment. He was, therefore, called before 
i^ council ; and, being allowed to speak in his own defence, 
jhe made so admirable a speech, that before he had done, 
^«ie of the. lords stood up, and said, ^^ He speaks more 
like an angel than a many and I dare not stay here to have 
# hand in any sentence against him." Upon this he was 
dismissed, and heard no more of it.* 

Though Mr. Baynes's natural temper was warm and 
iititaUe, no one was more ready to receive reproof, when 
ipipperly administered. Indeea, by the power of divine 
grace, the lion was turned into a lamb ; and he was become 
of so holy and humble a spirit, that he was exceedingly 
Moved and revered by all who knew him. During the 
sommer season, after he was silenced, he usually visited 
jRnflemen in the country; and they accounted it a peculiar 
lelicity to be &voured with his company and coiiversation* 
In his last sickness, the adversary of souls was permitted 
to disturb his peace. He laboured to the last under many 
doubts and fears, and left the world less comfortable than 
many others, greatly inferior to him in christian faith and 
lioliness. He died at Cambridge, in the year 1617. 

The celebrated Dr. Sibbs gives the following account of 
Om acoompiished servant of Christ : " Mr. Baynes," says he, 
^ was a man of much communion with Grod, and acquaint* 
^ ance with his own heart, observing the daily footsteps of 
M his life. He was much exercised with spiritual conflids« 
^< by which he became more able to comfort others. He had 
^ a deep insight into the mystery of Grod's grace, and manlB 
.^ corrviption. He sought not great things in the world. 
^ He possessed great learning, a clear judgment, and a ready 
<< wiw*f Fuller has classed him among the learned writers 
who were fellows of Christ's coUegt-, Cambridge.t What a 
Rproach was it to the ruling prelates, and what a blow 
nipinst the diurch of God, wbm wo excdleat it divipe was 
aside and almost starved I 

• Cburk*B Live^ p. S3, S4. f Ibid. p. 94. 

t FUl€r'iHiat^Ckabp.9f. 


The following anecdote is related of Mr. Baynes, shewing; 
the warmth of his natural temper, with his leiUliness to 
receive reproof and to make a proper use of it . A religioiB 
jpfentleman placed his son under his care and tuition ; aaid 
Mr. Baynes, entertaining some friends at supper, sent the boy 
into the town for sometliing which they wanted. The boy 
staying longer than was proper, Mr. Bayncs reproved him 
with some sharpness, severely censuring his conduct. Tlie 
boy remained silent; but the next day, when his tutor was 
calm, he thus addressed him : ^' My father placed me under 
your care not only for the benefit of human learning, bot 
that by your pious counsel and example, I might be brought 
up in the fear of God: but you, sir, giving w&y to your 
passion the last night, gave me a very evil example, such 
as I have never seen in my father's house.** ^^ Sayest thou 
so,*' answered Mr. Baynes. '^ Go to my tailor, and let him 
buy thee a suit of clothes, and make them for thee, which I 
will pay for, to make thee amends." And it is' added, that 
Mr. Baynes watched more narrowly over his own spirit ever 

His Works.-— 1. Holy Helper in God's Building, 1618.— -3. Dii^ 
course on the Lord's Prayer, 1619. — 3. The Diocesans Tirall, whereia 
all the Sinnewes of Dr. Downham's Defence are brought into three 
Heads and orderly dissolved, 1621. — 4. Help to tme Happiiieta» 
1635. — 6. Brief Directions to a Godly Life, 1637. — 6. A dmmah 
tary on Ephesians, 1668. 

William Bbadshaw, A. M. — This excellent divine^ 
descended from the ancient family of Bradshaws in Lanca- 
'ahire, was bom at M arket-Boswoith in Leicestershire, in the 
year ISTl, and educated in Emanuel college, GambricU;^ 
Having taken his degrees, he went, by the recommendatfDn 
of Dr. Chadderton, to Guernsey, where he became tutor'to 
the children of Sir Thomas Leighton, governor of the islafld. 
In this situation he formed an intimate acquaintance witb 
Mr. Thomas Cartwright, which death alone could dissolve. 
During Mr. Bradshaw's abode at Guernsey, he maintained 
an unblemished character, and discovered great fixAjy 
industry, and faithfulness in his official situation. Upon Us 
jetum to England, on his way to Cambridge, he Terjr 
narrowly escaped being drowned. He was chosen fellow of 
Sidney college, then newly erected. Here he discovcKd 
much prudence and piety, and was highly respected. ' Ht 


* Clark's Examples, p. 79. Edit. 1671. 


'^^as of so amiable a disposition, that his yeiy enemies ^ero 
' constrained to speak well of him. Upon his settlement at 
Cambridge, he entered into the ministerial office, when he 
i^as not particularly urged to observe those things which he 
scrupled. He preached occasionally at Abington, Bassing- 
ibom, and Steeple-Morton, near Cambridge; but did not 
settle at any of these places. 

' In the year 1601, having received a pressing invitation 
from the people of Chatham in Kent, he became their 
^pastor. In this situation, to his own' great comfort, and 
'that of the people, his labours were soon made a bless- 
ing to many. Multitudes flocked to hear the word at his 
tmouth, which presently awakened the jealousy and envy of 
other ministers. It was deemed advisable now to obtain 
dhis confirmation from the Archbishop of Canterbury ; and 
to this end. Sir Francis Hastings wrote a most pious and 
-modest letter to his lordship.* At this particular juncture^ 
;Mr. Bradshaw's enemies falsely accused him to the arch- 
bishop, of preaching unsound doctrine; thetefore, instead 
of obtaining his confirmation, he received a citation from 
Dr. Buckridge, dated May S6, 1602, to appear by nine 
o*clock the next morning, before his grace of Canterbury, 
and his lordship of London, at Shorne, a small distance 
from Chatham. Mr. Bradshaw appearing at the time and 
place appointed, the Bishop of London, aner asking certain 
questi(ms, charged him with having taught, '' That man is 
not bound to love God, imless he be sure that God loves 
him." Mr. Bradshaw denied the charge; and though he 
offered to produce numerous respectable witnesses in refuta- 
tion of it, and to prove what he had taught, the offer was 
rejected. . But, to finish the business, and strike him at once 
" dumb, he was required to subscribe ; and because he could 
'not, with a good conscience, he was immediately suspended, 
bound to appear again when called,, and then dismissed. t 

His unexpected suspension and expulsion from Chatham, 
caused the friends of Christ to mourn, and his enemies to 
triumph. His numerous flock, having sat under his 
-ministry with great delight, were peculiarly anxious to have 
rhirn restored. A supplication was, therefore, drawn up in 
.the name of the parishioners of Chatham, and presented to 
.the Bishop of Rochester, earnestly desiring the restoratioh 

« This exceUeot letter, dated April 25, 1602, in which Sir Francis gives 
. higb commeiidations of Mr. Bradshaw's character, is still preserved.— 
Ctark't Lives annexed to kU MurtprQlogie^ p. 37. 
. flliid. p. «h^«44. 




of ibeir silenced pastor. In this suppltcatton, after eaqxisiii^ 
the false charffes of his adversaries^ they declare, ^ That 
Mr. Bradshaw s doctrine was always soimd, holy, leumd, 
and utterly void of faction and contention ; that his life 
was so ornamented with unblemished virtues, that malke 
itself could not condemn him ; and that he directed all 
labours to beat down wickedness, to comfort the 
and to instruct the ignorant, without meddling with the 
needless controversies of the day." They conclude hj 
humbly entreating his lordship's fiivour, tliat he would be 
the happy means of restoring to them their viztuons aad 
fiuthful shepherd.* But the decree of the bishq^ and 
archbishop, like the laws of the Medes and Persiaiis, was 

ne forth ; these intercessions were, therefore, inefiectaaL 

he meek and pious divine quietly yielded to be driven 
from his ministry and his flock. 

During these apparently cross dispensations, GodL who 
worketh all things after the counsel of his own will, was 
providing for Im. Bradshaw a place of rest Being ton 
irom his beloved and affectionate people, by treachery aad 
episcopal power, he found a comfortable retreat under- the 
hospitable roof of Mr. Alexander Redich, of NewhaD, 
near Burton-upou-Trent in Staffordshire. This pioos and 
worthy gentleman not onW received him into his house, but 
procured him a license uom the Bishop ai Lichfield and 
Coventry, to preach in any part of his diocese : thia ikvenr 
was continued as long as the bishop lived. In thia retired 
situation, Mr. Braddiaw preached for some time at the 
chapel in the park ; then, when that became too small, ia 
the parish church of Stapenhill. This he did finr alMt 
twelve years, receiving nothing from Ae pariah. During 
the whole of this period, he was supported by his wtwdij 
jpatron, in whose . &mily he lived, and was treated with tbcr 
utmost kindness, Mr. Bradshaw was afterwards chosei 
lecturer of Christ's church, London ; but the htahiop abso* 
lutely refused his allowance. 

Conformity being now enforced with great rigour, seveid 
worthy divines ventured to set forth their grievancies, their 
exceptions, and the grounds of their dissen^ and to answor 
the arguments of their opponents. Among these was lb. 
3tadshaw, who published his Reply to l>r. Bilaont and Dr. 

> * Clark*t Livea uwexed to his Maityrologie, p. 49. 
- f Or. Bilsos's celebrated work in defence of the natimial ckaroh» k 
entitled, *^ The perpetaall Governnent of ChriKci Charrhs WhantiM 
arc handled. The fatherly saperioritie which God fini cHabUilMa ia thi 

BRADSHAW. , • ggT 

JDoswnbafli) two notable chamiMions for episcopacy and 
tlie ceremonies. The puritans being treated with great 
jseverity^ and^ stis^matized as fanatics, schismatics, and 
.enemies both to God and the king; Mr. Bradshaw, to 
jpraaoye these slanders, and to give the world a correqt 
MfMemeat of their principles, published his '^ English 
Puritanism, containing the main Opinions <^ the rigidc^t 
sort of those tliat are called Puritans in the realm of Eng- 
land.*' In this excellent perfonnance, to which the learned 
Dr. Ames wrote a preface, and translated it into Latin, for 
the benefit of foreigners, it is observed, '^ That the puritans 
jnaintain the absolute perfection c^the holy scriptures, botti 
as to feith and worship; and that whatever is required 
as a part of divine service^ which cannot be warranted by 
the word of God, is unlawful." This is the broad basis oa 
which thev founded their opinions a^d practice ; and ia 
correspcmdtence with this generous sentiment, they further 
maintained, ^< That the pastors of particular congregatiomr 
are the highest spiritual (^cers in the church of Cnrist, oy^ 
whom there is, by divine ordinance, no superior pastor,, 
excepting Jesus Christ alone. — That they are led by the 
spirit of antichrist, who arrogate to themselves to be pastors 
of pastors^ — ^That every particular church hath power to 
elect its own officers, and to censure its own members.-^-^ 
That, to fcNToe a congr^ation to support a person as their 
pastor, who is either unable or unwilling to instruct them, is 
as great an injury as to force a man to maintain as his wife^ 
one who rrfuseth to perform the duties of a wife^" &;c.* 

All books published in defence of the puritans wer^ 
indeed, accounted dangerous both to church and state ; and 
when they came forth, the most diligent search was made 
for them, as well as for their authors. Therefcnre, Mr. 
Bradshaw being in London, two pursuivants were sent to 
his lodginffs to apprehend him, and to search for suspected 
books. When the pursuivants came, he was not to h$ 
found ; and, not more than half an hour before their arrival, 
ftus wife, to prey^t danger, had taken a quantity of those 

Fstriarkes for Uie guidiiig of his charch, and after contianed in the tribe of 
Ijtii and the Prophetest and lasUie confirmed io the New Testament to the 
Apostles and their Successors : as also the points in question at this day* 
tonching the Jewish Synedrion; the true Kingdome of Christ i m 
Aposttei Commission i the Laie Presbyterie i the Distinction of Bishops aii4 
Pfofbyters^ and their succession from the Apostles times and bands :" ftc« 
1593. This, It is said, is one of the best books written in fiiTOor w 
cpiscopac/.-rAiojr. Britan. ▼ol. ii. p. SIO. Edit. 1778. 
• Sosllrii Pvitaniim, p. 36— 42. Edit. laOO. 


books out of his study, and cast them into a hgle betweei 
two chimnies : and though they broke open chests, trunb^ 
and boxes, and searched evenr comer m the boisae fbej 
could think of, the books remained undiscovered. Nerer* 
theless, they carried Mrs. Bradshaw before the high com- 
mission, where she underwent a severe examination, with 
an evident design to make her betray her husband; but 
their purpose having utterly failed, after binding her to 
appear when called, she was dismissed.* 

In the year 1617, Mr. Bradshaw returning from a journey, 
the bishop's chancellor welcomed him home with a suspen* 
sion from preaching any more, without his further allow* 
ance. But, by the mediation of a worthy friend, the chan- 
cellor soon became satisfied; took oiF his restraint; add 
tlie good man went forwards in the peaceable exercise of 
his ministry. Besides preaching constantly at StapenhiU, 
this learned divine united with his brethren in their associa- 
tions at Ashby-de-la-Zoucb, Repton, and Burton-upoii- 
Trent. On these occasions, besides public preaching, 
for the benefit of the respective congregations, ihej 
had private religious conference among themselves. For 
their mutual advantage, they proposed subjects for disciv- 
iion; when Mr. Bradshaw is said to have discovered a 
depth of judgment, and a power of balancing points of 
controversy, superior to the rest of his brethren. Qb. 
account of his great abilities, he was conunonly styled 
the weighing divine. He was well grounded in Ihe 
fundamental doctrines of the gospel, and well studied in the 
points about subscription, the ceremonies, the civil power, 
and the authority of the prelates ; yet he was an enemy to 

Mr. Bradshaw, in his last sickness, had very humiliating 
views of himself, and exalted views of God and the poweir 
of his grace. He exhorted those about him, to learn to die 
before death approached ; and to lay a foundation in time 
of life and health, that would afibrd them comfort in timo 
of sickness and death. At Chelsea, near London, he ita 
seized with a malignant fever, which baffled all the power of 
medicine, and soon terminated his mortal existence. He died 
in peace, and in great satisfaction with his nonconformity, 
in the year 1618, aged forty-seven years : his r(»nain8 wem 
interred at Chelsea, and most of the ministers about the 
fAty attended the funeral solemnity. His funeral sennon 

• Clark*8 Liyes, p. 45-46. i Ibid. p. 49, A^ BOr 


Iras pfreached. by his worthy friend Mr. Thomas Gataker^ * 
who mre him the following character : ^^ He was studious, 
humMe, upright, affectionate, liberal, and compassionate. 
He pofieessed a sharp wit, a clear apprehension, a sound, 
jodgment, an exact method, a poweiful delivery, and a. 
angular dexterity in clearing up intricate debates, dis- 
covering the turning points in dispute, stating controversies 
aright, and resolving cases of conscience." The celebrated 
Bi&op H^says, ^^ He had a strong understanding, and a 
free spirit, not suiFerin|r himself for small matters of judg- 
ment to be alienated n'om his friends; to whom, notwith- 
standing his seeming austerity, he was very pleasing in 
oonversation, being full of witty and harmless urbanity. He 
was very strong and eager in argument, hearty in friendship, 
imrdless of uxe world, a despiser of compliment, a lover 
ofreality, full of digested learning and excellent notions, a 
painful labourer in God's work, and now, no doubt, 
gkvioudy rewarded."* 

The productions of Mr« Bradshaw's pen were numerous, 
and most of them very excellent. His '^ Treatise of Justi- 
fication," was much admired by men of learning, as 
appears from the following anecdote : Some time after Mr. 
Bradshaw's death, the famous Dr. Prideaux, being in com- 
panv with his son, and, finding who he was, said, << I am 
gha to see the son of that man, for the old acquaintance I 
kad, not with your father, but with bis Book of Justifica- 
ti(m."f We shall give a list of his pieces, in addition to 
those already mentioned, though perhaps not in the exact 
order in which they came forth, as it is difficult to procure 
an exact statement of the time of their publication. 

His Works. — 1. A Treatise of Divine Worship, tending to prove 
that the Ceremonies imposed upon the Ministers of the Gospel in 
England, in present Controversy, are in their use unlawful, 1604. — 
2. A Treatise of the Nature and Use of Things Indifferent, tending 
to prove that the Ceremonies, in present Controversy, are neither in 
Nature or Use Indifferent, 1606. — 3. Twelve Arguments, proving 
that the Ceremonies imposed upon the Ministers of the Grospel in 
England by our Prelates, are unlawful; and, therefore, that the 
Ministers of the Gospel, for the bare and sole omission of them in 
GhorcllHBervice, for conscience sake, are most unjustly charged of 
Disloyalty to his Majesty, 1606. — 4. A Protestation of the King's 
Supremacy, made in the name of the Afflicted Ministers, and opposed 
to the shameful Calumniations of the Prelates, 1606.-^5. A Propo- 
sition concerhing Kneeling in the very Act of Receiving, 1606. — 6. A 
ihort Tireatise of the Cross in Baptism,— 7. A Consideration of 

• Clark's Lives, p. 51, 60. t Ibid. p. 69. 


cierUiii Potitioiis ArcbiepiscopaL — 8. A Preparation to the ImM 
Supper.—^. A Marriage Feaat — 10. A Meditation on Map's Mor* 
tality. — 11. Sermons on the second Epistle to the Tbesaalonians^— 
12. A Treatise of Christian Reproof.^13. A Treatise of the Sii 
against the Holy Ghost — 14. A Twofold Catechism. — 16. An Answer 
to Mr. G. Powel. — 16. A Defence of the fiaptism of InflurtSr-* 
17. llie Unreasonableness of Separation. 

Mr. Jenkin was son to a gentleman of oonsiderabk 
estate at Folkstone in Kent, and educated in the uiiiTenitj 
of Cambridge, with a view to some considerable piefermcfli 
in the church. Being here cast under the ministry of tht 
celebrated Mr. William Perkins, be soon became imprmad 
with ffreat seriousness, and embarked with the pliritaBL 
His mther discovering this upon his return bomei aad 
disliking that sort of people, was pleased to disiiilierit lam 
of the greatest part of his estate. Thus younff Jenkin !»u 
called to bear the yoke in his youth, ana to forsake fttfa^t 
and mother, houses and land, for his attachment to Chriit 
and his cause. He trusted in the Lord, and found Jiim.tli 
be a constant iiriend. When he found his compaoy dia* 
agreeable to his father, he removed to the house m Mr# 
luchard Rogers, the old puritan minister of Wethenfiddii 
Essex, where he diligently prosecuted his studies. Enteruf 
afterwards iipon the ministerial function, he settled M 
Sudbury in Suffolk. In this situation he was laborious ii 
preaching and catechising; and while he was ^ignaSLf 
usdful to many, he adomS the whole by a conespondhiji 
holy conversation. After his settlement at this placa^ hs 
married the grand-daughter of Mr. John Rogers, the fioofW 

Jrotomartyr. Mr. Jenkin died about the year 1618.* Mr. 
ohn Wilson, another celebrated puritan, was his fluooesn^ 
at Sudbury ; and Mr. William Jenkin, the ejected nooocfr 
formist, was his son.t 

Samuel Hieron. — This Excellent divine was the Mirf 
a most worthy minister, who, being much respected I^ tht 
fiunous Mr. John Fox, was persuaded to lay aside *f*w^«"g 
school, and enter upon the christian ministry. He Ubomn 
in the sacred office many years at £pping in Essex, wi^ 
God was pleased greatly to bless his endeavours. TUa Ul 
son was educated first by his fi^er, then at Kiog^a 8obNil|i 

• Calamy's Accoont, ¥01. ii. p. IT. 

f iVamer's Noocod. Mem. toI. i. p. 108; . : 


[|«sur Windsor, and afterwards at King^s college, Cambridge, 
ivliere he made, amazing progress in the yarioos branches of 
Sleratwe. One of his name united with many others of 
[Ifrinity college, in their invitation to Lord Barleigh, in 
Ifi95, to accept the office of treasurer of the college ; bnt it 
Sees not appear with certainty whether this was the same 

He entered Upon his public ministry, and gained, at the 
1^ of twenty-four years, a distin^ubhed reputation, and 
ima greatly admired and followed. Haying finished his 
Aodi^ at the uniyersity, he was presented by Sir Henry 
Bftyile to the yicarage of Modbury in Devonshire, where he 
toHtinued' the temainder of his days, the Lord greatly 
Heflsing his labours. Here he was reverenced by the poor, 
idmired by the rich, countenanced by the great, and re« 
■pected by all.f 

«- Mr. Hieron was a celebrated divine, and a most noted 
Mffilan. He wrote several excellent pieces in defence of 
mconfiirmity, though they were never collected and pub* 
idled with his other works. One of them is entitled, ^< A 
itort Dialogue proving that the Ceremonies and some other 
QHmptions now in question, are defended by no other 
Al]mments than such as the Papists have heretofore used, 
flM our Protestant Writers have long since Answered ; 
Mieieanto are annexed certain Considerations why the 
Ministers should not be moved by the Subscription and 
Oeiemonies," 1605. He was also the anonymous author of 
iiibtiier piece, entitled, <^ A Defence of the Ministers^ Rea* 
Mis for refusal of Subscription to the Book of Common 
Iteyer, and of Contbrmity, in Answer to Mr. T. Hutton, 
Ihr. W. Covel, and Dr. T. Sparke," 1607. This work was 
^Mttted in Holland, and sent over packed up with the goodn^ 
flTdne Mr. T. Sheveril, an eminent merchant of Plymouth; 
tmt, as no bookseller durst sell it, on account of the severity 
of the times, the whole impression was given away. Some 
of the copies were sent to the persecuting bishops, some to 
Inb antagonists, and some to the universities ; but the author 
iVItt never discovered to his enemies, or to the collectors of 
ijte works. Thus Mr. Hieron was deeply engaged in the 
lie controversies of the day, though unknown to 'bis 
ents. There was also, « The Second Rirt of the 

of the Ministers' Reasons," 1608 ; and " The Third 
ctf* the Shime," 1608; but I am not sure, says^ mj 

« Baker't MS. QoUec. toI. if. p. 50. 


author, Tphether Mr. Hicron was the author of them.* |le 
was particularly intimate with some of the most celebni&l 

Suritans, especially Dr. Lawrence Chadderton^ to whom he 
edicated some of his works. 
Though Mr. Hieron was a minister of most eminent fnetf 
and usefulness ; yet, during the greatest part of his bJA. 
sickness, which continued about a month, his mind waft 
under a cloud, and very uncomfortable. For the most part, 
he remained altogether silent, oftentimes not answering any 
question tiiat was proposed to him, and sometimeB he wq^ 
most bitterly. A brother minister addressing him, with a. 
view to administer comfort to his troubled mind, he saidy 
<< There is a great mist betwixt rae and the happiness I have 
looked after. I have judged partially of my own state, and 
thought better of myself* than I deserved. He could not 
then be prevailed upon to speak any more. 

About four days before he died, he began to revive and 
speak in a more comfortable strain, declaring his gmt 
peace and abundant consolation. To a friend who asked 
nim how he did, he said, '^ A very weak man.*' When it 
was recommended that, though he was weak in body, he 
should labour to be strong in the spirit, he replied. ^' I 
thank God, I have labour^ and do labour, and I find my 
labour is not in vain. I have many tilings to speak ihiut 
way, but now I want a tongue to utter them ; vet something 
I must speak : I would not have it thought that my deatS 
is hopeless; for though I have lain all this time silent, ai 
you have seen, yet my thoughts have been engaged about 
matters of great consequence ; and now, I thank my God, 
my soul is full of comfort I do verily believe ] shall see 
the light of the Lord, in the land of the living. But what 
am I, or what is my father's house, that God should deal so 
graciously with my soul ? He hath called me unto a state 
of grace ; fitted me in my education for the ministry of.ttjB 
word; brought me in his appointed time to the pradioe 
thereof; given me some reputation in it ; and blened my 
labours in some measure unto his people. He hath n^ 
dealt thus with every one ; no not of his own chosen. I 
speak not boastingly, but comfortably ; not to extol mysdj^ 
but to magnify the goodness of my God. I know whom 1 
have professed, whom 1 have preached, whom I have 
believed, and now I see heaven open to receive me. I am 
freed from all care, except for my people. I wish, if God 

• MS. Acconnt of Mr. Hicrwi. 

6. 6IFF0RD. S73 

were so pleased, that nothing I have taught them may 
prove thesavour of death unto death to any of them. But 
mjr own sin hath been the cause that I have seen no more 
fruit of my labour in their conversion; yet, it may be, 
another may come after me, and, as the apostle says of 
bimseli^ reap that which I have sown. I confess that, in 
public, I have been somewhat full in reproof, in admonition, 
m instruction ; but in private my backwardness, my bash- 
fulness, my dastardliness, hath been intolerable ; and I may 
truly say, that if any thing lies as a burden on my con- 
science, it is this, out I praise my God, I know upon 
ivhose shoulders to cast it, with the rest of my transgres- 
sions." Many other things, in the same comfortable strain^ 
lie spoke previous to his departure. He died in the year 
1618; for his funerd sermon was published that year, though 
it does not contain the least account of the deceased. It is 
entitled, " Hieron's last Farewell ; a Sermon preached at 
Modbuiy in Devon, at the Funeral of the Reverend and 
Faithful Servant of Christ, Master Samuel Hieron, some- 
tunes .preacher there, by J. B.," 1618. 

j^nller, who has classed Mr. Hieron among the eminent 
.men and learned writers of King's college, Cambridge^ 
styles him " a powerful preacher in his printed works."* 
±ne learned and pious Bishop Wilkins has given an 
honourable testimony of the excellency of his sermons.f 
His works, consisting of sermons and other pieces, were 
collected and published after his death, entitled, << The 
Works of Mr. Sam. Hieron, late Pastor of Modbuiy in 
Devon,'' in two volumes, folio, in 162^1. A divine of the 
same name, who was ejected in 1662, was his grandson.]: 

George Gifforo, A. M. — This excellent divine was 
educated in Hart-hall, Oxford, where he continued some 
years. In the year 1582, he became vicar of Maldon in 
£8sez.V The Oxford historian denominates him <^ a 
Teiy noted preacher, a man admirably well versed in 
die various branches of good literature, and a great 
enemy to popery. "| Mr. Strype says, ^^ he was a great 
Md diligent preacher, and much esteemed by many 

• FaUer't Hist, of Cam. p. 76. 
•f WUkiM on Preaching, p. 8S. 
• -^ Pkhaer't HoBcoB. JUfm. ¥ol. ii« p. 38. 
4 Kew€oart*t Repert. Eccl. ¥ol. ii. p. S96. 4 

f Wood*t AtheaoB Ozon. vol. i. p. 3S7« ^ 

▼OL. II. T 


penons oF rank. By his labours he broaght Ae town to 
much more sobriety and knowledge of tnie fdifficm.*'* 
Though he was a decided puritan, and scni|>led conrormiCjr 
in yanoils particukirs, he wrote with grtst zeU against tat 
Brownisls, and in defence of the church, fiat atl tlEei^ 
things were mere trifles, so long as he did not acfiAire t&^ 
ceremonies, nor come up to the standard of cOtafonmtj ^ 

Suired by tlie prelates. Thrrefofe, having prcsafcfc^d tike 
octrine of limited obedience to the civil itu^^trate^ CMft* 
plaiiits were brought against him, and he wa)? lAiAiMii' ~ 
suspended and cast into prison. This was in thib feOt ll 
About the same time, this learned dfivlrffe, Mid d 
ministers of Essex, to the ndmber of tweift^^fteven, pit^ 
rented a supplication to the lords of the cMaicfij extimfy 
eliciting a redress of their grievances; though it cbMnn 
appear with what degree ofsuccess. 

The ministers who subscribed this sttppficaiidfi VMJ 
highly celebrated for learning, piety, and usdulneM. ftU^ 
of whom were already suspended for nobcohforiiiity. Ut 
the supplication thev express themselves as follows: ^ We 
cheerfully and boldly offer this our humbte iMi( onto ytmr 
honours, being our only sanctuary upon eattfi, Aeitt io lltt 
inajesty, to which we can repair in our present ncJoeAdtjr: 
and most of all we ette encouraged, when we congid^nr ii&k 
richly God hath adorned your honours -^iih ktiM^J£d|g& 
wisdom, and zeal for the gospel, and T^th godly ttat iaii 
tender love to those who protess the same. Most Ktiltihly* 
therefore, we beseech your honours, with yoiif acduMtttned 
fiivour in all godly and just causes, to hedr and to jddge 0f 
our matters. \Ve liave received the chaijge c^ her im^esty'tf 
loyal and faithful subjects, to instruct and teach our people . 
in the way of life ; and every one of ust having this soonded 
from the God of heaven, Iroe be unto mcj iffpredchtiotthe 
gospel, t^e have all endeavoured to discharge oar duties, 
anci to approve ourselves both to Grod and men* NotiHth* 
standing this, we are in ^eat heaviness, and some tt aft 
already put to silence, and the rest living iii fbat ; liot tt^ 
we have been, or can be charged, We hope, with fitittb ddC^ 
trine, or slanderous life ; but because we rdfiise to Mjibtetiltf 
< that there is nothing contained in tiie Bdok of CotahiMH 
Prayer contrary to the word of Grod.^ We do protest in 
the sight of Grod, who searcheth all hearts, that ^ ddid 
refuse from a desire to dissent, or from any sinister a&eiMn; 

• Strype'i Aylmer, p. 110. 

G; GIFFORD. 1876. 

but in the fear of God, and from the necessity of conscien^ 
The. apostle teacheth, that a person who donbteth is con* 
demn^ if he eat. If a man then be condemned for doing a 
lawful action, because he doubts whether it be lawful; how 
much more should we incur the displeasure of the Lord, and 
justly deserve his wraih, if we should subscribe, being fully 
persuaded that there are some things in the book contrary 
to his ivord 1 If our reasons might be so answered by the 
doctrine of the Bible, and we could be persuaded that we 
might subscribe lawfully, and in the fear of God, we would 
wifiingly consent. In those and other respects we humbly 
craye your honourable protection, as those who from ti^ 
lieart do entirely love, honour, and obey her excellei^ 
majesty and your honours, in the Lord. Giving moi^ 
hearty thanks to God for all the blessings we have received 
from him, by your government, constantly praying, night 
and day, that he willbless and preserve her majesty and 
your honours to eternal salvation. Your honours' poor 
and humble supplicants, 

*^ George Qifford, Samuel Cotesford, 

Richard Rogers, Richard Illison, 

Nicholas Colpotts, William Serdge, 

liAw^ANCE Newman, Edmund Barker, 

William DfKE, Richard Black well. 

Thomas Chaplain, Thomas Howell, 

Arthur Dent, Mark Wirsdale, 

Thomas Redrich, Robbrt Edmonds, 

Giles Whiting, Augustine Pigot, 

Ralph Hawden, Camillus Rusticus, 

Je^fert Jesselin, John Huckle, 

Thomas Upche, Thomas Cauew, 

Roger Carr, John Bishop."* 
John Wilton, 

When Mr. Gifford was brouj^ht to trial before the high, 
commission, his enemies utterly failed in their evidence, and 
he was accordingly released. This, however, was not the 
mid of bis troubles. He did not long enjoy his liberty. 
Bidlop Aylmer appointed spies to watch him, and fresh 
complaints were soon brought against him on account of his 
nonconformity ; when he was again suspended and cast into 
inrisoo.f Upon this he made application to the lord 
treasurer, who endeavoured to obtain the favour of the ' 

• MS. Resiiter^ p. 330. 

f 8trype*t Whitgift, p. 158.— NeaFt ParitaDs, yel. i. p. 379. 


archbishop ; but his grace having consulted, his brother of 
London, told the treasurer that he was a ringleader of the 
nonconformists; that he himself had received complaiirti 
against him, and was determined to bring him before the 
high commission.* 

Mr. Gifford had many friends, and was much beloved 
by his numerous hearers. The parishioners of MaldoD, 
therefore, presented a petition to the bishop, in behalf a 
their minister, signed by jifly'lvM) persons, two of whom 
were bailiffs of the town, two justices of the peace, fbnr 
aldermen, fifteen head burgesses, and other respectable 
people. In this petition, they shewed that his fonner 
accusations had been proved to be false ; that the present 
charges were only the slanderous accusations of wicked 
men, who sought to injure his reputation and usefulness; 
that they themselves and a i^reat part (^ the town had 
derived the greatest benefit from his ministry; that Us 
doctrine was always sound and good; that in all Ur 
preaching and catechising he taught obedience to magis- 
trates; that he used no conventicles ; and that his life was 
modest, discreet, and unreprovable. For these reasons 
they eamestiv entreated his grace to restore him to his 
ministry.f Lideed, the distresses of the people in Enex 
were at this time so great, that the inhabitants of Maldon 
and the surrounding country presented a petition to parlia- 
ment for the removal of present grievances. In this peti- 
tion, now before me, they complain, in most affecting lan- 
giiage, that nearly all their learned and useful ministers 
were forbidden to preach, or deprived of their livings ; and 
that ignorant and wicked ministers were put in their 

These endeavours proved ineffectual. Mr. Gifford did 
not enjoy his liberty for several years, as appears fnim a 
supplication of several of the suspended ministers in Essex, 
presented to parliament, dated March 8, 1587, when he was 
still under the episcopal censure. It will be proper to give 
the substance of it in their own words : << In most hnmUe 
and reverent duty to this high and honourable court ol 

Jarliament, sundry of the ministers and preachers of Gtod'i 
oly word in the county of Essex, present this our earnest 
supplication, and lamentable complaint, beseeching yoi 
upon our knees for the Lord's sake, and the sake of hii. 


• Strype's Whit^rift, p. ]52. 
+ Strype'i Aylincr, p. Ul, 112. 
t MS. Rei^ister, p. 748. 

6. QIFFORD. S77 

« people, whose salvation it conceraeth, to bow down a 

; ^acious ear to this our most dutiful suit, and to take such 

order as to your godly wisdom shall be thought most con- 

Tenient. Your humble suppliants haying, by the good- 

. Bess of God, conducted themselves at all times, both in their 

\ doctrine and life, as becometh their vocation, they submit 

themselves to any trial and punishment, if it should be found 

^citherwise. Notwithstanding this, they have been a long 

. time, and still are, grievously troubled and molested ; of 

• which troubles this is one of the heaviest, that we are 
•.Jhindered from the service of God in our public ministry. 
:To this restraint we have hitherto yielded and kept silence. 
4. .*^ We hoped, from the equity of our cause, the means 

that have been used, and the necessities of our people, that 
our suspension would have been taken off by those whose 
. erasure lieth upon us : but they neither restored us to our 
ministry, nor furnished the people with suitable persons to 
supply our places. We and our people have been humble 
.suitors to them, desiring that we might be restored to our 
-former service and usefulness among them; and, notwith- 
standing our cause hath been recommended to them by 
'9ome of the chief nobility in the land, even of her majesty's 
. Jbonou'rable privy council, we have obtained no relief for 
, cmmelves, nor comfort for our distressed people. Therefore, 
to appear before this high and honourable court of parlia- 
ment, is the only means left unto us ; that if there be in us 
no desert of so heavy a sentence, it may please this high 
. <x>urt to take such order.for the relief of your most humble 
^ suppliants as to your godly wijsdom shall be thought 

' " We, indeed, acknowledge that divers caused of our re- 

.straint are alleged against us; but our earnest desire is, 

that this high court would by some means be informed of 

• this weighty matter. The chief of them is pur refusing to 
subscril^ to certain articles relating to the present policy of 
the church, that every word and ceremony appointed to be 

ijiead and used in the Book of Common Prayer, is according 
.to the word of God. We declared that we could not, with 
*» good conscience, subscribe to all that was required of us ; 

and we humbly requested to have our doubts removed, and 

to be satisfied in the things required ; but we have not re- 
.iceived one word of answer to this day ; and their former 

rigorous proceedings have not in the least been mitigated. 
" We humbly pray this high court to be assured of our 

dutiful obedience to all lawful authority, unto which, as 



tbe ordinance of God, and for conscience snke, with all oar 
hearts, we promiMC and protest (Mir 8ul>mi«»ion. Wencek 
unfo you to obtain some relief for us. And we commit oirr 
lives and wh'>le;it(^ in Almighty God, to your graeiou 
clemency, and to the c irr of her right ifxrellent majeHtj, 
ceasing not, day and night, to pray that the blessings of 
grace and giory may rest upon yon for ever."* 

This supplication was signed by Messrs. (/eorgc Giffofd| 
Ralph Hawden, William Tunstall, John Huckle, Gilfli 
Whiting, and Roger Carr ; l)ut whether it proved of aiijr 
advantage, is extremely doubtful. Most probably thty 
continued much longer under suspension. Mr. Giflbrd 
BubscriF)ed the " B(Kik of Disciplme.'V He lived to i 
good old age, and died about the year 1690. 

His Works, — 1. Conntry Divinity^ containing a Disooone of 
eertain points of Religion among the Common sort of Cbristiuis, vltli 
a plain Confutation thereof, 1681. — '2. A Sermon on tbe Panible of 
the Sower, 1681. — 3. A Dialogue between a Papist and a PriHo^ 
anty applied to the caparJty of the Unlearned, 1683.— 4. Agiioit tlw 
Priesthood and saeriflce of tlie (/burcli of Rome, wherein ymi'M^ 
perceive their Impiety in usurping that Ofiice and Action wbicb etcr 
appertaineth to Christ onl^, 1584. — 6. A Sermon on 2 Pet i \U 
1684. — 0. A CatechiHm, givnig a moftt excellent light to thoie tint 
seek to enter tbe Path-way to Salvation, 1680. — 7. A SernNNi €Q 
Jam. ii. 14 — 30., ]68fl.-*8. A Difteoiirfie of tbe Mihtile Praeticct of 
Ueviln by Witf^hcs and SoreererN, 1687. — 9. Sermons on tbe fint 
four Cbaptern and part of the fifth (/hapterof I'^cleiiiajites, 1580.^ 
in. A fihort TreafiMC against the DonutijitH of f^^ngland, whom wecill 
BrowniMii, wherein, by Aniiwcr unto their AVritingH, their llere»ifi 
are noted, 1690. — 11. A Plain Declaration that our l>rownbits be full 
DonatiHtH, by comparing them togethfrr from point to point out of 
the Writings of AugUHtIn, l.'iOI.— 12. A Reply to Mr. Job. Green- 
wrK)d and lien. Jitirrow, toiKthing read Prn>er, wherrin tbeir grotf 
Ignorance in detected, 1691. — l.'l. A Sernir»n at Panl's (/rm», od 
Psalm cxxxiii., I.'jOI. — 14. A Diiilogiie eoneerntng Witcheo uA 
WiteheraftA; iu which in laid open how craftily the Devil decetTOtb 
not only tbe Witchcu, but otbcrK, 1,'VJ>3.— I.O. A Treatiae of irac 
I'ortitudr, 1694. — 10. A (*ommcnt»ry or Scrnionn on tbe whole 
Book ot Revclatiomi, 1690.— 17. Two Scrmonn on 1 Pet. v. 8,9., \^ 
—18. I our Scimons upon Kcveral parlii of Scripture, 1608.— 19. An 
£xp<jMition on the (/unticlcN, 1012.-* 20. I ive Sermons on tbe Soo^ 
of Solomon, 1020.— 21. An iCnglinb 'iranslation of Dr. Fulke'sPrO' 
lections on tbe ifoly Revelations. 

• M8. Ragiitf r, p. 818-8S0* f Neal*! Fartteas, vol. i. p. 4£9' 

Ji^EMJAH Dyke, A. M. was younger brother to the 
^c;elebrfited Mr. Daniel Dyke^ and educated in Sidaej 
jCCfU^ge^ Cambridge. He was beneQced at ^Epping in jElssex^ 
^here he entered upon his pastoral charge, in the year 
ji^P.* He was a person of a cheerf^u spirit, jichly 
Jli^misbed with divine grace, and eminently uset'fil ,in ^^lip 
ministry. He was a divine of great peace and moderation, 
fffyi is ^aid f o ,have been no jzealot for the ceremonies, but 
4p have qu^e^y subqiitted to the ^se .of them. Tjiis he 
j^rtainly did, for the sake of peace, so f^ as he could do it 
^rith fi .good co(iscience. But he ^as a thorough puritan^ 
jpd/disa^ted to the ceremonies. He died a pious death^ 
$iBLj8 qur author, in the year 1620, when his remains were 
interred in his own churcb.f A minister of the same nan^e 
jbecapae vic^r of Stansted- Abbots in Middlesex, in 1^0; 
ibot resigned it previous to April 23, 1644 ; and ^he became 
jp^otor ^ .Qjceat Parndofi in £s^;c, in 1645. ,B^t if the 
fbpye jaccouut of Mr. Dyke's death be correct, this. must 
. j^e :b^n .pother person. t Mr. Dyke published the 
j^QB^hmnous wo^ks, of his, brother, and |¥as himself author qf 
HP^ei^ exqeUent books, ^e is classed ampng the le^m^ 
jqitm of Sidney college, Cambridge;^ and a high encp- 
JKiiapi is ,pl^»ed upon his sermpns,|| ^e was author, (^ a 
jpryaik ,Qn the ^prd's supper, entitled, « The Worthy 
lp(H9>pupicai|t.'- Mr. Darnel Dyke, the sile^cpd npncon* 
^^[^ipi^.inl^S, M[as his,son.i 


THOiMAs tl£i(wissE. — .This ^zealous puritan was a man 
ippips^ss^ pf^ood natural parts, and some acquired endow 
.inents, though it does npt appear whether he received any 
^Hpiyeisity education. He was a member of the ancient 
church of separatists, founded in the beginning of the reign 
f of Queen EUssabeth ; and lyas peculiarly serviceable to those 
.people when, to escape the oppressions of the times, they 
^ .fled to HoII^mI. There,he was. esteemed a man of eminent 
•fidth and charity, possessing excellent spiritual gifts. When 
• Mr. John Smyth raised the pontroversy about baptism, 
•Mr. H^^wisse became one pf his disciples, received baptism 
f fcom him^bfy imn^ersion, apd is s^id to haye be^ ej^commu* 

♦ Newcoart*8 Repert. EccI.toI. ii. p, 248. 

f FuUer's Worthien, part. ii. p. 89. 

± Newcoart*8.Repeit. £ccl. r^l. i. p. 890. ii. p. 46S. 

S Foner*t Hist, of Camb. p. 164. 

I Wilkins*! Discourse on Preachiog, p. 82. 

1 Palm^*i Noocoo. Mem. Yol. ii. p. 304. 


nicated by the contrary party. He vfas one of the find ia 
the constitution of the church to which. Mr. Smyth wai 
chosen pastor ; and, upon Mr. Smyth's death, he ivaschosea 
to the piistoral office. Thou;;h he did not go forwardi 
vith an equal degree of cointort and 6ucc<*ss as Mr. Smytk 
had done, it lYas acknowledged that his preaching and 
writings promoted the cause he ( spoused. 

The chief (vpposcrs of Mr. Helwisse and his chaidi| 
according to Crosby, w(»re the Brownists, from whom fhf*y 
had serrated. These persons, haviuii^ incorrect notions v 
religious liberty, wrote a(>:ainst them with too much warmthi 
calling them heretics, anabaptists, &c. ; yet made seveial 
concessions in their fayour,clearing them oft hose extrayaeiliit 
opinions which distinguished the old anabaptists. Thef 
acknowledged, that Mr. Helwisse and his people disclaimra 
the doctrine of free-will; that, though they exchidM 
infants from baptism, they believed in infant safoaiion ; and 
that they even agreed with their opponents in the great traths 
of the gospel. And with respect to their morals, as im 
author adds, they confessed that they had attained to some 
d^ree of knowledge and godliness ; that they had a m1 
of God, though, in their opinion, not according to know- 
ledge ; and that when they found any person of their oom* 
munion guilty of sin, they proceeded to censure him. 
People ofwhom these things could, with truth, be said, oisglA 
not to have received any unkind usage from their hretlmn, 
though they differed from them about baptism, or some 
other subordinate points. It is extremely probable, how- 
ever, tliere was fault on both sides ; and if each paify 
had been less influenced by a spirit of intolerance, and 
more by a spirit of forbearance, their history would bare 
appeared no less honourable in the eye of a discerning 

Upon Mr. Smyth's death, Mr. Helwisse and. his people 
published a confession of their faith, entitled, *^ A Declara- 
tion of Faith of the English People remaining at ^4 raster- 
dam in Holland."* . Mr. John Robinson, pastor to the 
' English church at Leyden, published some remarks upon 
it. AlK)ut the same time, Mr. Helwisse began to reflect 
upon himself and his brethren for deserting their country on 
account of persecution. He resolv*^, therefore, to r^bun 
home, that he might share the same lot with that of lus 
brethren who had continued to endure the storm, fieiiig 

* Crosby's HUt. of Baptists, yoU iU Apptn. p. 

. HELWISSE. 281 

accompanied by the greater part of his congregation, ho 
Returned to England, and settled in Ldndon, where thev 
gained many proselytes, and became^ as it is conjectured^ 
the first 6Ei<rERAL Baptist society in England. However, 
to justify their conduct in returning' home, Mr. Helwisse 
'pttblishra ^' A Short, Declaration,'' in which he stated in 
^hat cases it was lawful to flee in times of persecution. To 
'this, also, Mr. Robinson published a reply. 

In the year I6I5, Mr. Helwisse and his church in 
London, published a treatise, entitled, ^< Persecution for 
Religion, Judged and Condemned." Though there was no 
'nanie prefixed to it, they were certainly its authors.* In 
this work, besides defending their own opinions as baptists, 
and attempting to clear themselves of several false charges, 
they endeavour to expose the evil of persecution. They* 
maintain, that every man has an equal ri^ht to judge for 
himself in all matters of religion ; and that to persecute 
any person, on account of his religion, is illegal, and anti- 
christian. They acknowledge that civil magistrates are of 
"divine appointment ; and that kings, and such as are in 
authority, ought to be obeyed in all civil matters. But that 
f^inst which they chiefly protest, is the pride, luxury, and 
<^pression of the lordly bishops, and their pretended 
q>iritual power, by which many were exposed to confisca- 
tion of goods, long and painful imprisonment, hungering, 
burning, and banishment. ^' It is no small persecution/* 
say they, " to lie many years in filthy prisons, in hunger, 
cold, idleness, divided from wife, family a^d calling, ana 
left in continual miseries and temptations : so that death to 
many would be less persecution.f How many, only for 
seeking reformation in religion, have been put to death by 
you r power (meaning the bi^ops) in the days of Queen 
Elizabeth ? And how many have been consumed to death 
in prisons ? Hath not hungering, burning, exile, imprison- 
ments, and all kinds of contempt been used ? It is most 
' grievous cruelty to lie several years in most noisome and 

• Crosb^^B Hist, of Baptists, vol. i. p. 269— «TS. 

* f Bishop Warbiirton's opinion of persecution is very singular. *^ The 

• ezactini^ conformity of the ministry by the goTernors of the cliurch/' 
. ffiys he, '^ is no persecution.** This is certainly a strange sentiment to 
> come from the pen of a protestant prelate. Admitting this principle, there 
' "Was no persecution in the reign of Queen Mary. It was no persecution, 

when the Jewish sanhedrim agreed, ** That if any man /did confess that 
Jesus was the Christ, he should be put out of the synagogue.** It was no 
persecution, when the parliament imposed the Scot*t coTCoant.—- Ais«r« 
PiirtfMs, tioa.' i. p; 919/ 


jiltby prisons, and continual temptations, hw^g wnivoi 
in their estates, and many of them nevcur coming outtiil 

Tills was a bold protestation against the illeggj wi 
iniquitous procoedin^s of the vuiing prelates, and a OOU0 
'Stand in defence of rdigious liberty. For making .the. abovo 
generous -principles the foundation of their practiw, their 
were grievously harassed in the ecclesiastical.courta; yAm 
their goods were seized, and they were many years confined 
in loathsome jails, being deprived of their wives, .cbildm 
«nd friends, till the Lord was pleiised to release .aome of 
4hem by death. Mr. Helwisse had his sbaie jn'.the» 
^barbarous oppressions. Being a leading person {unoDg tbe 
jionconformists of the baptist persuasion, he felt the.inhuQiai 
cruelties of the spiritual rulers, but wont fcxwaidii, b$ he 
had opportunity, with courage and success. Mt died molt 
probably about the year 16S0.t 

Thomas Wilson. — This learned and piousidiniie irv 
many minister of St. Greorge's church, CantortiQiy, 
one of the six preachers in that city, chaplain .'to Loid 
Wotton, and a man of high reputation. Hewaa a penoD 
deservedly famous in his time, preaching regnlaiiy three 
times, and occasionally every day, in the week. He was a 
hard student, endowed with a healthy constitution and a 
'Strong memory. As his gifts were more than ordinaiy, so 
were his trials. He had to contend with open eo^es, 
false teachers, and notorious heretics, against .whom he 
boldly ()efended the truth, detecting and refuting their erran, 
He was troubled with certain false brethren, who secretly 
endeavoured to promote his ruin ; but the Lord delivered 
him out of their hands. He was once complained of to 
Archbishop Abbot, for nonconformity ; but, throu^ the 
kind intt^rference and endeavours of Lord Wotton, he 
escaped the snare. He used to say, ^ That so long as 
idolatry is publicly tolerated in the land, public judgments 
will not cease.*' Ilis great concern f(Nr tne nyeUare of bis 
flock was manifest by his frequent preaching, expounding, 
and catechising, for a great number of years. ^ik>r was he 
.unmindful of them on his death-bed. With his dying 
breath, he charged Dr. Jackson, his chief patron, as be 
would answer the same at the bar of God, that he wooM 

» Cro8by*8 Baptiits, i^ol. i. p. 126, 127. i VM.jf. iM-r9l^ 


provide for tbem an able and a sufficient pastor. This 
the Jioetor promised to do; but added, ^< that not one 
vf u thousand could be found, like this worthy servant of 

Mn Swift, who preached Mr. Wilson's funeral semnm^ 
gives the following account of him: ^^ He was a most 
painful and careful pastor ; a man called forth into the 
▼inej^rd of the Lord, and well qualified for so ^eat a work. 
He was a judicious divine, sound in the truth, and an 
^M:cell6nt interpreter of scripture; a professed enemy to 
idolatry, superstition, and all false worship ; for which he 
incurri^ the displeasure of those who were otherwine 
disposed. He was richly furnished with excellent gifts, 
which he fally employed in the Lord's work, bein^ in- 
^oessanfly laborious and faithftd in his public muuistry. 
Having received ten talents, he employed them all to the 
use of his Master. He preached at Canterbury thirty-siK 
years, during the whole of which period he was always 
abounding in the work of the Lord. Being requested, upon 
his death-bed, to spare himself in future, irthe Lord should 
be pleased to raise him up, he immediately replied, ^ Were 
I in health of body, I should always say with the apostle. 
Woe be unto me^ if I preach not the gospeV He was 
particularly mindful of his flock to the last ; and with his 
dying breath prayed that God would provide for them a 
faithful shepherd, to feed them with k:nowledge and under- 
standing."f He died in January, 162L 

His Works. — 1. A Commentary on Romans, 1614.t — 2. Christ% 
Farewell to Jerasalem, 1614. — 3. ITieological Rules, 1615. — 4. Holy 
Riddles, 1615.—^. A Complete Christian Dictionary, with the Con- 
tinuation by Bagwell and Symson, sixth edition, I655.§-— 6. ▲ 
Dialogue about Justification. — 7. A Receipt against Heresie. 

• Christian Dictionary, Pref. Edit. 1655. 

f Funeral Sermon for Mr. Wilson. 

X This work, which is in the form of a dialogue, abounds with jadiciovs 
'4isttacti6ns, and practical uses. — Williams's Christian Preacher ^ p. 436. 

§ This worlc is said to have been the first that was ever composed ia 
"Eoglbb, by way of concordance. — Granger's Miog, UisU vol. i. p. SW. 


AifDREw WiLLCT, D. D. — ^This leained and bborini 
divine was bora in the city of Ely, in the year 1568^ jui 
educated tint in Peter-house, then in Qiiiit*8 ocdkM 
Camhridee. He was blessed with pious parents, m 
brought him up in the nurture and admonition of the LariL 
His rather, Mr. Thomas Wilkt, was sub-ahnoner to Ki^g 
Edward VI., and a painhd sufferer during the cruel pene- 
. cut ions of Queen Mary. In the reign of Queen Eligahfth, he 
became rector of Bark^y in Hertfordshire, and was prefiarrad 
to a prt4)(*nd in the church of Ely. His son Andrew, while 
a boy at school, discovered an uncommon genius, and 
made extraordinary progress in the various rudiments of 
knowledge. He was so intense in his application, thailrii 
pnrents were obliged to use various methods to divert hii 
attention frcHn his books. At the age of fourteen, he was 
sent to the university, where he was soon preferred ts a: 
fellowship. Here he became intimate witb Downhao, 
Perkins, and other cdebrated puritans, who encopraged 
each other in their studies. WiUet soon distingQisbed 
himself by his exact acquaintance with the languages^ the 
arts, and all the branches of useful literature. He wai 
concerned not to have these things to learn, when he caipe 
forth to teach others; wisely judging that youth. shoold 
prepare that which riper years must use. Among the 
anecdotes related of him while at Cambridge, shewing the 
promising greatness of his abilities, is the following :— -^ The 
proctor of the college being prevented, by some unforeseqp 
occurrence, from executing his office at the commencement, 
Just at hand, none could be found to take hi$ place excepting 
AVillet, who acquitted himself so well, that his orations 
gained him the approbation and applause of the imivenitj, 
and the high admiration of all who knew how short a time 
he had for preparation."* In the year 1586, he united 
with the master and fellows of Christ's collie, in 
defence of themselves against the accusations oi their 
enemies, in which they acquitted themselves with great 
honour.f . 

Having spent thirteen years at the university, he caiiie 
forth richly fraught \yith wisdom and knowledge. On the 
death of his father, the queen prrscmted him to the lectoit 
of Barley, and gave him his father's prebend in the chufcn 

* Bark»da1e*8 Remembrancer, p. 5S — 58. 
i Baker't MS. CoUec. vol. iv. p. 79. 

willet; MS 

ef Ely. Jle ^tered npon his charge at Badejr^ January 
JH^ 1598.«. Though he is said to have sought no other' 

Eeferment, one oi his name became rector of Reed in 
iddlesex, jn the year 16 IS ; and rector of Chishall-Parva 
bk Essex, in IGSO.t We cannot, however, learn whether 
tkis was the same person. He studied to deserve prefer- 
ts, rather than to obtain them. His own observation 
, that some enjoj/ promotions, while others merit them. 
He always abounded in the work of the Lord, and ac- 
counted me work in which he was engaged as part of his 
wages. About the time that he entered the ministerial 
work, he married a near relation to Dr. Goad, by whom he 
hftd eleven.sons and seven daughters. 

Dr. Willet was a man of uncommon reading, having- 
ffigested the fathers, councils, ecclesiastical histories, the 
otvil and canon law, and numerous writers of ahnost all 
descriptions. Indeed, he read so much, and understood 
and retained what he had read so well, that he was deno- 
nmiated a living library. To secure this hiffh attainment, 
!» was extremely provident of his time. He constantly 
mse at a very early hour, by which means he is said to 
liave got half way on his journey before others set out. He 
ivas laborious in the numerous duties of his ministry ; and 
ke greatly lamented the condition of those who. sat under 
idle and ignorant ministers. He also often lamented the 
•bUe of the prelates of those. times, who, after obtaining 
rich livings, thqugh they were men of talents and learning, 
woidd not stoop to labour for the welfare of souls. But he^ 
as a faithful steward of Christ, constantly preached three 
times a week, and catechised both old and young throughout 
bis parish. And though he was a man of most profound 
learning, had been some time chaplain to Prince Henry, 
and had frequently ^preached at court, his sermons and 
catechetical instructions were dressed in so plain and 
familiar a style, that persons of the weakest capacity might 
easily understand him.;^ He esteemed those the best dis- 
courses which were best adapted to the condition of the 
people, and most owned of God: not those which were 
most dec(H*ated with human ornaments, and most admired* 
ainong men. Though he could administer all ne<^ful 
reproof and warning to the careless and the obstinate ; yet 
his great talent was to Und tip the broken-hearted, and 
comfort the weary, fainting pilgrim. 

• Newcourt's Repert. Ecd. toI. i. p. 8U0^ f Ibid. p. 862. If. p. 161, 
t FnUtr't Abel RedivlTiiii p. 569. 


His external deportment^ at home and abroad, Vfad mA 
as became bis profession. He livedj as wdl as preachd^ 
the gospel* His house was the model erf* a little chonh 
and house of Grod; where morning and evening sacn- 
fices were daily offered unto God. He had laws and 
ordinances set up in his house, directing all the membenof 
his numerous family to the observance of their lespedhe 
duties ; and be was a pattern to them ail in ^11 things. Hii 
humility and beneyolencc were two of the brightest jeweb 
in his crown. Though he had a numerous family of chit 
dren, he did not consider that a sufficient reason ftr 
abridging his constant and extensive liberality. Qa 
the contrary, he was of the same mind as one of the firthen^ 
who said, <^ The more children, the more charity.'* And it 
is said of Dr. Willet, that his substance increased with 
his liberality.* Many poor ministers tasted the sweetness sf 
his bounty. 

Dr. Willet obtained a great degree of celebrity by the 
numerous and valuable productions of his pen. One of 
his voluminous publications appeared in the rdgn of Qaeea 
Elizabeth, entitled, << Synopsis P^pismi; or, a gnenl 
View of P^pistrie.^' This work, which was dedicirfed 
to the queen, contains upwards of thirteen hundred paga 
in folio. It is perhaps the best refutation of popeiT tost 
ever was published. In this work, says Mr. Toplaay, no 
less than fifteen hundred errors and heresies aref chaiged 
against the church of Rome, and most ably refntod. It 
passed through five editions ; and was highly approved hj 
many of the bishops ; held in great esteem by the tvro 
universities; and very much admired, both by the clemr 
and laity, throughout the kingdom. The author, it is 
incorrectly added, was most zealously attached to Ae 
church of £ngland, and not a grain of puritanism mingted 
itself with his conformity.f 

This celebrated divine continued his numerous and 
painful labours to the last. He used to say, <^ As it is most 
honourable for a soldier to die fighting, and for a bishop or 
pastor praying ; so, if ray merciful Uod will vouchsafe to 
grant me my request, I desire that I may finish my days in 
writing and commenting on some part of scripture.'* 

* Dr. Wniet*8 mother uras a person who aboBsded io acts of charity. 
When her children were gone from her, and settled in iifc, the vied tt 
feed her poor neighbours, saying, '* Now I have my children aboit wnt 
again.** — Bark dalt^9 Rtmembrancer^ p. 56, 64, 65. 

f TopUdy'i Historic Proof, vol. ii. p. 191, 102, 305. 

wiLLEt. m 

tterehi God gave Mm the desire of Ms heart* He WW 
lealled to his father's house, as hte w^s cowpttsing h?s ^ Gatti^ 
waesktBLvy on Leviticus." Though he did not desire, as 
|Kiod Archbishop Leigbton did^ that hie might die at an inn^ 
&e unerrinj? providence of Gtod' bad appomted that he 
riiould. The occasion of &is death Was a falf from his 
korse, as he was riding homewards from London, by which 
lie broke his leg^ and was detained at Hoddesdon in Hert* 
finrdshire, incapable of being removed. On the tenth day 
after his fall^ having supped (Cheerfully the preceding 
evening, $tnd rested well during the greatest part of the 
U^ht, he awoke in the momiBg by the tolling of a bell, 
wben he entered* into sweet conversation with his wife 
tfmut the joys of hedv^. Afteif" singing with melody in 
DbeSr b^rts tor the Lord, and unitedly pre^sentin^ their slip- 
plications to God, he turned himself in bed, and giving a . 
deep groan^ he fell into a swoon. His wife, being alarmed, 
immediately called in assistance ; and upon the applica- 
tion ofi suitable means,. he recovered a little, and raised 
himself up in bed, but imihediatelv said, ^< Let me alone* 
I 8(hall be well, Lord Je^u^;^^ and then resigned his happy 
loul to God, December 4, 1621, aged ftffy-eight years.* 
His funeral was attended by a great number of knights, 
gentlemen, and ministers, wlio, having esteemed and ho* 
OMred him ih life, testified their respect to his memory 
'mhnsa dead. Though he wrote against the unmeaning and 
Krijte^fstitiOBs practice of bowing at the nattie of Jesus,f 
aflia was a sufferer, in the cause of nonccmformity ;i jety 
Ddfig so excellent a man, so peaceable in his behaviour, 
umA so ihcderate in his principles, he was enabled to 
kecj* his benefice to the day of his death. " He was 
k. berson," saysi Fuller, " of a souiid judgment, admirable 
indiifiiiy^ a pious life, and bountiful above his ability/'^ 
He is classed among the learned waiters and fc^Uows of 
fSif ist's college, Mt. Strype denominates him 
^ a learned and zealous puritan.^'ir 

Dr. Willefs remains were interred in the chancel of 
Barley church, where there is a representation of him at 
filU lengthy in a praying attitude; and underneath is a 

• FoUer's Abel Red. p. 575. 

f Wood's Athenae Ozon. toI. i. p. 348. 

?N«arB Poritaoi, yoI. ii. p. 189. 
Church Hist. b. x. p. 91.— Worthies, part i. p. 158. 
I Faller*8 Hist, of Cam. p. 92. 
I Strype's Annals, vol. Hi. p. 441, 490. 


monumental inscription erected to his memoiyi ci 
tbe following is a translation :• 

Here liei 

Andrew Willet, D.D* 

once Minuter of this Church, 

and a great ornament of the Cluirch in cenend. 

He died 

December 4, 1621, in the 50th 

year of hin age. 

Reader, admire ! within this tomb there lies 
Willel, though dead, still livinff with the wise; 
Seek you his boase : — his polished works pemse. 
Each vala*d page the living Willet shews : 
All that of him w^as mortal rests below. 
Nor can } uu tearless from the relics go. 

Subjoined to the Latin inscription aie the foUowiof 
lines in English : 

Thou that erewhile didst sach strong reasons frame. 
As yet, great WiUet, are the popelings shame ; 
Now by thy sickness thy death hast made. 
Strong arguments to prove that man's a shade* 
Thy life did shew thy deep divinity, 
Death only taught us thy humanity. 

■ I 

His Works. — 1. Synopsis Papismi, 1600.— 2. Thesamras Eecknei 
1604. — 3. De Gratia Generi Hnmano in primo Parents odl]ata,d» 
Lapsu Adami, Peccato Origioali, 1600. — 4. Hexapla apon DaBisI^ 
1610.-1^-6. Hexapla upon Romans, 161 1. — 6. Hexapla upon Leritkofi 
1631. — 7. Hexapla upon Genesis, 1632. — 8. Hexapla upon Exoda^ 
1632. — 9. De animae natnra et viribus. — 10. Sacra Emblemafa^^ 
11. Dc univcrsali Yocatione Judeeonim. — 12. Do Conciliis.— 13. De 
nuiversali Gratia. — 14. De Anticbristo. — 16. EpithalanivB^— 
16. FunebVes Consciones. — 17. Apologia serenessimi Regie Jae. 
Defensio. — 18. Harmony of the First and Second Book of SunadL— 
19. Hexapla upon the Twenty-second Psalm. — ^20. Upon the Scnroh 
teeuth of John.— 21. Upon the Epistle of Jude.^22. TetnwjykM 
Papismi. — ^23. A Catalogue of Good Works. — ^24. Limbomastix^ 
25. Funeral Sermons. — 86. A Catechism. — ^27. A Prelection^— M As 
Antilogy. — ^29. Epithalamium in English.— He left mn imneow 
quantity of manuscripts behind him. 

* Theological and Biblical Magazine, vol. vii. p. S83. 

-f This work affurds mach iDformation, as it cootaioi the eptahNU tf 
many aathon on each point of difficulty.— Fn(teiM*« Chritiim Frmtlm^ 
p. 4S3. 


* SteI^hen Egerton, A.m. — This excdlcnt divine was 
incorporated in both universit'cs, and ailerwards for many 
years the learned, zealous, and faithful minister of Black- 
fnars, London. He was a thorough nonconrorniist, a 
zealous promoter of a further reformation of the church, 
•and an avowt^d advocntc for the pre^byterian discipline. 
He WIS a member oi' the presbjrtery erected at Wandsworth 
in Surrey, and fn^qiiently united with his brethren in their 
associations, when he was commonly chosen to the office of 

In the year 1584, he and Mr. John Field wer(^ suspended 
for refusina; subscription to VVhitgift's three articles. After 
receiving the censure of this tyrannical prelate, they' 
assigned their reaF:oas for not subscribing to the second 
article, viz. " That the Book of Common Prayer, and the 
Book of Ordination, containeth in it nothing contrary 
to the word of God."" — *' We cannot subscribe to this 
article," say they, " because the book alloweth a mere 
reading ana insutiicient ministry ; and, what is still more 
intolerable, it containeth many things ttiiding to harden 
obstinate papists, and to encourage ignorance and supersti- 
tion among the conunon people. All this is apparent, 
Seeing most of the things contained in the book are trans- 
lated out of the popish portuis, with little or no alteration^ 
We cannot consent thtit certain parts of the apocrypha 
should be used in public worship, and some parts of 
scriptnre omitted. In tlie burial of the dead, every wicked 
man must be committ< d to the ground in sure and certain 
hopecd the resurrection to eternal life. The book maketh 
eonfirmation, the cross in baptism, and matrimony, to be 
sacraments. In one of the collects, it is said, ' Give us 
those things which we dare not ask.^ The book main- 
taineth the offices of archbishops, bishops, &c. as being 
different from that of ministers." In addition to these, 
thcv assign many otlier reasons.* 

ft does not appear how long Mr. Egerton remained under 
the above ecclesiastical censure. \Ve find, however, that 
about this time he united with his brethren in subscribing 
the " Book of Discipline."+ In the year 1590, during the 
imprisonment of Mr. Barrow and Mr. Greenwood, our 

J ions divine and other puritan ministers were sent by the 
iishop of Loniion to confer with them. Tholigh he was 
deemol unworthy of the public ministry, the persecuting 

•-MS. Register, p. 460—463. 
i Mcal*8 Puritans, vul. i. p. 423. 



J>relate8 accounted him sufficiently qualified to hold a eoo« 
erence with those whom they stigmatized schisniatic* and 
heretics. Mr. £gerton exchanged several letters with tke 
suiFering prisoners, one of which was dated April 14^ 
1590. The rest were written about the same time.* In tlui 
year he was still under suspension ; haying suffisred the croel 
censure, no doubt, for the space of six years* Nor was Um 
all. For, during the same year, he was summoned, with 
many of his brethren, before the high commission, and con- 
mittcd to the Fleet, where for several years he saflfered tht 
€xtremit^ of the prison. An account of these barbavoni 
proceedings is given in another place.f 

Mr. E^rton, having at length obtained his rekaic^ 
became minister of Blackfriars in the year 1598, wheie ke 
continued many years.} The celebrated Dr. Nowell, dam 
of St. PauPs, in a letter which he wrote during this jreii^ 
denominates him '^ a man of great learning and godliness.^ 
Upon the accession of King James« numerous petitiOM 
were presented to his majesty for a further refonnatioii cf 
the church. In the year 1603, when that which was called 
<< The Millenary Petition,^' subscribed by upwards of a 
thousand ministers, was presented to the king and padta* 
ment, none were deemed so well qualified to undertake tlui 
business as Mr. Egerton and Mr. Hildersham, with sone 
other eminent divincs.|| Mr. Eeerton died about the year | 
1621, and was succeeded at Blackfriars by the famous ^ 
Dr. William Gouge, who appears to have been for some -^ 
time hb assistant. These two eminently faithful servants of j 
Christ spent about seventy years in their minbterial laboan ^ 
at Blackfriars.n 

Hiu Works.— L A licclurc on Gen. Xii. 17—20., 1680.^1 A ^ 
brief Method of Catechizing, 1594.-— 3. The Doctrine of SabjediOB • 
to God and the Kin|2^, 1616.-— 4. The Boring of the Ear, 1021^ 
5. Comforts to strengthen the Weak in Faith, 1630.— 6. A Defcrif 
tion of UncomelinetMi. — He publi»hed an enlarged cation of Mr. Pw 
JIaincti's ** Help to True llappineMK ;*' and wrote an Epiitlt to Vr. 
Richard Rogers's " Seven Treatises/' 1604. 

* MS. Remarkt, p. 495. 
-¥ See Art. Cartwrigbt. 

?Newcaart*t Repert. Eccl. wo], i. p. 915. 
Bior. Britan. vol. v. p. S25d. Edit. 1747. 
g Foller*! Church Hlit. b. ix. p. 7. 
t Jeokini on Jude, Pref. 

T. PAGET. 291 

Thomas Paget was a zealous and worthy minister in the 
teoces;* of Chester, but much persecuted for nonconformitj. 
Tkrou^ the severity of the times, when he could no longer 
CDJoy me blessing of religious liberty in his own country, he 
toogbt refuge in a foreign land ; and, to escape the perse* 
citing funr of the prelates, retired to Holland as a place of 
flifety. He had been many years employed in the ministry, 
in the above diocese, when Dr. Thomas Morton became 
Bishc^ of Chester. This learned prelate was no sooner 
comfortably seated in the episcopal chair, than he began to 
prosecute the nonconformists within his jurisdiction, and 
sent forth letters missive, summoning them to appear before 
the high commission. Among those who were cited was 
Mr. PlEiget This was no sooner known in the country 
tlan many of the most worthy knights and gentlemen in the 
diooese took the matter into serious consideration, espoused 
fte cause of the distressed ministers, and wrote a very appro- 
priate letter to the bishop ; in which they expressed them- 
adves as follows : 

<< Right Reverend, &c. Whereas we understand that 
divers of our jpainful and discreet ministers are lately, by 
letters missive from your lordship and others of his majesty g 
Imjfa commission for causes ecclesiastical within the diocese 
f/Chester, enjoined to appear before you, to answer to such 
natters as shall be objected against them. We, whose 
names are subscribed, have thought fit to acquaint your 
hwdship with our opinion of those ministers, for the pre- 
venting, if need require, of such sinister and malicious 
iafimnations ; which, in these cases, are frequently stirred 
up against men of their sort and quality ; sometimes by 
lewd and profane persons ; and many times by the disguisea, 
nbtil, and superstitious Romanists and church-papists, 
iriiose hearts are wholly a^inst us, all the while their faces 
aie seemingly for us. We have observed, so far as we are 
dde to judge, in these our ministers, integrity of life and 
ooaversation, orthodox soundness of doctrine, diligence and 
painfulness in their places, sobriety and peaceableness in 
their dispositions, and freedom from faction. Also, as the 
peat good and profit which our congregations where they 
five have abundantly received from their ministry ; tliere- 

fore we are emboldened to entreat your favour, &c."* 
This letter was delivered to his lordship at Stockport ; 

^lio, after reading it, said, " They whom the letter con- 

♦ Paget's Defence, Pref. 


eemeth are the worse to be liked, for the good testimonj 
bere given of them." Mr. Paget was one m the ministen 
in whose behalf the letter was written, and being present at 
tiie reading of it, the bishop immediately requirea his argu- 
ments against the use of the cross in baptism ; that, as be 
then boasted, he might instantly discover their weakness aad 
folly in refusing to conform. Mr. Paget and his brethren at 
first declined all disputation, partly because their errand 
was not to dis);)ute, but to obtain their release from the bigfc 
commission ; and because the bishop was to be the sole 
judge ; so' that they might bring themselves into danger. 
However, the bishop continuing to urge them in the pre- 
fence of many persons of quality, lest they should seem to 
betray a good cause by total silence, Mr. Paget at length 
entered upon a disputation with his lordship ; who, in the 
conclusion, ingenuously acknowledged his own nej^lect io 
study the controversy, but resolved in future to direct his 
attention more that way. And, besides releasing them fiw 
the high commission, he frankly owned, that he found in 
tliem more learning than he expected. But, in order to 
brin^ them to conformity, he commanded each of them to 
produce in writinj?, three arguments against the cross ia 
Daptism, the use of the surplice, and kneeling at the LctfiTv 
fupper, and brin^ them to him in the space of a month. Hi9 
order was accordingly obeyed; but it failed of the success 
which his lordship expected. 

Soon after, several df the ministers were again cited into 
the hi^h conmiission court, and used with great crueltj. 
Mr. rkget himself met with much unkind treatment, and 
was unucr the nccessily of making three joiimies of sucty 
miles each, within the space of fourteen days, the bishop 
and other commissioners still deferring the consideration of ' 
his case to a future court-day. The bishop's officers treated 
him with much vile and abusive language, attended with 
blasphemous cursing and swearing, declaring he should 
assuredly be damned. On a day appointed, the good roan 
again appeared before the commission at Chester ; when the 
bishop expostulated with him a full hour, concerning the 
observance of the ecclesiustical ceremonies, and signified 
that his own remissness in prosecuting the nonconformisti, 
had hindered his preferment to the bishopric of Lincoh' 
In the conclusion, his lordship I)eing in a violent pawion, 
threatened to suspend, excommunicate, and demde hiin> 
and to make the land too hot for him ; and asked him what be 
would then do. Mr. Paget meekly replied, in the woids of 


Ae iMfOphet : << I wiU look unto the Lord ; I -will wait Ibr th« 
Gcd of my salyaticm. My God will hear me." The 
failBliop immediately retorted, saying, '' God will not hear a 
Uasphemer : a blasphemer of his mother the church of 
England, and one who despiseth her ordinances." Mr. 
faget then replied, ^^ I desire. to fear God and abhor 
blasphemy ; and my refusal of conformity to superstitious 
ceremonies, which even by the prelates themselves are 
esteemed indifferent, is neither blasphemy nor contempt." 
The angry prelate at length dismissed him without any cen- 
sure, but ordered him to pay large fees to the officers of the 

In the year 1618, Morton being translated to the see of 
Lichfield and Coventry, Dr. Bridgman became his succes- 
sor at Chester. The latter prelate did not, at first, manifest 
any great opposition against the nonconformists, except by 
suspending a few of them, together with Knutsford chapel.f 
Afil^rwards, however, the bishop took courage, and inhibited 
mosA of the puritans in his diocese. Mr. Paget, among the 
rest, was convened before him, when the good old man 
humbly desired his lordship^s coimivance ; which he denied^ 
lest, as he observed, he should lose the favour of his prince. 
And when he required Mr. Paget to assign his reasons for 
refusing to kneel at the sacrament, he cited the words of our 
Lord : " Howbeit, in vain do they worship me, teaching 
for doctrines the commandments of men.'* These words, 
he observed^ might be justly applied to the imposition of 
kneeling at the I^ord's supper. The bishop then signified, 
that he ei^pected a more learned argument, and supposed 
that Mr. Paget would have insisted upon the posture used 

* This leaned prelate, writing of these times, says, *^Tbe nonconformists 
fULwe mffered what is next to death; and too many have suffered unto 
4ealh io prisons. Imposers," he justly adds, *^ should not esteem any thtii|;. 
ajnsC cause of bringing any under the censores of silencing of preachers 
from preaching, for which they may not adventure to take away their 
lives." Dr. Morton was a bishop forty years; and during that lone period, 
it is iiid, there was not his superior in the church, for temperance, industry, 
and piety. He constantly rose at four o'clocl^ in the morning to his studies, 
when he was eighty years of age; usually lay upon a straw bed; and, 
tbroQgb the whole course of his life, seldom exceeded one itkeal a day. — Con* 
famUttg PUa^ p. 14. Edit. 1681.— GraR^«r'« Biog, Hist. vol. ii. p. 15^ 

f The corions occasion of the bishop's suspending this chapel, was the 
foUowing : ** A gentleman of Knutsford, being fond of sport, caused a bear, 
passing ^ong the streets, to be led into the chapeh The bishop no sooner 
heard of the chapel being thus profaned by the bear, than he suspended k 
firom being used for public worship, and it remained a long time under his 
lordship's ecclesiastical censure. This was episcopal superstition in per- 
fection I — Paget*8 Deftnc€i Pref, * 


by Christ and his disciples, at the institution -of the ordi- 
n»rice. And, to convince Mr. Paget how unseemly that 

i>os(ure would now be in the church, his lordship gravely 
aid himself upon a bench by the side of a table, leaning oil 
his elbow, affirming that to have been the posture of Christ 
at the institution of the supper; which, said he, you canneC 
contradict, especially if you understand Greek. Mr. Riget 
replied, that whatever was his knowledge of Greek, donoi' 
less the translators of the New Testament were skilful in tint 
language, and they had rendered it sitting* Also, he fhither 
observed, that Dr. Morton, his lordship s predecessor, not- 
withstanding the stir he made about the translation, con- 
fessed it was a kind of sitting. However, to close the busi- 
ness, Mr. Paget, together with many others, was suspended 
from the ministry, and remained under his lordship's censiuf 
about two years. 

In the year 16S1, when it was hoped the storm was abated| 
means were used to obtain his liberty, but without eflSsct. 
Afterwards, written testimonies were procured froin York, 
signed by the register of the high commission court, in 
behalf of Mr. Paget and two other ministers in Cheshire, 
releasing them from suspension, and allowing them to go on 
in their ministerial work as usual. But within three months, 
xdthout any previous warning, attachments were issned 
from the high commission to apprehend them, and Imng 
them to York; when they were ordered to he cast into 
prison till they could give satisfaction to the court In 
these painful circumstances, obtaining information of the 
approaching storm, and having already too much felt tbt 
cruel oppressions of that coud, they withdrew, as did tho 
prophet to escape the fury of Ahab. When they could 
not be found, heavy fines were laid upon them; and, for 
their non-appearance, their fines were aggravated from on^ 
court-day to another ; till at length their case was retunieA- 
.into the exchequer. In the end, having suffered grea^^ 
poverty, and many other troubles, they were obliged t 
compound. But upon no consideration could they obtaii 
their liberty to preach. Therefore, Mr. Paget forsook 1' 
native country, and went to Holland, where he most pn 
bably spent the remainder of his days. He wrote the pr 
face to Mr. John Paget's " Defence of Church Goven^ * 
ment," 1641, whence the above account is collected. ])i3it 
whether they were at all related, we have not bc«n able C^ 


- Mr. Kmight was of Pembroke college, Oxford, and, one 
of the preachers to the university. He was a divine of good 
Jamming, great moderation, and genuine puritan pinciples. 
Having delivered a sermon on the Lord's day, April 15, 16S2, 
befinre the university, from 2 Kings, xix. 9., he advanced 
this position, <^ That subordinate magistrates might lawfully 
make use of force, and defend themselves, the comroon- 
vealth, and the true religion, in the field, against the chief 
ma^strate, within the cases and conditions following : 
1. When the chief magistrate turns a tyrant* 2. When he 
teoes his subjects to blasphemy or idolatry. S. When any 
intolerable burdens or pressures are laid upon them. Andf, 
4. When resistance is the only expedient to ^secure their 
Kves, their fortunes, and the liberty of their consciences."* 
Fcnr this prc^iosition in the sermon. Bishop Laud denomi- 
imtes it ^< a treasonable sermon."f The preacher was, 
flierefbie, sent for to court, and asked what authority he 
luul for his assertion. He answered, that it was the opinion 
of Piaraeuson Rom. xiii. ; but that his principal authority 
was King James himself, who was then affording assistance 

tthe oppressed Uochellers against their prince. Upon this 
Id and unexpected answer, Mr. Knight was immediately 
committed to Uie Gatehouse ; Paraeus's % Commentary was 
•udered to be burnt at Cambridge, Oxford, and Paul's cross, 
LcMidon ; his assertions were condemned as false and sedi- 
IJaus ; and the university of Oxford, in full convocation, 
anade the following decrees t ^^ That it is not lawful to resist 
the sovereign by force of arms, either offensively or de^ 
ftnsively, upon any pretence whatsoever : that all doctors, 
«iiaslier& CKf arts, &c. within the university, shall subscribe to 
these decrees and censures : and that whosoever shall here-> 
9ifler take any degree, shall first acknowledge the truth and 
justice of these censures by subscription to the sape ; and 
dball take his oath, that he doth from his heart not only 
4xmdemn the said doctrine of Paraeus, but that he will 
neither preach, teach, nor maintain the same, or any of them, 
al any time in future."^ Thus all the graduates in tlii9 

« Neal'i Paritans, yoI. ii. p. 126. 

, i. Prypn^'d ))rf Tiat^ pf La^d, p. S. 

' % Parens Was highly celebrated for true christian piety, a qiost learned 
^ntfessor of divinity at Heidelberg, and rector of the university at that 
pl^Ce. He was an admirable writer, a celebrated divine, and appointed by 
^^ elector palatine to attend the synod of Dort ; but, on account of his age 
*^ infirmftlet, be desired to be excused.— l^u/fer'f Ahtl Redivivu$, p. 579| 

i MS. Clmniolc^, toI. ii. p. 097. (26.) 


university were bound down as slaves to their tyrannical 
m>pres8ors, and required to SAvear, that they would nevier 
change their opinions. Was ever any thing- more uores- 
sonable? Yet such was the tyranny and barbarity of the 
times ! But how lon^ Mr. Knight remained in the Gatehoqitei 
or what other punishment was inflicted upon hira, we hate 
not been able to learn. 

John Randall, B. D. — This zealous minister erf* Chrut 
was bom at Missenden in Buckinghamshire, in the yev 
1568, and educated first in St. Mary's-hall, then in Truaity 
college, Oxford, and afterwards elected fellow of Lincoui 
college. Having entered upon the ministry, he became 
one of the most noted preachers in the university. In the 
year 1598, he removed from Oxford, and became rector rf 
St. Andrews, Little Ekistcheap, London. In this aituatioa 
he continued to the end of his days ; and by hii eooftant 
preaching, resolving cases (^ conscience, and his othoi 
ministerial exercises, he went beyond most of his brethrePf 
to the admiration of all who knew him. Thoufffa he to 
unconuncmly laborious in the Lord's vineyard^ he yhi 
mostly exercised with very painful bodily afflictum. Hift 
learning and piety were unreservedly devoted to public 
usefulness. It does not, however, appear whether Ifr^ 
Randall was ever proseputed for his nonconformity.- - Be 
was accounted a zealous and innocent puritan, a judicioitt 
and orthodox divine, a harmless and holy man, and one 
wholly devoted to usefulness in the church of Christ Bf 
his constant and faithful labours, true religion was gfes^j 
promoted, many were reclaimed from the ways oF ungod* 
liness, and others established in the truth. He died in the 
beginning of June, 163S, aged fifty-four years ; and hii 
remains were interred in his own church.* Mr. Randall 
was tutor to the famous Mr. Rob^ Bolton. 

His Works.—!. Several Sermons, 1623.— 2. The Great Mysteiy 
of Godliness, 1624. — 3. A Treatise concerning the Sacraments, 1690.—* 
4. Catechistical Lectures, 1630. — 5. Lectures of the Church, 1631. 

• Wood's Athens Os^pn. tqI. i. p. 509, 400,^Newcoiirt'i Repeirt* £ccl. 
Yol. 1. p. SS5. 


Nicholas Byfield. — This pious and learned divine 
was born in Warwickshire, in the year 1579, and educated 
in Exeter allege, Oxford. He was son to Mr. Richard 
Bjrfield, who became minister of Stratford-upon-Avon in 
1596. He was a hard student ; and having spent four years 
in the closest application, he left the university, entered 
upon the ministerial work, and intended to have gone into 
Ireland ; hut preaching at Chester, on his way thither, he 
received an invitation to be pastor of St. Peter's in that 
cityf where he continued a number of years. He waa 
suicIl followed on account of his pious and profitable 
meachii^, especially by all who had any relish for religion. 
The excellent and celebrated JohnBruen, esq. was one of 
Ids hearers, from whom he received many acts of kindness.* 
In the year 1615, he removed from Chester, and became 
Ticar (^Isleworth in Middlesex,-*- where he continued the rest 
of his days. He was a divine of ^< a profound judgment, 
a strong memory, a quick inventicm, and unwearied 
indust|ry."$ He was a constant, powerful, and useful 
{Treacher; a thorough Calvinist^ a nonconformist to the 
ceremonies, ^and a. strict observer of the sabbath. By his 
aeal for the sanctification of the Lord's day, his labours in the 
ministry, an4 hia exemplary life, religion flourished, many 
were converted, and puritanism gained ground. Yet to 
was a sufferer with his brethren in the cause of noncon- 

Mr. Byfield, during the latter part of his life, was 
exceedingly afflicted with the stone in the bladder, most 
probably the effect of intense study and hard labour. And 

* Mr. Brnen had a servant, named Robert Pasfield, but commonly caUed 
Old Robert^ who was ** mighty in the scriptures," though he could neither 
write nor read. He was, indeed, as remarkable for remembering texts 
amd sermons, as Jodidiah Buxton for remembering numbers. For by the 
lielp of his memory, he invented and framed a girdle of leather, long and 
large, which went twice about him. This he divided into several parts, 
allotting every book in the Bible, in their order, to some of these divisions $ 
then for the chapters, he affixed points or thongs of leather to the several 
divisions, and made knots by fives or tens thereupon, to distinguish the 
chapters of that book; and by other points, he divided the chapters into 
their particular contents or verses, as occasion required. This he used 
ikistead of pen and ink, in bearing sermons, and made so good a use of it, 
that, coming home, he was able by it to repeat the sermon, quote the texts 
of scripture, &c. to his own great comfort and to the benefit of others. 
This girdle Mr. Bruen kept after Old Robert's death, hong it op in his 
stndy, and would pleasantly call it *♦ The girdle of Verity.'* — Riiide's 
Life of Bruen, p. 58, 135.— Granger's Biog. Hist. vol. i; p. 251. 

+ Newconrt*s Repert. Eccl. vol. i. p. 676. 

± Wood's AthensB Oxon. vol. i. p. 402. 

^ MS. Chronology, vol, iU- p. 699. (2.) 


having groaned for sereral years under the most excrucia* 
ting pain, it brought him at length to his grave, in the year 
1622j and the forty-third of his age. FuUer observes, thai 
for fifteen years together^ he preached at Isleworth twice 
every Lord's day, and expounded the scriptures everj 
Wechiesday and Fridav, till five weeks before his death. 
If this account be just, tne time of his removal fh)m Chester, 
or the period we have given of his death, must evidently 
one of them be incorrect.* His bodv being opened afler 
his death, a stone was taken out of his bladder, which 
weighed thirtt/'three ounces, and measured about the edges 
fift^n inches and a half, the length and breadth aboat 
thirteen inches, and of a substance like flint. '' There afe 
many eye-witnesses, besides myself," says Dr. William 
Gouge, in his account of this wonderful phenomenon, ^ who 
can justify the truth of what I say.*'f He meekly and 
patiently endured his torturing pains till death gave him 

Eerfect ease. Mr. £yfield published several books during 
is life, and others came forth aftei his death, shewing him 
to have been a person of good parts, great learning, and 
nnconunon industry. Bishop Wilkins passes a hiffa enco- 
mium upon his sermons, classing them with me most 
excellent in his day.]: He was mther to Mr. Adoniram 
Byfield, another puritan divine, of whom some account will 
be given. Mr. Richard Byfield, the ejected nonconformist 
in 1662, was his half-brother. S 

His Works. — 1. An Essay on the Assurance of God's Love aiid 
Man's SalTation, 1614. — 2. An Exposition on the Epistle to the 
Colossians, 1615.|| — 3. Directions for the private reading of the 
Scriptures, 1618. — 4. A Treatise shewing how a godly Christian may 
support his Heart with comfort against aU the Distresses which* by 
reason of any Affliction or Temptation, can befall him in this life, 
1618. — 5. The beginning of the Doctrine of Christ, or a Catalogue of 
Sins, 1609.— 6. The Marrow of the Oracles of God, 1620.-7. Com- 
mentary or Sermons on the second Chap, of the 1 Epis. of St 
Peter, 1623. — 8. Sermons on the first ten verses of the third Chap, of 
the 1 Epis. of St. Peter, 1626. — ^Thc two last were published, with 
additions, entitled, '^ A Commentary upon the whole First Epistle of 
St. Peter,'? 1637.— 9. An Exposition of the AposUe's Creed, lOaa— 
10. Answer to Mr. Brcenyood's Treatise of the Sabbath, 1630.— 
U. The light of Faith and Way of Holiness, 1630.^1?. The Signs of 

• Fuller's Worthies, part iii. p. 127. 

f Ibid. — Evangel; Mag. yol. zvi. p. 416. 

t Wilkins on Preaching, p. 82, 83. 

^ Palmer's Noncon. Mem. vpl. iil. p. SOI. 

I This work is full of gobd sense and spiritual savour, and abounds with 
pertinent citations of 'scriptnre, wit|io'at any prttciuiont to orttoriml dreis. 
tViUiams^s Christian Freacher^ p. 487t 


GedVi Love to us, 1630. — 13. The Practice of Christianity; or, an 
Jl^tomc of Mr. Rich. Rogers's Seven Treatises.— 14. The principal 
GrouncU of the Christian Religion. — 15. Several Sermons. 

Henby Ainsworth. — This person was a celebrated 
scholar, an excellent divine, and a painful sufferer for 
nonconformity. Though little is known of him, especially 
during the early part of his life, his uncommon skill in 
Hebrew learning, and his excellent commentaries on the 
sacred scriptures, are held in high reputation to this day. 
About the y^r 1590, we find him a distinguished leader 
among the Brownists, to whom he adhered, and with 
vhom he bore his share of grievous persecution. About 
the same period, among the books that were written against 
the churcn of England, and seized by authority, was one 
entitled ^' Counter-Poyson."* The author of this work, 
jQiouffh not mentioned in the first edition, was Mr. Ains- 
vortn ; and as it probably drew upon him the vengeance 
of the ruling prelates, so it might hasten his departure into 
aibreign land. Though he was a native of England, this is 
all that we know of him till he became a resident in Holland; 
but at what period he removed thither, cannot be exactly 
9$certained. It is most probable, however, that he accom- 
panied the Brownists in their general banishment, in the 
year 1593. t And it is most certain that he was in Holland 
in 1596, when he carried on a correspondence with the 
celebrated Junius. Hoornbeck relates, that during Mr. 
Ainsworth's abode in Holland, he made a voyage to Ireland, 
and there left some disciples, i 

Mr. Ainsworth lived at Amsterdam, where his external 
^arcumstances, like those of the church in general, were 
very low. He is said to have been porter to a bookseller, 
who, having discovered his skill in the Hebrew language, 
made it known to his countrymen. Mr. Roger Williams, 
founder of Providence Plantation in New England, in 
whose testimony we have reason .to confide, informs us, 
** that he lived upon nine-pence a week, and some boiled 
joots."^ The account which the Brownists give of them- 
jBelves is, " that they were almost consumed with deep 
poverty; loaded with reproaches; despised and afflicted 
jby alL"|| The reception which they met with from a 

* Neal's Puritans, vol. i. p. 441. 

-¥ Ibid, p.468, 496.— Lifeof Ainiworth, p. IS. t Ibid. p. 14, 

^ Cotton's Aoswer to Williams, p. 1 19. |t Life of Ainwortb, p. Id. 


people just emerging from civil and eccIesiasticaI<^;^remon^ 
iras ycrj different from what might have been expected. 
The civil power, commonly more friendly to a toleratioiil 
than the ecclesiastical, does not, indeed, seem to have- 
troubled them. But the Dutch clergy regarded them with 
a jealous eye ; and they appear to have been screened fitm 
persecution chiefly by their own insignificance.* Durii^ 
this season of tribulation, Mr. Ainsworth did not remaio 
idle ; for most of his books, which are evidently the fruit of 
good learning, much reading, and close application, woe 
written at this period. 

After the publication of the above piece, the next work 
in which we find liim to have been engaged was a traoda- 
tion of the Brownists^ Confession of P\nitn into Latin. It 
appeared in 1598, and was dedicated to the universities -of 
lieyden, Heidelberg, Geneva, St. Andrews, and the other 

Eublic seminaries of Holland, Germany, France, and Scot- 
md. It was afterwards translated into English, aiul doei 
not differ much in doctrine from the Harmony of Con- 
fessions.f In this confession the Brownists did not intend td 
erect a standard of faith for others, and impose it upon 
them ; but merely to vindicate themselves from the odium 
under which they laboured, as discontented and factions 
sectaries. Their cohduct was very different from that of 
the most famous councils or synods, which, while they have 
compiled systems of faith and tests of orthodoxy for ages 
and nations, have seldom failed to sow the seeds of discoid 
and enmity among men. 

After the Brownists were first settled at Amsterdam, tbqr 
erected a church, as they tliought, according to the model 
of the New Testament, choosing Mr. Francis Johnson for 
their pastor, and Mr. Ainsworth for doctor or teacher. Tk^ 
church, however, did not continue long in peace, but was 
torn in pieces by several unhappy divisions, as will be found 
particularly noticed in another placet Ii^ the first of these 
divisions Mr. Ainsworth took part with Mr. Johnson the 
pastor ; but was so much grieved at the unnatural heafs 
which the controversy excited, that he spoke of laying 
down his office as teacher. In the next controversy, Mr, 
Ainsworth took an active part against Mr. John Smyth, 
who had espoused sentiments similar to those of Arminius, 
and who rejected infant baptism. And of the third 
division, in which he was personally concerned, he 

• Life of Ainiworth, p. 16. f Ibid. p. \5, 18. 

X See Art. Francii Johnson. 


{mblished a particular account in' a book entitled ^ An 
Animadversion to Mr. Richard Clifton's Advertisement^ 
who, under pretence of answering Mr- Chr. Laune^s book, 
kath published another man's private letter, with Mr. 
Francis Johnson's Answer thereto. Which letter is here 
justified ; the answer thereto refuted ; arid the true causes 
of the lamentable breach that hath lately fallen out in the 
£nglish exiled church at Amsterdam, manifested," 1613.* 
The occasion of this breach appears to have been a 
diflference of opinion respecting church discipline. Upon 
iiiis division, a second congregation was raised at Amsterdam 
nnder the superintendence ^ of Mr. Ainsworth, who is said 
to have been succeeded by the &mous Mr. John Canne, 
author of marginal references to the Bible. + Mr. Ains- 
•Worth's enemies, to cast an odium on his memory, have 
been pleased to say, that, after his death, his people con- 
tinued many years without a pastor, and without the admi- 
nistration of the ordinances of baptism and the Lord's 
iujmer ; and that they were rent by another division, one 
half following Mr. JohndeCluse, and the other Mr. Canne.if 
But these representations, evidently designed to reproach 
fliese persecuted people, are unsupported by sufficient 
evidence, and several particulars are denied and refuted by 
olie who lived in those times, and obtained the most correct 
information.^ With regard to Mr. Ainsworth himself, he is 
reproachfully charged with having changed his opinions 
from a conformist to a separatist, and from a separatist to a 
conformist, no less than six times; but, as there does not 
appear the least shadow of truth in the charge, the deserved 
odium will doubtless fall upon its bigoted author.|| 
• It is a circumstance which deserves to be recorded to the 
honour of Mr. Ainsworth, that in the midst of the above 
onhappy controversies, in which his own pen was actively 
employed, he preserved a meek and true christian spirit. 
Tl«)ugh he is represented by his enemies to have been 
extremely rigid, intemperate, and severe, the contrary is 
yeiy evident. Mr. Jolui Paget having challenged him to a 
disputation upon points of church discipline, Mr. Ainsworth, 
in a letter dated July 12, 1617, returned the following 
mild and peaceable answer : — ^' If any thing pass betwixt 
^you and me about those points, you shall be th^ first 

• Life of Ainsworth, p. 28—38. f Neal's Puritans, vol. ii. p. 45. 

i BaHie*s Dissuasive, p. 15.->Paget's Answer to Best and Davenport^ 
1^134. — Paget's Defence, p. 33. . 

4 Qotton's Coogregational Churches, p, 6. 
g &Uie's Vindication, p. 7, 


<< provoker of it. And if you desire it, I will not leluse^ 
<< it shall be at your own choice. As I love not to beeik 
<< controversy, so I will not be wanting to do any ^ood I 
<« can, to you or any other ; or to defendany point <rf tnilii 
^^ which God hath given me to see and witness, whra I am 
*' duly called thereunto."* 

Mr. Ainsworth cultivated, at the same time, those stodiei 
which were more congenial to his profession, and moir 
beneficial to the best interests of men. His great work, 
the ^^ Annotations on the Five Books of Moses, the F^abu, 
and the Song of Solomon," was published separately, in 
the year 161S, and several following years ; and afterwvdi 
collected and printed in London, in one volume folio, 1687, 
and again in 1639. This last edition is said to be ver? 
scarce. As to the execution of the work, its great wm 
has been established by the strongest testimonies of foreign 
as well as British divines. Succeeding critics have adopted 
Lis remarks, and he is frequently cited by modem com- 
mentators. Dr. Doddridge says, " Ainsworth on tk 
Pentateuch, Psalms, and Solomon's Song, is a good book, 
full of very valuable Jewish learning ; and his tianshtioB 
is, in many places, to be preferred to our own, especiallyoD 
the Psalms.' + 

The manner of Mr. Ainsworth's death, as related by Mr* 
Neal, was sudden and singular, and not without stroog 
suspicion of violence. For it is observed, that he, having 
found a diamond of great value in the streets of Amsterdam) 
advertised it in print ; and when the owner, who was a Jev, 
came to demand it, he offered him any acknowledgment be 
desired. Mr. Auisworth, however, though poor, would 
accept nothing except only a conference with some of the 
rabbles, upon the prophecies of the Old Testament relating 
to the Messiah, which the other promised ; but not having 
sufficient interest to obtain the favour, it is thought & 
caused him to be poisoned. :t Other accounts say, that he 
obtained the conference, and so confound'ed the t^ws, thal^ 
from spite and malice, they in this manner put a period to 
his life. Some writers, however, doubt the truth of this 
account, because it is never mentioned by any of the editoB 
of his posthumous pieces. His death, by whatever cause it 
was produced, happened about the close a£ the year 1622, 
or the beginning oi I62S.§ 

* Panel's Arrow against Separation, p. 9. 

f Doddridge's Worlds, vol. ▼. p. 472. Edit. 1804. 

t Neal*s Paritans, vol. ii. p. 46. . § Life of Ainsworth^ p. 00, 61. 


Mr. Ainsworth was a man of great piety^ uncommon 
Ifirudition, and extraordinary abilities. Whatever engaged 
his pen was treated with proper respect, even by his adyer- 
Haries ; who, while they disapproved his sentiments, could 
not fail to admire, his abilities. The famous Bishop Hall, 
who wrote against the Brownists, always speaks of him 
as the greatest man of their party ; and rerers to him as 
ibeir doctor, their chief, their rabbi.* He was unquestion- 
ably a person of profound learning, exquisitely versed in 
a- knowledge of the scriptures, and deeply read in the 
Jewish rabbins. He possessed a strong understanding, 
a quick penetration, and wonderful dilig^ce. His 
lODeiper was meek and amiable, his zeal for divine truth 
forvent, and he conducted himself with great moderation 
towards his adversaries. The following account is given 
of. Mr. Ainsworth, by one of his contemporaries, and oq« 
unfriendly to his peculiar sentiments : <^ For the life of the 
man, myself bein^ eye-witness, living some time with him 
at Amsterdam, of his humility, sobriety, and discretion, 
petting aside his preposterous zeal in the point and practice 
of separation, he lived and died unblamably to the world ; 
9Qd 1 am thoroughly persuaded that his soul rests with his 

His Works. — 1. Counter-Poyson, 1690.— 2. A Defence of the 
Holy Scriptures, Worship, and Ministry, used in the Christian 
elfturches separated from Antichrist, against Mr. Smyth, 1609. — 
S. An Animsidversion on Mr. Richard Clifton's Advertisement, 1613. 
-•^ The Trying out of the Truth, begun and prosecuted in certain 
Letters and Passages between John Aynsworth and Henry Ayns- 
worth : the one pleading for^ the other against the present Church of 
Rome, 1615. — 6. A Reply to the pretended Christian Plea for tlie 
Antichristian Church of Rome, published against Francis Johnson, 
1090. — 6. Certain Notes of Mr. Ainsworth's last Sermon, on 1 Pet. ii. 
4^ 6., 1630.— 7. The old orthodox Foundation of Religion, 1641.— 
$• A seasonable Discourse ; or, a Censure upon a Dialogue of the Ana- 
iNiptists, 1643. — ^9. The Book of Psalms Englished both in prose and 
lietre, 1644.-^10. A Guide to Zion. — 11. An Advertisement touch- 
ing some Objections against the sincerity of the Hebrew text ; and 
tbe Allegations of the Rabbins. — 12. A. Treatise of the Communion 
of Saints. — 13. An Arrow against Idolatry. — ^The two last were re- 
praited together in 1789, with a copious and interesting account of 
tte' author prefixed. — 14. His Annotations already mentioned, and 
pnbMy some others. 

4» Hmll'i Apologie a^ainit the Brownists. f Life of Ainsworth, p. 6?. 


William Pemble, A. M. — This learned diyine -was the 
son of a minister, born at £gerton in Kent, in the year I59f, 
and educated in Magdalen college, Oxford, where Mr. 
Richard Capel was his tutor. From a child he was trained 
up in good literature, and profited in all kinds of know- 
ledge, more than most others. From the tender years of 
infancy he was constantly taught in the school of ChrisI; 
so that, under the influence of divine grace, together with 
the sanctified use of his manifold afllictions and temptatioiu, 
he attained a high degree of heavenly wisdom. Thongb 
he was young in years, he ofiered to God a more excellait 
sacrifice than many of his elder brethren.* At the univeisitf 
he acquired a most distinguished reputation, and became a 
celebrated Ireader of divinity in Magdalen college. Ae^ 
cording to our author, ^' he was a zealous Calvinist, a 
famous preacher, an excellent artist, a skilful linguist, s 
good orator, an expert mathematician, and an ornament to 
the society to which he belonged." Adrian HeereboiMd, 
the famous professor of philosophy at Leyden, was verf 
profuse in the commendation of his learning and learned 
works.f Another writer observes, ^^ that he thoroughly 
traced the circle of the arts; and attained a degree 
of eminence, not only in the sciences, but even in 
those more sublime speculations of which many sire not 


Magdalen college was the veiy nursery of puritans* 
Mr. Pemb^e was justly denominatedf one of them, thondi he 
did not carry his nonconformity, in certain points, quite so 
far as some of his brethren. He laboured openly to 
promote the reformation of the church, and encouraged the 
relaxation of subscription and other points of conformilj. 
fie was tutor to many puritans, who afterwards becanM 
distinguished ornaments for learning, piety, and usefulneeik 
This divine, with many others, afibrds sufficient proof fluit 
the puritans were not all unlearned, or at all inferior m 
learning to those who conformed.^ 

Mr. Pemble going on a visit to Mr. Capel, formerly hb 
tutor, but now minister at £astington in Gloucesteishuo^ 
was taken ill, and died at his tutor's house, in the thirtv* 
second year of his age. His remains were interred in m; 

• Pemble's Works, Prcf. EdiL 1627. 
i- Wood's Atbeoae Oxon. vol. i. p. 405. 
1 Pemble on JustificatioD, Pref. Edit. 1625. 
MS. Chronology, vol. ii. p. 705. (4.) 


Anrch-yard at that place, and over his grave was the 
Ulowiiig plain monumental inscription : 

Here lieth 

the Body of 

William Pemble, 

Master of Arts aDd Preacher, 

who died April 14, 


He left the world in the comfortable and full persuasion 
Nf jostifiication by faith in the righteousness of Jesus Christ.* 
lishop Wiikins, in his list of the most excellent sermons 
a his time, includes' those of Mr. Femble.f 

Bis Works.—-!. A Treatise of Justification by Faith, 1625^— 
L A Treatise of Providence. — 3. The Book of Ecclesiastes Ex- 
ruined, 1628. — 4. A Plea for Grace, more especially the Grace of 
^aitii, 1629.— 6. An Exposition of the first Nine Chapters of Zecha- 
iah, 1629.-6. Five godly and profitable Sermons, 1629.— 7. Fruitful 
knnons on I Cor. xv. 18, 19., 1629.-8. An Introduction to the 
SViprthy Receiving of the Lord's Supper, 1629. — 9. De formarum 
itkine, 1629.— 10. De Senibus intemis, 1629.-11. A Sum of Moral 
^iuktoophy, 1630.— 12. The Period of the Persian Monarchy, 1631.— 
13. Enchmdion Oratorium, 1633. — 14. An Introduction to Geography, 
1086.— ^The above articles in English were collected and published 
D fme Tohune iblio, 1635, being much esteemed and often reprinted. 

John Sprint, A. M. — This learned person was the son 
tf Dr.. John Sprint, dean of Bristol, a frequent Calyinistic 
macher; was bom in or near that city, and educated in 
!3iiisf 8 Chupch, Oxford. After taking bis degrees in arts, 
le became vicar of Thornbury in (Gloucestershire; but 
Aerwards lemoyed to London, where he became a very 
)opiilar preacher. Wood says, ^' he was a grave and 
lioiis divine, but for the most part disaffected to the ceremo- 
lies of the church of England, at least, while he continued 
It Thornbury. He was, indeed, called in question for 
Ittering certain things against the ceremonies and discipline 
f the established church." This writer also adds, that he 
lot only conformed himself, but was the great instrument 
^persuading others to do the same, by his book, called 
^ Gusander Anglicanus." Fullers says, he put in the one 
cde the woe pronounced against those who preach not the 
[ospel, or desert their flocks upon pretended scrupulosity ; 
od in the other, the nature oi those ceremonies that were 
ngoined by lawful authority ; and finding the former to 
iieponderate, he concluded it to be unlawful, on any such 

• Wood's AthcM, wfAf i. p. 405. i Wnkins on Preachiof , p. 89, 89. 

roh. II. X 


tccotmt, for any me to leave or lose his miniiterial finie^ 
tion.* Dr. Calainy, baying mentioned Mr. Sprint^t ^ 0» 
gander Anglicanus,*' addf, <^ I think it not improper to 
communicate to the world a paper concerning iL whidi im 
written by the hand of his own son ; a copy of which wm 
sent me by the grandson of the author, with assurance that 
it was drawn up by his fother, Mr. Samuel Sprint of 
Tidworth/* The paper was as follows : 

1. ^< This book meddles not with subseriptum^ but di^ 
claims it, p. 237. 

3. ^^ In all the arguments, it supposeth, that the oeraMh 
nies imposed are inconyeniencies, and the churches budeoL 

3. ^' By the quotations, p. 194, 196, and elaewhcie^ he 
adyiseth us to bear witness against thenu and to e3EpreBB our 
dissent from them, and then conform : Wnich is not to utMSf y 
and much less, to declare our unfeigned assent^ as wdl ai 
consent to them. 

4. '^ Bishop Laud said, < It had been no great mafiai if 
this book and the author had been burnt tog^er/ 

5. << This book is not fully comprehensiyeof the anthof'i 
judgment : for, besides what is extant of his in print, (Vil 
his < Bellum Cercmonialc,* printed by another,) and idnt 
he hath left in manuscript, this book, as he hath acknow- 
ledged to his acquaintance, hath buffered much by the h^mds 
of the bishop's chaplain, who was appointed the leyiici of 
books to be printed."f 

From this account, and eyeii from the words ci Foliar, 
as cited above, it appears that Mr. Sprint was a puritaa in 
principle and a nonconformist in practice ; cmly he wodd 
conform, and recommended others to conform, rather ihiB 
suffer deprivation • ^^ To speak my free thoughts/' ohserm 
Calamy, ^^ I take that book of Mr. Sprint's to be a ddeace 
of occasional conformity to the church, in eyideqce </ 
charity, while a testimony is publicly borne against id 
remaining corruptions ; rather than a plea for entire coD' 
formity."^ He was a man of excellent wisdom and md 
moderation. He died in London, May 7, 1683, and liii 
remains were interred at St. Ann's, Blackfiriars, when kf 
appears to have been for some time minister. Mr. Saanrf 
Sprint and Mr. John Sprint, jun. both gected in IDGty 
were his sons^S 

His Works. — 1. Propositions tending to prove the neeessny V* 
of the Christian Sabbath, or Lord's Day, 1007.-2. The praefis^ ' 

• Wood's Atheoas, vol. i. p. 406.~Faner'8 Worthies, part i. p.M. 

f Calamy's Account, vol. ii. p. S4S. 

± Moderate Noncjonforinity, vol. i. p. 27. Edit. ITQS. 

^ Pahner*8 l^oncon. Mem.^o\» u. ^. HSfit^ 466. 




J, GEE. 30T 

^mt Sacred Day, framed after the Rules of God's Word, 1607.-0. The 
fl^m of Christian Religion by way of Question and Answer, 1613.^^ 
4^ Cassander Anglicanus: or, the Necessity of Conforming to the 

r»eribed Ceremonies of the Church, in case of Deprivation, 1618. 
The Christian's Sword and Buckler ; or, a Letter sent to a Man 
ivren yean gricTOusly afliicted in Conscience and fearfully troubled 
kk Mind, 1638. — 6. Bellum Ceremoniale, already mentioned. 

John Gee, A. B. — This zealous person was the son of a 
minister, born in Devonshire, in the year 1597, and educated 
first in Brazen-nose college, then in Exeter college, Oxford. 
Bntering uponi the ministerial work, he was beneficed 
■t Newton, near Winwick, in Lancashire. Being at this 
period much inclined to popery, he left the place, and 
wtired to London, where he became intimately acquainted 
vith several leading persons of the popish persuasion. 
October S6, 16IS3, Mr. Gee was in the assembly of above 
throe hundred persons, collected in an upper room, in 
Blackfnars^ London; when, about the middle of the 
•eimon, the flool: giving way, Drury, the Roman catholic 
wiestp And nearly one hundred of the congr^ation. Were 
iSUed, and many others severely bruised.* This he con- 
«dered a most alarming and awakening providence. 
Steving already received many urgent letters from bis 
fiilher,' and by means of a conrcrence which he had with 
Archbishop Abbot, he renounced the errors of popery, and 
became a zealous protestant. Some, it is said, thought he 
became too xealous a protestant. For he embraced the 
principles (^ the puritans, and wrote with great spirit and 
'iriUlity against the papists, exposing their errors and 
froeistitions. The papists, however, in return, loaded him 
''inth much slander and abuse. After renouncing popery, 
ke preached at Tenterden in Kent,- where he died, but at what 
particular time we are not able to learn.f He had a younger 
bvolhar, called Orlando Gee, who was afterwards knightra. 

His Works. — 1. The Foot out of the Snare, with a Detection of 

ffll■ildl7 late Practices and Impostures of the Priests and Jesuits in 
Sogland, 1624.— 2. A gentle Excuse to Mr. Greg. Musket for 
ing him Jesuit, 1624. — Both these passed through four editions 
year. — 3. Hold fast, a Sermon at Paul's cross, on Rev. iii. 11., 
U24^-«4. New Shreds of the old Snare, containing the Apparitions of 
two Female Ghosts, the copies of divers Letters, and Indulgences 
purchased at Rome, 1624. 

* Princess Worthies of DeTon, p. SS8, 339. 
f Wood's Athene Ozoo. vol. i. p. 487. 


John Knbwstubs, B. D.— This learned dirine wa» iMhri 
at Kirkby Stephen in Westmoreland, in the year I540, and 
chosen fellow of St John^s college, in the universi^ of 
Cambridge,* where he was much esteemed for his gmt 
piety, abilities, and learning. During his abode in the 
university, he united with Dr. Andrews, afterwards hiahap 
of Ely, Dr. Chadderton, Mr. Culverwell, Mr. Carter, and 
other distinguished persons, in the observance of weeUj 
meetings for conferoioe upon certain portions of scripture. 
These meetings were conducted with great decorum, aad 
found of signal advantage to all. > 

In the year 1579, Mr. iCnewstubs, upon his removal frOD 
Cambridge, became minister at Cockfield in Suffolk. Heie 
he was labouring in the vineyard of Christ, when msif 
ministers, from the counties of Norfolk, Suffolk, and Cam- 
bridge, assembled in his church to confer about the Book 
of Common Prayer, with the view of coming to an agree- 
ment concerning what things might be tolerated, aind what 
were to be refused. They consulted also abotit the derical 
apparel, holidays, fasts, injunctions, and other mattonkt 
Dr. Heylin says, this meeting was held May 8, 1588.t . • 

In the year 1583, upon the publication of Whitgi&'s 
three articles, Mr. Knewstubs and sixty other ministeisof^ 
Suffolk, whose names are now before me, were not icadtviSi 
to subscribe, and, for further satisfaction, wrote to their 
diocesan, desiring the resolution of their doubts, some 
of which were the following : — << The administration of 
baptism in private. — The use of the cross in baptisn]>f- 
The interrogatories proposed to the infants.— Tte burial 
service, requiring us to commit to the ground aO ekof 
ractersj in sure and certain hope of the resurrection to eternal 
life. — ^And the reading of apocryphal books in public 
worship, to the exclusion of some parts of canonical scrip- 
ture."^ Their application, however, proved unsucceaMl^ 
and they were all suspended from their ministerial wolk^ 
upwards of forty of whom received the ecclesiastical censuic 
on one day.|| 

This excellent divine being laid aside from his bdovefl 
work, the Lord Treasurer Burleigh wrote to him and Mir. 
John Oxeiibridge, another suspended minister, requesting 
them to declare, '' That tliey would use the Bodk ^ 
Common Prayer; and that in their public ministry thej 

* Peck's Desiderata Curiosa, vol. i. b. vi. p. 28. 
-f FaUer's Church Hist. b. iz. p. 1S5. 
} Heylio's Hist, of Pres. p.S92, 
S MS. Register, p. 434» 435. 
fIt>'d*P- 436,437. 


Woilild not preach against it." Upon the reception of this, 
fkey returned his lordship the foUoHving open and generous 
declaration, earnestly soliciting his favourable attention to 
their case, as the silenced ministers of Christ : — ^' Right 
llQQOurable and very good lord,'^ say they, ^' we find it is 
jroar lordship's pleasure that we should declare in writing 
mir consent to these two points : That we will use the Book 
of Ck>mmon Prayer ; and that we will not inveigh against 
it in our public ministry. — In the first place, as we have 
bitherto used the said book in our public worship, so we 
do purpose to use it, and no other, except some other shall 
be established by public authority. And, secondly, we 
always have had a special regard, both in our publiq 
liptinistry and private life, for the peace of the church and 
oar duty to her majesty, and to walk in all quiet and 
christian behaviour towards all who use the book in some 
Uungs more strictly than we can do : and we mean always 
to act thus in future. 

** Seeing these are the things which your honour thinketh 
,good to request at our hands, we most humbly beseech 
your lordship's favour, that we may be relieved from that 
sabscription, which, as we verily think, the states of the 
realm have not required of us ; and that . we may be 
restored to our ministry, as in times past. Which, if we 
obtaiii, we shall be bound both to praise God for your 
clemency and to pray for the increase and continuance of 
jrour honour's estat&^and happiness,"* 

It dors not appear how long these learned divines 
remained under the bishop's censure, nor whether their 
wplication to the treasurer proved at all available. Mr. 
Knewstubs joined with his brethren in subscribing the 
" Book of Discipline." He laboured with great zeal and 
moderation to carry on the work of reformation in the 
church, and frequently met with his brethren at their asso- 
ciations in the counties of Suffolk, Norfolk, and Cambridge. 
Being a known and decided nonconformist, though a man 
of no severe principles, his house was narrowly watched, 
and afterwards strictly searched, by the prelate's officers.+ 

In the year 1603, Mr. Knewstubs was one of the puritan 
jdivines appointed by King James to attend the Hampton- 
court conference. He signified, on this occasion, his 
olgections against the interrogatories in baptism. But Dr. 
Barlow, who published '^ The Sum and Substance of the 


• MS. IUsist«r, p. 587, 688. f MS. Chrooolof y, vol. il. p. SOS. (4.) 


Conference," instead of informing us i?hat he said iipoB 
this point, is pleased to observe, that his discourse was » 
extremely perplexed that it was very difficult to be under^ 
stood.* This, surely, is a short and easy method of answer- 
ing an argument, and of reproaching an adversary. Mil 
Knewstubs also excepted against the cross in baptism ;i 
because, as he observed, it gave offence to many weak 
brethren, contrary to Rom. xiv. and 3 Cor. viii., wherp 
their consciences are not to be offended. He inqniied 
whether the church had power to add external si^ijGcaiit 
signs. Then, if it had such power, whether it might add 
them where Christ hath already ordained one. To attempt 
this, appeared to him no less derogatory to the institution of 
Christ, than if any person in the land should presume io 
add his own seal to the great seal of England. But if the 
church had this power also, Mr. Knewstubs further inquired, 
How far is such an ordinance to bind us, without impeach- 
ing our christian liberty ? The king, hearing this, was 
greatly moved, and said it smelt rankly of anabaptism; 
and, therefore, he would not arffue the point with him ! ^^ I 
will," added his majesty, "have one doctrine, cme dis- 
cipline, and one religion, in substance and in ceremony; 
and, therefore, I charge you never more to speak upon that 
point, how far you are to obev, when the church hath 
ordained it!"{ Such was the logic of that prince who 
was styled the Solomon of the age ! 

Towards the close of the conference. Dr. Chadderton 
having requested that the wearing of the surplice, and the 
use of the cross in baptism, might not be urged upon 
certain pious and painfid ministers in Lanca^ire, Mc 
Knewstubs, upon his knees, requested the like favour and 
forbearance for certain of his brethren in Suffolk, ^saying, it 
would be much against them to require these things. 
** Sir," replied the king, " you shew yourself to be uncha- 
ritable. We have taken pains, and in the end have con- 
cluded on unity and uniformity ; and you, forsooth, must 
prefer the credit of a few private men, before the peace 

• Barlow'f Account, p. 163. 

f He might with propriety have asked, Why may not any other sign be 
used in baptism, as well as the sign of the cross ? If ft Ittd been said, 
Becaose oor Saviour was crucified upon the cross i lie might have inqaired 
of what shape- or figure was the Saviour's cross ; lesl, itf nuULing the sign of 
. it, they should not make the sign of that cross, bat of some other. ,BjiA how 
shall we know the exact flgnre of our Saviour's cross ? The originl word, 
as used in the New Testament, according to the opinion of the learned, 
signifies a stake or jsosi, as well as a cross. . . 

t Ibid. p. 164—160. 


of Ae church. I will none of that ; and^ therefore, let them 
4Bither conform themselves, and that sIuHtlj, or they shall 
hou of it ^* Some further account of this mock confei^^tce^ 
at it is very oommonly and very justly denonunated, iy 
ghren in andher place.t 

Mr. Knewstubs was a learned and cdebrated diviMe, and 
Aott^ the productions of his pen do not appear to ha^e 
been very numerous, Fuller denominates him one of thf 
faanied writers of St. John^s coll^, Cambridge.^ H« 
eontinued his zealous and faithful ministry at Cockifield Uk 
Ihft day of his death, haying laboured at that place forty-fiv« 
▼ears. He died May S9, 1624, aged eighty years, when 
his remains were interred at Cockfidd, and over hm grare 
m monumental inscription was erected to bis memofy, of 
vrliich the following is a translation i^ 

In Memory 
of that most hvmbie 
' and -Affectionate ServanI of Cod, 

John Knbwstubs, 

forty-five years the very watcliful 

and fiuthful pastor of the chtirch of CockfieM; 

« teacher ef the church, and an exeeUent scholar; 

a firm asserter and defender of Christian Truth, 

the wholesome doctrines of the Gospel, 

and uncormpted Religion, 

liyainst the Roman Antichrist and his emissaries. 

He bravely withstood the storms of life, 

and patiently endured the greatest sufferinfs 

for the glory of God. 

At length, worn out with infirmitiety 

in the 80th year of his age, 

wkh divme serenity, 

^ he withdrew from this mortal life, 

and entered the celestial Country, 

on the 29th of May, 1624. 

As there are 

never-fading momimencts of bis Genius, 

lest posterity should wish 

for some memorial of his body also ; 

this Monument, 

too small for so great a man, 

contains the mortal part of 

John Knewstubs. 

Friends maye awile by Arte our Yiewe commende. 
But tys not longe eare all Thinges heere shall ende. 
The Arte of Artes is so to ly ve and dye. 
As we may ly ve in Heav'n eternally. 

. • Barlow's Account, p. 176, 177. f See Art. Dr. John iUiaoldSi 

i Faller't Hist, of Cambridge, p. 9&. 
S Peck's Dcitderata Curioiay vol. i. b. vi. p. SS. 



M ri' Knewstubs is classed among the generous beiiefactav 
of St. John's college, Cambridge. September 1, IGSS, he 
founded two exhibitions tor two poor scholars ; for wiuch • . 
purpose he gave to the college eleven pounds a year, oat 
of certain lands, called squires' lands, at Southminster aiM| 
Steeple in Essex. He appointed twenty shillings of tbtf 
annuity for the use of the college, and ten pounds for two 
poor scholars, to be elected at the general election oischciaaif 
one of them to be out of the north, the, other from the sooth. 
The former of these was to be a person bom within tb 
parish of Kirkby Stephen ; or, in case of the want of sadi 
a one, any one born in the county of Westmoreland^or 
educated in the school at Kirkby Stephen : but in the wiiit 
of such a one, then a person to he chosen out of the school 
at Appleby. The scholar from the south was to be a penbt 
born within the parish of Cockfield in Suffolk ; and in the 
want of such a one, then a person to be chosen from the 
school at Sudbury. He appointed the nomination of the 
one to the vice-chancellor, or the incumbent of Kirkby 
Stephen and the schoolmaster for the time being ; and of tte 
other* to the incumbent of Cockfield for the time being. 
He further ordered, that if either of the scholars should oe 
absent from the college upwards of fifty days together, the 
allowance, during that period, shoulci go to the use at the 
coll<*ge ; and if absent ninettf-one days, he should forfeit his 

His Works. --r I. A Confutation of certain Monstrous and Horrible 
Heresies, taught by H. N. (Henry Nichols) and embraced by a 
number who call themselves The Family ofLove^ 1579. — ^2. Lectiurei 
on Various Portions of Scripture, — 3. An Answer to certain Asser- 

Richard Crakenthorp, D. D. — This learned divine 
was born of respectable parents near Strickland in West- 
moreland, in the year 1577, and educated in Queen's 
college, Oxford, where he was chosen fellow. About the 
year 1603, he became chaplain to Lord Eyers, in his 
mission as ambassador to the court of Germany, by which 
be became acquainted with many persons celebrated for 
learning, and visited several of the ibreign universities. 
Upon his return to England he became chaplain .in 
ordinary to King James; and, by the favour of Sir John 
Levesen, was presented to the rectory of Black-Notely, 

• Baker*s MS. CoUec. vol. xziii. This Tolame Is not pag*^* 



^near Bmintree iin Essex. In the year 16 17, he became 
WqtoF of Packekham.* 

r This learned divine attempted to vindicate the famous 
^Dr. John ilainolds from i;he reproachful imputation of 
buritanism, but evidently with very little success,; and, in 
met, while he laboured to clear his friend and favourite of 
die reproachful charge, he was himself found guilty. He 
was justly denominated a puritan, as well as Rainolds* 
The Oxford historian says, " he was a noted preacher, a 
profound disputant, and a good divine, and was greatly ad- 
mired and venerated by all great men, especially by those of 
the puritanical party, being himself a zealot among them." 
He.further adds, '' that Dr. Crakenthorp was esteemed by 
nost to have been replenished with all kinds of virtue 
•Qd learning; to have been a profound philosopher and 
4heQlogian, a great canonist, and so familiar in the fathers^ 
<souncils, and schoolmen^ that scarcely any in his time went 
beyond him ; and that few authors have written with greater 
diligence and success."+ He died at Black-Notely, says 
ihis writer, ^^ for want of a bishopric," as King James used 
to say in reproach of such men; and his remains were 
interred in the chancel of the church at that place, 
November 25, 1624, aged forty-seven years. Dr. John 
Barkham, dean of Bocking, preached his funeral sermon, 
BMkd gave the deceased high commendations tor learning 
and piety. Dr. Crakenthorp sometimes preached the 
sermon at Paul's cross, and one or more of these sermons 
was afterwards published* 

His Works. — 1. Sermons on several Occasions, 1608. — 2, Jns- 
iinjan the Emperor defended, against Card. Baronius, 1616. — 
9. Introductio in Metapbysicam, 1619. — 4. A Defence of Constan- 
tine, with a Treatise of the Pope's Temporal Monarchy, 1621.— 

5. Logicae libri quinque, de praedicalibus, prsedicamentis, etc., 1622,-^— 

6. Tractatas de Providentia Dei, 1622. — 7. Defensio Eccl. Anglicanae 
eoDtra M. Anton, de Dominis Archcp. Spalatensis injurias, I626.J — 
0. Yirgelios dormitans; or, a Treatise of the first <^eneral Conncii 
keld at Constantinople, an. 563, under Justinian the Emperor, 1631.-^ 
^ough he left numerous manuscripts, it does not appear whether 
Muy other articles were ever published. 

• Newcoprt's Repert. Eccl. vol. ii. p. 443,459. 
f Wood's Atbenae Ozod. vol. i. p. 417,418. 

J Arcbbishop Abbot caUs this work ** the most exact piece of cootro« 
vcny since the reformatioo."— X/ci^A 011 Rtligion and Ltarning, p. 172. 


Walter TbaybrS) B. D. — ^This celebrated divine wm 
educated in Trinity college, Cambridge; whoe he tod^ 
hif degrees in arts, and was incorporated in tiie same i^ 
Oxford. Aflerwaids he travelled to GSeneva, whore he 
formed an intimate and abiding acquaintance with Ben aid 
other learned, divines. Upcm his return to Cambridge^ 
where he remained for some time, he took his degree ii 
divinity. In 1572, he was member of the first presbyteriaa 
church in Eln^land, erected at Wandsworth in Survey.* 
While the prelates rigorously imposed subscription upai 
ministers, and lequirra an exact conformity to the esteb- 
lisbed church, many learned persons, who had aHMcientioH 
objections against the English mode of ordination, weot 
abroad to Middleburg, Antwerp, and other plaon, and 
received ordination according to the foreign reforraed 
churches ; which, in their opinion, was much inore agrees 
able to the word of God. Among those whose confio* 
tions led them to adopt this course was Mr. Travels, who 
went to Antwerp, and was there ordained by the piesb^rterv. 
His honourable testimonial, dated May 14, 1578^ is tie 
fdlowing :f — ^< For as much as it is just and reasauaUe, 
^ ^ that such as are received into the number of the mimsters 
^^ of God's word should have a testitnonial of theur vooa- 
^ tion ; we declare, that, having called together a synod of 
^< iwehe ministers of God's word, and almost the sane 
" number of elders, at Antwerp, on May 8, 1578, our voy 
*' learned, pious, md excdO/egd brother, the reverend Doctor 
^ GauUer Traversy was, by the unanimous votea and ardent 
^ desires of all present, received and instituted into the 
'^ ministry of God's holy word, and confirmed according 
^ to our accustomed manner, with prayer and impositioa 
^ of hands ; and the next day after the sabbath, having 
^< preached before a full congregation o( EngUshj at the 
^^ request of the ministers, he was acknowledged and 
^' received most afiectionately by the whole church. That 
*^ Almighty God would prosper the ministry <^ this our 
^' reverend brother among the English, and attend it wiOi 
^^ great success, is our most earnest prayer, through Jesoi 
** Christ. Amen. 

" Given at Antwerp, May 14, 1578, and signed, 

" Johannes Taffinus, V. D. M. 


" Johannes Hochelcus^ V. D. M.** 

* See Art. Jobo Field. f Faller'i <;bHrch Hilt. b. ix. p. 914. 


' Mr. Traters, soon after his ordination, became assistant 
to Mr. Cartwri^bt, then preacher to the English merchants 
at Antwerp. He was a person highly distinguished foe 
prudence, learning, and piety; and, therefore, upon his 
letam to England, the Lord Treasurer Burleigh made 
dioice of him for his domestic chaplain, and as tutor to his 
son Robert, afterwards Earl of Ssdisbury. The treasure 
was, indeed, a constant friend and patron of the ncHicon- 
fonnisfs, and discovered his affectionate regard for them 
through the whole of his life.* In the face of the whole 
nation, therefore, he countenanced this learned and excel- 
lent divine, and received him into his family, notwith- 
ftending his nonconformity. Mr. Travers could not' 
conscientiously subscribe ; on which account he was inca- 
'pable of any considerable preferment in the church, whicb^ 
we nmy suppose, his noUe patron was ready to bestow 
upon mm. The lecturer's place at the Temple becoming 
tacant, the learned gentlemen of that society invited htm 
to accmt it ; and, as no subscription was requisite for that 
^office, ne complied with their invitation. 

In the year 1584, a short time before Dr. Alvey, master 
of the Temple, closed his eyes in death, the doctor, with 
tl|e learned gentlemen of that society, recommended Mr. 
TVaveiB for his successor. Dr. Alvey the master, and Mr. 
Travers the lecturer, lived together some years in great 
amity and love. They mutually united in carrying on 
the wcMrk of reformation in the place; and, with much 
seal, wisdom, and resolution, they joined in promoting 
true christian piety among the learned benchers, by whom ^ 
they were both very highly esteemed.f The above recom- 
mendation was presented to the treasurer, who communicated 
.the same to the queen, signifying to her majesty his appro- 
bation of their choice. But, by the powerful endeavours 
.and superior influence of Archbishop Whiteift* he was 
rejected, and Mr. Richard Hooker, author of ^^ Ecclesiastical 
'Polity," was nominated to the office. Whitgift most vi- 
gorously opposed the admission of Mr. Travers, and signified 
to the queen, ^' that he was one of the principal authors 
of dissention in the church ; that h^ contenmed the Book 
of Common Prayer, and other orders as by authority 
-established; that he sought to promote innovation; and 
that he was only ordained abroad, and not according to the 
fonn of the church of England." Mr. Travers, however, 

.• MS. Chronology, toI. ii. p. ilS. (14.) 4^ Ibid. p. 431. (&) 


{'ustified himself against all the false charges which iren 
wrought (u^inst him, and proved, at some length, th^ 
validity of his ordination.* 

During the above year, our learned divine was engnged 
in a public conference holden at Lambeth. The first d'ty's 
conference, December 10(h, was betwixt Archbishop Whttr 

fift and the Bishop of Winchester, on the one part ; and Mr. 
Vavers and Dr. Thomas Sparke, on the other, in the pm- 
senre of the Earl of Leic* sler. Lord Gray, and Sir Francis 
Walsingham. The subject of discussion was confined to 
those things in the Book ot Common Prayer which appeared 
to n quire a refbrmatio.'i. The conference whs opened by 
the following declaration made by the archbishop :— ^< Mj 
lord of Leicester having requestcMl, for his own satisfactiooi 
to hear what the ministers could reprove, and how their 
objections mi^ht be answered, I have granted his reqaeit 
Let us then hear \^hat things in the Book of ConimaB 
Prayer you thirsk ought to be mended. You now appear 
before me, not judicially, nor as called in question bj 
authority, but by way of conference. You snail, there^ 
fore, be free (speaking in duty) to charge the book with 
those things in which it is faulty." 

Though the conference is of considerable length, the 
substance of it will, no doubt, be gratifying to.the inquisitive 
reader. Whitgift, therefore, having finished, Dr. Sparke 
replied as follows : — ^' We give most humble and heaitj 
thanks to Almighty God, and to these honourable penoos, 
that alter so many years, wherein our cause could never be 
admitted to an impartial hearing, it hath pleased God of 
his gracious goodmss so to order things, that we now 
enjoy that equity and favour, before such honourable 
personages, as may be a worthy means with her most 
excellent majesty, ol promoting a further reformation of 
such things as are needful : and that it is now lawful for us 
to declare freely, for the satisfaction of those in authoritv> 
what things ought to be reviewed and reformed in the 
public service of God. As the (avourible issue depends 
on the blessing of God, I desire, bef • e we proceed further, 
that we may seek his gracious direction and blessing.!' 
Then attempting to begin to pray, the archbishop inter- 
rupted him, saying, ^^ You shall make no prayers ^esfy 
You shall not turn this place into a conventicle J*^ 

The two chief points which these divinea mfgA 

, « Strype's WJiitsiH, p. 113—1 70, 


i^ifaifist the Book of Common Prayer, were, << Its ap* 
pointing certain apocryphal writings to be read in public 
Worship, in which were several errors and false doctrines, 
and omitting many parts of canonical scripture : and, the 
doctrine of the sacraments/* Concerning the first, they 
observed, that to appoint various parts ot the apocrypha 
t6 be tead publicly in the church, and omitting many p'lrts 
of the Old and New Testament, made the apocrypha equal, 
lihd bven superior, to the canonical scriptures ; to which 
the archbishop made the following reply : 

Ardhbishop. The books called apocrypha, are, indeed, 
parts of the holy scripture. They have been read in 
the churbh in ancient times, and ought to be now read 
among us, 

Travers. The title of holy scripture is that by which the 
Holy Ghost distinguisheth the canonical scriptures from 
the apocrypha, and all other writings. This appears irom 
Romans i. And such are the holy scriptures alone, as werd 
given by the inspiration of God. Phis appears from 
2 Tim. iii., 2 Pet. i. 

A. The apocrypha was given by the inspiration of God; 
Us were also whatsoever the heathens have written well. 

T. In the general sense of the word inspiratioriy 'wha.t 
you have said of the apocyrpha is true. For no man can 
say that Jesus is the Lord, but by the Holy Ghost. But 
the question relates to such ah inspiration as moved and 
governed the holy men of God, in reporting and setting 
aown those things in which they could not possibly err; 
and in this sense, the scriptures of the Old and New Testa- 
ment are holy, and given by the inspiration of God. Herein 
they widely differ from the apocrypha. 

A. You cannot shew that there is any error in the 
apocrypha. And it has been esteemed a part of the holy 
Bcnptures by the ancient fathers. 

T, If the apocrypha could not be charged with error, 
jd its authors were not so far directed by God, that they 
niight not have erred ; and it has not always had that credit 
in the church which you have represented. Jerome de- 
dareth that it was the opinion of the church, in his time, as 
Veil as his own opinion, that some things were fictitious. 
' A. Let us hear some of the errors in the apocrypha. 

Sparke. We mention Eccl. xlvi., where the writer, having 
commended Samuel for his numerous worthy deeds, addeth 
in the conclusion, that he also prophesied after he was dead. 
This is contrary to the sacred story, which declareth it not 


to baye been Samael, but a spirit raised by die wiidi| » 
iaming the appearance of Samuel.* 

Bis&p. Itit be no error in the canonical scriptoie cadiiy 
that which was raised up Samuel; then it could be noenv 
in Ecclesiasticus calling it Samuel. 

T. In the holy story it is plain that the spirit is calbd 
Samuel, beause it appeared like him, 9fi declared out of 
Peter Martyr ; but in Ecclesiasticus it is quite the contiwy* 
For the whole chapter is employed in commendation of tke 
true Samuel, for liis famous and worthy actions while lie 
lived; and then, to finish tlie praise due to so good a nan, 
it is added, that he also prophesied after his death. TUi^ 
therefore, could not apply to a spirit assuming his likieoai; 
but to Samuel himsclt, however contrary it is to soandgoqpd 
doctrine, and the true story of scripture. 

Earl of Leicester. Is the chapter giving thb account of 
Samuel one of those appointed by the nayer Book to be 
read in public worship ? 

A. Yes, it is. 

Lord Gray. What error will the people be in danger of, 
who hear this read, and believe it ? And is it an t^m to 
think that witches have power to raise the bodies cf tbe 

A. Whd:her they have or have not, such power is a 
question among the learned. 

S. In Judith, chap, ix., the doings of Simeon and Levi aie 
commended, which is directly contrary to Grenesis iliz.f 
where Jacob utterly condemns what they did. There nuut, 
therefore, in such repugnancy against the canonical |»iqp- 
tures, necessarily be an error in the apocrypha. 

B. Judith commends only the manner of the deed, and 
Jacob condemns only the deed itself. 

T. Jacob condemned what they did, not only in sub* 
stance, but in every circumstance, as wicked ana abomin* 
able. It was murder committed in wilful opposition agaiiui 
the eternal law of God ; and the circumstances under whidi 
it was committed, as well as the number who suflSendf 
greatly increased the aggravation of their crime. 

B. Comparing the words of Judith, where it is said, 
<^ God gave them the sword," with the case of Nebucha^^ 
nezzer, who is called the servant of God, tb^y did not de^^nre 
to be condemned. 

* Here the archbishop, in reply« read oat of bit note-book the ojpiniot 
of Peter Blartyr, who saiil, that the spirit la tli« mcred ttorj was dOki 
Bamael, beeavie It it^mtdiurht BsBuel. 


T. The eases ire t^ diflfffoit. In the ane, Simeon and 
Levi, beii^ private men, rose up against the magistrates; 
but in the oCner, Nebnchadnezzer, coming to destroy Jeru- 
salem, was their kin|r, to whom they were tributary, and 
to whom they swore obedience. In the one case, they were 
flojoumers in a strange country, and rose up and killed both 
the peorie and the magistrates of the country; but, in the 
othor, tae king Nebucnadneszer only punished those who 
lebelled again^ him. 

S. Frivute baptism appears, in several reelects, not agree- 
aUe to the word of Grod. It is private^ and perform^ by 
Iftymen^ yea, even by women; and the doctrine it implies, 
eireo that chUdren dying unbaptized are in danger of dam- 
nation, and that outwa^ baptism saveth the cMd that is 

A. The place is not of the substance of the ordinance^ 
It has been administered privately in time of persecution^ 
juid may be aigain. 

T. That is no part of the question. We are now speak- 
ing of baptism to be administered in time of peace. 

A. The persons, in like manner, are not of the sub- 
stance of baptism ; and in time of persecution, as well as in 
some other cases, private men have baptized, and may do it 
again. As for the baptism of women, though I would not 
allow them to baptize, neither doth the book appoint them 
so to do; yet I will not deny their baptism to be lawful. 1 
would raUier have a child so baptized than die without 
baptism. Though I do not affirm that children dying 
without baptism, will certainly be lost; jety because I 
should fear and doubt the safety of their state, I would 
have them baptized by a woman, rather than not at all.* 
(Here the first day's conference closed.) 

On December 12th they assembled again, when the lord 
treasurer and the archbishop of York were added to their 
number. When the company was assembled, Archbishop 
Whi%ift rehearsed what had been discussed on the first day, 
and then ordered Mr. Travers and Dr. Sparke further to 
enumerate their objections. But the recapitulation being 
▼ery partial and imperfect, Dr. Sparke made some amend- 
ment, by adding what his lordship had omitted. This beiDg 
done, they proceeded as follows : 

A. Ciprian and some other of the fathers vouch the apor 
Crypha as part of the holy scripture. 

• MS. Rcfbter, p. S0S--M8. 



T. Some of the fathers haying alleged the apociypha 'to 
belong to the holy scriptures, is not so strong a proof that 
it does belong to them, as the total sitence of Jesus Christ 
and his apostles is, that it does not. 

Lord Treasurer. That is no good argument. Yon can 
nev(T make a syllogism of that. 

T. Whatsoever our Saviour and his apostles alleged not, 
(allowing that they alleged all the prophets,) is na part of 
the prophetical writing. But it is true that oar Sayioor 
and his apostles alleged all the prophetical writings, and yet 
never alleged any of the apocryphal. Therefore, the apo- 
cryphal writings are no part of the prophetical. AUiie 
prophets from Samuel^ and those that follow after^ as numg 
as naze spoken j have foretold the daj/s of Christ. 

S. Romans, chap, iv., is so far mistranslated, that the 
meaning of the apostle is wholly perverted. For where 
the apostle saith, '' Cometh this blessedness upon the cit« 
cumcisian only, or upon the uncircumcisian also?" the 
book appointed to be used readeth the contrary: and 
Psalm cv., which in the original, and in all good translatioii^ 
it is, " They were not disobedient to his word : but in the 
Book of Prayer it is, " They were not obedient^^^ which is ill 
very opposite. 

A. There may be some ambiguity in the Hebrew .wonL 
This I cannot tell, having no knowledge of the langoage. 
You can tell. 

T. and S. There is no ambiguity at all in the word. 

A . In baptism there is nothing of the substance of that 
sacrament, but the element and the word. With regard to 
the place^ you will allow, that in time of persecution it is 
not unlawful to baptize in private places. 

T. The question applies to a peaceable state of the 
church, as that now enjoyed in the church of Elngland. 

A. In like manner the person is not of the substance of 
the sacrament ; but at some times, and in some cases, lay- 
men, yea, even women, may baptize. May not a christian 
baptize in time of persecution, or when living in the West 
Indies ? 

T. \'our remarks are not pertinent The question 
relates to a time of peace, and a christian country. But 
even in the cases you have supposed, it is not lawful for any 
one to minister the sacraments without some extraordinaiy 
call from God, or some ordinary call from the churdL 
This appears from Hebrews v., where it is said, *' No man 
taketh thi> honour to himself^ but he that is called of Grod, 
as was Aaron." 


' Ar May not a person, being a layman^ administer the 
communion to himself ? 

,,T, He cannot: nor could that be deemed a sacrament, 
because he is no minister. They who administer this ordi- 
nance according to its nature, and agreeable to the will of 
God, must have the authority and commission of God so to 
flo ; otherwise they are not within the promise of God, and 
there can be no sacrament. 

Archbishop of York. I disallow of private baptism 
ultogether, and have forbidden the use of it in ail my 
diocese. I have spoken to the queen about it, and I will 
not suffer it. 

- , A. Calvin held that baptism was necessary, and reproved 
Qie anabaptists for deferring it so long. 

T. Calvin did not otherwise account baptism necessary 
Qian it might not be omitted through neglect or contempt. 
He never acknowledged any other necessity, nor did any 
of the reformed churches abroad. 

S. Circumcision was the same to the Jews as baptism is 
fcous, which, by the appointment of God, was not to be per- 
Ifotmed till the child was eight days old ; and if that sacra- 
Qoent was so necessary as some suppose, the child was all 
Uiiatime in great danger. If the want of the sacrament of 
baptism expose the child to endless misery, it were better to 
liave it administered as soon as the child is born. 

A. As to the doctrine charged upon the necessity of 
Iifivate baptism, it is so guarded in the articles, as will 
vufficiently clear the church of England of those errors. 

T. The doctrine in the articles is good and holy ; but 
ttc necessity of baptism, as laid down in the Prayer Book, 
ii so great, that in a private place, by a private person, yea, 
vy a woman, in a settled and peaceable state of the church, 
it may b^ administered, when, at the birth of the chUd, there 
Iji not 80 much time as to repeat the Lord's prayer, lest the 
(V^uld should be dead ; nor, in some cases, hardly so much 
time as even to pour the water upon it, and to repeat those 
[%ords,: / baptize thee in the name of the Father^ &c. To 
Reconcile all this with the doctrines of scripture, appears 

S, The interrogatories proposed in baptism, and another 
Arson's saying for the child, I believe^ being a thin^ which 
ike child cannot do, is extremely repugnant to scripture* 
^ A. Augustin says, " The child may be said to believe, 
because it receives the sacrament of faith." 



S. /The qnetlion in baptism is asked before the saerainat 
is received. 

A. Because the child is in the action of receiving, it may 
be said to have received. 

T. This question and answer in baptism is an untratli; 
because the sponsor professeth, in the nameofthe child| 
that the child believeth, when in all ordinary cases it doei 
not, and cannot believe. 

A. The interrogatories are ancient ; aiid it was the cmlai 
in the primitive church to have sponsors, who, in the naas 
of the child, did promise and profess that the child M 

T. Can it then be credible to any man that children newlf 
bom do believe ? How can they believe that which tkf 
have not heard ? And if they had heard, how conld tbqr 
so understand, as with the heart to believe unto righteooi* 
uess? And concerning the cross in baptism, and otiNr 
ceremonies, were they ever so ancient, or ever so good il 
the institution, if they be now abused to idolatrv, and 
unnecessary, or of no use in the church, they ought to be 
abolished. This appears from the case cf the'bmoi 
serpent, which, though set up originally by the comnmd 
of God, and a monument of his special favour; yet, bftof 
abused to idolatry, w^is afterwards broken in pieces ana 
utterly destroyed ; and all this wns done according to tho 
will of God. So the cross, being never of any use in baiK 
tism, and bein^^ as much abus«*d to idolatry as ever tbe 
brazen serpent was, and alw-^ys tending to promote supw^ 
stition and give offence to persons or tender conscienan, 
surely it ought to be abolished. To impose the necesflQr 
of the cross in baptism, is not only unsupported by scriptu^ 
and wholly founded in superstition, but a dangerous hansa 
appendage added to what God has wisely and graciously 
appointed. And this is not my opinion only, but tbs 
opinion of the foreign reformed churches, as appears frodl 
tne Harmony of Confessions. 

A. Yon are wont to find fault with dumb ceremonies 
/and yon blame those which have any signification. Bat it 
the use of the cross, the learned Beza left the churches t^ 
their own liberty. 

Treasurer. That was wisely done. 

T. Beza would not condemn the churches for using iht 
cross, nor oppose their liberty. But his opinion is, tnatii 
ought to be abolished ; nay, he advisetb the ministers ti 


; forego their ministry, rather than subscribe to the allowance' 
of it. 

Leicester. It is a pUy that so many of the best ministers, 
and those who are the most painful preachers, have stood to 
■; be deprived for these things. 

T. My lord, we acknowledge that the peace of the 

- diurch ought to be dearer to us than our lives. But with 
1f|our lordship's favour, I must say, in coiiscience towards 

-:'6od^ and in the duty I owe to her excellent majesty, to 
^your' good lordships, and to the whole church and state, 
^•Ifaat Ifae ministers, in so doing, have acted well. The things 
lb which they were required to subscribe being so grievous, 
^Aey ought not to have yielded, though they were deprived 
^0f their ministry. 

^ A; From the letter of Dr. Ridley, now read to you, you 
^e that he approved of the habits. 
S. Mr. Fox, in his " Book of Martyrs,'* reporteth that 
"^ Ridley, at his degradation, scorned the habits, sayings 
'^ They sue foolish and abominable^ and too fond for a vice 
'in dplavr* 
^ ■•- A. r ou will call in question the authority and jurisdic- 

* ttm of the bishops, as well as many other things. 

L T. We object against the Prayer Book, because it allows 
^'ttid attempts to justify an insufficient ministry, directly 
? oonirar^ to the word of Qod. This appears from 1 Tim. iii. 

aind Titus i. 

Treasurer. What scripture is there to4)rove that he who 

tdiministers the sacraments should also preach ? 

. T. <^ Go ye, therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing 

- tfiem,'^ &c. And Jesus Christ having joined these things 

* tb^her, it is not lawful for men to put them asunder. 

* TMb is not our opinion only, but the opinion and practice 
f of all the foreign reformed churches. 

; A. The apostolic rule which you have alleged, is an idea 
^lif a minister. 

T. To make it merely an idea would overturn the re- 
t'Bgion of God's word ; because, for the same reason, the 
\ duties of magistrates, churches, parents, children, and all 
t^'t^dierB, might be made duties merely in idec^. 

Treasurer. That is impossible. 

T. If the churches, even in times of bloody persecution, 
■['fesve observed this order, that they who minister the sacra- 
!iiiBi(t$ shall also preach; it cannot be difficult for us in a 

* lee Fox's Acti and Monimeiiti of Martin, toI. Ui. p. 427. 


state of peace. (Here the conference closed, and the coia^ 

pany departed.)* 

Mr. Strype observes of this conference, that the ministen 
were convinced of their error, and persuaded to conform; 
but it is evident he knew not the persons, and he even BCf 
knowledg('s that he never saw the debate, f Mr. Traven 
continued a decided nonconformist to his death ; and Dr« 
Sparke appeared at the head of the nonconformists at tbl 
Hampton-court conference, nearly twenty years after this 
period 4 

Mr. Travcrs continued lecturer at the Temple, with Mr. 
Hooker the new master, about two years, though with very 
little agreement, the former being a strict Galvinistj and tbe 
latter a man of larger principles ; after which, he was at 
length brought into trouble. Many of their sermons were 
upon points of controversy, relative to the doctrine, disci* 
pline, and ceremonies of the church. The forenoon 
sermon often spoke the language of Canterbury, and ' 
the afternoon that of Geneva.^ Fuller observes of Mr. 
Travers, ^' that his utterance was agreeable, his gesture 
graceful, his matter profitable, his method plain, and hit 
style carried in it the flowings of grace from a sanctified 

• MS. Register, p. 508—514. 

+ Strype'i Wbitgift, p. 170. 

% Dr. Tbomas Sparke was boni at South Soiliereoatefl fn LincolofhirVv 
and was chosen perpetual fellow of Magdalen collm, Oxfdrd. He wif 
afterwards presented by Lord Gray to the rectory of Bliealbhley in BackiBf^ 
bamshire, where he was held in great esteem on account of his piety aad 
diligence. About the year 15*^5 he became chaplain to Bishop Cooper of 
Lincoln, who preferred him to the archdeaconry of Stow ; but this be re- 
signed ** for conscience sake," and contented himself with his pBraooife. 
He was a learned man, a Holid divine, well read in the fathers, and nacb 
esteemed for his gravity and exemplary life and conversation. He united 
with the leading puritans in subscribing thi^ '* Book of I>i8cipline.*' Fer 
writing a book upon the succession, in the days of Queen Elizabeth^ be wit 
brought into trouble; but, on the accession of James, '' his nia|esty gave 
him a most graciou<i countenance for what he had done." He' di<sfi ^ 
Bleachley in the year 1616, when his remains were interred In bis own' 
church. Wood denominates Dr. Rainolds and Dr. Sparke ** the pillan of 
puritanism, and the grand favourers of nonconformity.*' Bat Sparke 
afterwards renounced bis nonconformity, and published a book Upon the 
subject, entitled, *' A Brotherly Persuasion to Unity and Unifbtmity In' 
Judgment and Practice, touching the received and present Ecclesiastical 
Government, and the Authorized Kites and Ceremonies of the Charch of 
England," 1607 This ^as answered by *" The Second Fart of the De- 
fence of the Ministers* Reasons for refusal of Subscription and Confonaitj 
to the Book of Common Prayer," 1608. Also by a work entitled/' A. 
Dispute upon the Question of Kneeling in the Act of receiving tbe Sacn* 
meUtal Bread and Wine,''&c. leo^^-^fVood's Athetue Oxon. ▼©!. i. p. ' 
351, 358.— iVeafs VuritanSy vol. i. p. 423. 
S Walton's Life of Hooker, p. 90. Edit. 1665. 


_ • 

heart."* This is certainly a very high character ftom a 
zealous conformist. 

The sermon in the morning was oftentimes controverted 
in the afternoon, and again vindicated the following Lord's 
day. Mr. Hooker, therefore, complained of this usage, 
when Archbishop Whitgift, without the least warning, 
silenced Mr. Travers from preaching at the Temple, or at 
any other place in the kingdom. The manner in which the 
archbishop proceeded to inflict this heavy sentence, proved 
no small reproach to his episcopal character, and gave great 
offence to most men of wisdom and moderation. For as 
Mr. Travers was ascending the pulpit to preach on the 
liOrd's day afternoon, Whitgift's officer served him with a 
prohibitionon the pulpit-stairs ; upon which, instead of a 
termon, he acquainted the congregation with his suspension, 
and dismissed them. The reasons given for this proceeding 
were, << That Mr. Travers was not ordained according to 
the rites of the church of England. — That he had preached 
without a license. — That he had broken the orders of the 
queen, < That disputes should not be brought into the 
pulpit' "t But the chief reason, says Mr, Strype, was the 

Mr. Travers, in vindication of himself, presented " A 
Supplication to the Council," in whi^h he complains of being 
judged and condemned before he was heard 5 and of being 
silenced, which to him was the most grievous of all, before 
he was examined, contrary to reason and equity. He then 
proceeds to answer the objections alleged against him in the 
prohibition as follows : 

^< First, it is said, that I am not lawfully called to the 
. ninistry, according to the laws of the church of Kngland. 

** To this, I answer, that my call was by such methods as 
are appointed in the national synods of the foreign reformed 
churches, testin^onials of which I have shewn to iny lord • 
of Canterbury 5 so that if any man be lawfully called to the 
ministry in those countries, I am. 

<^ It is further said, that I am not qualiiied to be a minister 
'tn England, because I am not ordained according to the 
laws of this country. 

• *' I beseech your lordships <o weigh my answer. Such 
is the communion of saints, that whatever solemn acts are 
done in one true church of Christ, according to his word, 
are hdd lawful in all others. The making of a minister, 

• FuUcr's Church KhU b. ix. p. 216. + Ibid. p. «n.. 


being once lawfully done, ought not to be repeated. Thg 
pastors and teachers in the New Testament hold the same 
kind of calling that I had. To repeat our ordinal ion tiroiild 
make void our former ordination ; and, consequently, all 
such acts as were done in virtue of it, as baptisms, roarriageii 
&c. By the same rule, all people coming out of a forem 
land ought to be rebaptizi^ and married over again, ft- 
sides, by the statute of IS Eliz., those who have been ordained 
in foreign protcstant churches, upon their subscribing the 
articles therein specifiod, are qualified to enjoy afiy beneioB 
in the kingdom, equally with those who have been ordained 
according to tiie laws now in force ; which, seeing it com* 
prehends all who are priests according to the order of the 
church of Rome, must necessarily be as favourable to 
ministers who are ordained among foreign protestants. b 
consequence of this law, many Scots divines are now m 
possession of benefices in the church ; as was Mr. Whitting* 
ham, who, though he was called in question in this caic^ 
enjoyed his benefice as long as he lived. 

<^ It is, moreover, said, that I preached without present!* 
tion or license. 

<^ To this, I answer, that the place in which I exercised my 
ministry required no presentation, nor had I a title, nor did 
I reap any benefit by law ; but only received a volontsry 
CiHitribution, and was employed in preaching only : and as 
to a license, I was recommended to bo ministiT g£ that {dac^ 
by two several letters from the Bishop of £ondon to the 
gentlemen of the Temple, without which letters^ those 
gentlemen would not have permitted me to officiate. 

<< I am charged with indiscretion, and want of duty to 
Mr. Hooker ; and with breaking the queen's order against 
bringing disputes into the pulpit. 

<^ As to want of duty, I answer, though some have sus- 
pected my want of good-will to Mr. Hooker, because he sao 
ceeded Dr. Alvey in that place which I desired for myself; 
this is a mistake, for I declined the place, because 1 could 
not subscribe to my- lord of Canterbury's late articles, 
which I would not do for the mastership of the Temple, or 
any other place in the church. I was glad the place was 
given to Mr. Hooker, as well for the sake of old acquaint* 
ance, as because there is some kind of affinity between lU^ 
hoping we should live peaceably and amicably together, ai 
becometh brethren. But when I heard .him preadi against 
the doctrine of assurance, and for salvation in the church of 
Rome^ with all its errors and idolatry, I thought myself 

TRAVERS. 987* 

«l>Iig]ed to bppose him* And when I found it occasioned a 
pulpit war, 1 declared pubticiv that I would concern myself 
yio farther about it, though Mr. Hooker went on with tht 

;- f^ It is said that I should hare complained of him to the 
]|%h commission. 
• ^< To this, 1 answer, t&at it was not out c^ contempt or 
oeglect of lawful authority ; but because 1 was against all 
iBdliod» of severity ; and, therefore, I declared my reso* 
ktioa to trouble the pulpit'with those debates no more. 

'< Upon the whole, I hope it will appear to your lord- 
dups, that my behaviour has not deservea so severe a punish- 
woeni as ha& been inflicted upon me; and, therefore, I 
liiliiJ>ly pray that your lordships would restore me to my 
ministry, by such means as your wisdoms shall think fit : 
t}ii» will lay me under further obligations to pray for your 
temporal and eternal happiness. But if your lordships 
cannot procure me this favour, J recommend myself to youi 
kurdships' protection, under her majesty, in a private life; 
And the church to Almighty God, who in justice will 
pmush the wicked, and in mercy reward the righteous with 
% blessed immortality."* 

.. Mr* Hooker wrote an answer to the above supplication^ 
llddnesied to Archbishop Whitgift, his patron, in which he 
ifii^ no notice of Mr. Tnvers's ordination, but confines his 
toraiarks to his objections against his doctrine ; some of which 
he ^tempts to risfute, and complains in other cases of mis* 
mpxesentati(Hi. ^' But let all be granted that he would 
hare," says Mr. Hooker, " what will it advantage him t 
Heiought tohave complained to the high commissioners, 
^d not have refuted me in the pulpit. Schisms and dis- 
turbances will arise in the church, if all men may bb 


IPBAK WHAT THEY THINK. Therefore, by a decree agreed 
upon amonff the bishops, and confirmed by her majesty, it 
was ordered, that if erroneous doctrine was taught publicly, 
it should not be publicly refuted, but complained of tq such 
parsons as her majesty should appoint^ to hear and deter« 
mine such causes ; for the breach of which order, he is 
charged with want of duty ; and all the faults which he 
al^ses against me can avail nothing in his own defence."f 
- The brda of the council, to whom Mr. Travers presented 

• Traven*8 SapplicatioD, printed 1612.— And annexed to Hooker*t £ed« 
JTtolity. Edit. 1631. 

f Hooker*! Antwer annexed to Eccl. Polity. 


his supplication, did not, however, choose to interfere, M 
left him wholly to the unmerciful controul of the archbiBhop^ 
who c^uld never be prevailed upon to remove bis suqiet- 
sioii, or Ulciisc him to preach in any part of the kinffdom. 
Mr. Travers Jiad, indeecJ, many great and powerful memb 
at court, and even the lords themselves were greatly divided 
in their sentiments about his case ; and all who opposed 
Whitifift's intolerant measures were his zealous iriendi. 
But all power was in the hands of the archbishop, ^ wbott 
finger," as it is humorously expressed, '' moved more in^ 
ecclesiastical matters than all the hands of all the cooncil 
besides ; therefore, no favour must be afforded to Trayenon 
any terms."^ 

Mr. Travers had a principal hand in writing and publish- 
ing the celebratv-d work, entitled, ^' De Disciplina Ecckti- 
astica ex Dei verbo descripta," commonly called the ^ Book 
of Discipline." It was d( signed as a platform of choidi 
discipline, and subscribed by Mr. Tnivers and piany of his 
learned brethren.f It was translated into £Dglisb, and 
printed at Cambridge; but the vice-chancellor obtaiaiDj; 
intelligence of it, caused the whole impression, or the 
greatest part of it, to be seized, and announced the same to 
the chancellor, who communicated it to Archbishop Whit- 
gift: upon which his grace returned the following answer: 
'* That ever since they" had a printing prt^ss at Cambridge 
he feared that this and greater inconveniencies would folkw. 
Though the vice-chancellor was a very careful man, and in 
all respects greatly to be commended ; yet he might be suc- 
ceeded by one of another temper, not so well affected to the 
church, and that if he (the chancellor) thought fit to con- 
tinue that privilege to the university, sufficient bonds with 
heretics ought to be taken by the printer not to print any 
books unless they were allowed by lawful authority; 
for," says he, " if restraint be made here, and lib^y 
granted there, what good can be done?"t This zealras 
prelate was always a violent enemy to the liberty of the 
press. It may be proper here to observe, that, in the year 
1644, when the Book of Common Prayer was abolished by 
order of the parliament, th(* Book of Discipline was repub- 
lished, and appointed to be observed in all ecclesiastical 
matters. It was printed under this title, <^ A Directory of 
Gh>vemment anciently contended for; and, as far as the time 

• FnU^r's Cborch Hist. b. iz. p. S18. 
+ Neal's Puritans, vol. i. p. 423. 
t Biog. Britan. vol. vii. p. 4246. 

traVers. s^ 

-Would suffer, practised by the first nonconformists in the 
days of Queen Elizabeth, found in the study of that most 
accomplished divine, Thomas Cartwright, after hisi 
decease, and reserved to be published for such a time as 

About the time that Mr. Travers was silenced at the 
Temple, he was invited, together with Mr. Cartwright, ta 
become divinity professor in the university of St. Andrews; 
which he modestly refused, but returned his humble and 
thankful acknowledgments for so dignified an offer.* His 
celebrity was universally kn6wn, both in England and in 
other countries; therefore, Dr. Loftus, archbishop of 
Dublin and chancellor of Ireland, who had been his col- 
league at Cambridge, and who knew his great worth, invited 
him to accept the provostship of Trinity college, Dublin. 
Mr. Travers having no prospect of a restoration to hi» 
beloved ministry, or any farther public usefulness in his 
native country, accepted the invitation. He was greatly 
admired in his new situation, and had for one of his pupils 
Mr. James Usher, afterwards the famous archbishop of . 
Armagh, who entertained the highest esteem for him: Nor 
^id this esteem wear out by time, or decline by a change of 
circumstances ; for after Usher was preferred to a bishopric, 
and Travers was grown old and poor, the pious and learned 
prelate paid him several visits, offering him presents of 
money, which the good old man thankfully declined ta 
accept, f 

Mr. Travers continued provost of the above college 
fjcveral years ; but upon the commencement of the wars in 
Ireland, he was constrained to quit his station, when he re- 
turned to England, and spent the remainder of his days in 
silence, poverty, and obscurity. He was living in the year 
16S4r, as appears from the following curious fact : Mr. John 
Swan, of Cannock in Staffordshire, a religious man, left in 
his last will and testament the sum of fifty pounds, to be 

ijiven, by direction of Mr. Hildersham, to ministers silenced 
or nonconformity. From a manuscript receipt now before 
me, it appears that Mr. Travers partook of the bounty. It 
is in these words : " March 5, 1624, received of Mr. Arthur 
Hildersham, five pounds, being part of a legacy of John 
Swan. I say, received by me, 

" Walter Travers."^: 

* FoUer's Charch Hist. b. ix. p. 215, S16. 

f Ihid. p. 218. 

i MS. Cbronology, tol. ii. p. 431. (12.) 


It does not appear how lonr Mr. Travers au u i ye J tht 
above period. He was a learned man, a polite preacher, as 
admirable orator, and one of the most celebrated diyinei 
of the age : but all these excellent endowments could not 
atone for the 8in£:Ie sin of nonconformity. His name m 
enrolled among the eminent perRons and learned divines of 
Trinity college, Cambridge.* He gave part of his library, 
and plate worth fifty pounds, to Zion college, London. 
Many persons of the greatest respectability were his 
constant friends. In addition to the lord treasurer^ who 
was his advocate and his patron, we ought not to omit Sr 
James Altham, a member of parliament, and a penoa. 
eminent for religion and learning, who manifested the 
highest esteem for him; as did Sir Edward Cook, a xealous 
advocate for a further reformation of the churchy and a 
constant patron of the puritans.f 

His Works. — I. A Justification of tbe Religion now Professed ia 
England. — 2. An Answer to the Epistle of G. T. for the pret^ided 
Catholics. — 3. Dc Disciplina Ecclesiastica ex Dei Terbo descfipta. 

Henrt Jacob, A. M. — This distinguished person was 
bom in Kent, in the year 1563, and educated in St. MaryV 
hall, Oxford, where he took his degrees in arts. Entering 
upon the ministerial work, he became precentor of Christ^ 
Church, and was Tifterwards beneficed at Cheritcm in his 
native county ; but he quitted his living previous to the 
year 1591. "He was a person," says Wood, <<most 
excellently well read in theological authors, and a most 
zealous puritan.^t About this period, he embraced the 
principles of the Brownists; though he never carried them 
to that uncharitable extent which was the worst feature m 
the character of that people. Upon the general banishment 
of the Brownists, in 1593, Mr. Jacob retired to Holland,( 
but probably returned to England before the year 1697. At 
this time, the controversy arose about the true interpretation 
of that article in theapostle^s creed, which relates to Christ^s 
descent into hell. Bishop Bilson, in his sermons at Paul's 
cross, maintained the literal sense of the passage; and 
affirmed that he went thither not to suffer, but to wrfst tta 
keys of hell and death out of the hands of the devil*| Tbi 

♦ Fo]lrr*8Hist.ofCaro. p. 123. 

-^ MS. Chronology, vol. iii. A. D. 1628, 1641. 

t Atheoae OzoD. Tol. i. p. 394. S Neal'i Parltam. Tol. t p. 4iir 

I Ibid. p. 602. — » . r 


t>iftbop's sennons were no sooner published to the world, 
tijueui Mr. Jacob drew up a reply, entitled, '' A Treatise of 
Ibe Sufibrings and Victory of Christ in the work of our 
Redemption, writtea against certain Errors in these points, 
imblicly preached in London," 1598. The two principal 

glints defended by Mr. Jacob, in this treatise, were, " That 
hrist suffered for us the wrath of God, which we may well 
term the pains of hell, or hellish sorrows. And tlmt the 
fioul of Christ, after his death on the cross, did not actually 
descend into hell." In the year 1600, he came forwards in 
idndication of what he had written on these points, by pub- 
lishing his '^ Defence of a Treatise touching the Sutieringg 
Itfid Victory of Christ in the work of. our Redemption."* 

The writings of Mr. Jacob and other puritans upon this 
subject, rousal the attention and indignation of Queen 
Cilizabeth, who commanded the bishop " neither to desert 
the doctrine, nor let the calling which he bore in the church 
of God be trampled imder foot by such unquiet refusers of 
truth and authority ."t This, instead of putting them to 
silence, only awakened them the more, and occasioned M|r* 
Jacob to publish his " Survey of Christ's Sufferings for 
Man's Redemption : and of his descent to Hades, or Hel, 
for our deliverance," 1604. Prior to the publication of 
this last piece, it appears that Mr. Jacob removed to 
Amsterdam, where he was engaged in some disputes with 
the more rigid Brownists. The principal question then 

^itated, was, " Whether the church of England be a true 

Lurch." This most of the Brownists denied ; but it was 
affirmed and defended by Mr. Jacob, who was less rigid in 
his opinions. The particulars of this controversy may be 
collected from a book entitled " A Defence of the Church 
md Ministry of England, written in two Treatises against 
the Reasons and Objections of Mr. Francis Johnson," 1599 ; 
a circumstantial account of which is given in another 

Mr. Jacob was commonly denominated a semi-separatist. 
As he did not utterly ref^use communion with the church of 
ESngland; so he rejected all her corruptions. And once, 
fot refusing to kneel at the sacrament, the minister prose- 
(nited him in the ecclesiastical court; and having taken great 
pains to carry on the prosecution, but with little success, he 
usked the bishop what he should do, who told him to go home^ 

♦ W^ood's Atbenoe, vol. i. p. 894, 395. 

•f Biog. BritaQ. vol. ii. p. 311. £dit, UTS* 

t Sec Art., Francis Johnson* . 


uncommon enidition, and entirely devoted to literary pot* 
suits, but totally ignorant of the world. He ivas innocierit, 
harmless, and careless, and lived principally on the bene- 
factions of friends, particularly the celebrat^ ^r. Selden. 
He died at Canterbury in September, 1652.* 

John Robinson. — ^This celebrated puritan was bora in 
the y(?ar 1575, educated in the university of Cambridge, 
and beneficed near Yarmouth. In the year 1602, a number 
of people in that part of the country, finding their minis- 
ters urged with illegal subscription, or silenced, and them- 
selves grievously oppressed in the ecclesiastical courts; 
and discovering, at the same time, numerous popish rehor 
and superstitions retained in the church of £ngland, tbej* 
were led to a total separation from the ecclesiastical estab- 
lishment, and to organize churches according to their views 
of the model laid down in the New Testament. Thqr 
entered into a covenant with each other, '^ to walk with 
God and one another, in the enjoyment of God^s ordiiumoes^ 
according to the primitive pattern, whatever it might cost 
them.'* Among the ministers who entered into this associt*' 
tion was Mr. Robinson, who became pastor of one of tlirir 

Mr. Robinson and his people having renounced the 
antichristian yoke, and being resolved to enjoy liberty of 
conscience, and worship God without tlie impositiortf of men, 
the spirit of persecution came against them with reDewad 
fury. Besides the trial of cruel mockings, they were watched 
by officers, and often imprisoned, or obliged to flee fronr 
their houses and means of subsistence, under these cruel 
oppressions they groaned about seven or ei^t yean^ 
assembling together in private houses as they found oppor- 
tunity, tn this deplorable situation, many of them, who 
were almost ruined in the ecclesiastical courts, resolved^ 
with joint consent, to seek an asylum in Holland, wtae 
they understood they could enjoy religious liberty. Hard, 
indeed, was their lot, to leave their dwellings, their lands 
and relatives, to become exiles in a strange land I Thbu^ 
persecuted^ they were not destroyed; though distressed, 
their zeal and courage did not forsake them ; and thoo^^in^ 

• Wood's AtheoflB Ozon. toI. i. p. 395.-^Bior. Briten. roL r. p. IT** 
Edit. 1778. 

+ Morse's American Geof. p. 150. Edit 1798.— Mone ui JPsilk'^ 
New £BclaBd, p. 6. 


lioubte, trusting' in God, they were not dismayed. They 
made no disturbance in the state, but were peaceable niem- 
bers of society. Yet, because they could not in conscience 
•ubmit to unscriptural impositions, nor bow their necks to 
the yoke of human inventions, they were loaded with 
heavy fines and forfeitures; nay, hunted about like par- 
tridges on the mountains, and persecuted as pests pf 

Though the pastor and his people were determined to 
remove into the jLow Countries, another affliction, still more 
imreasonable, if possible, presented itself to them. Their 
enemies watched them continually, and did every thing in 
their power to prevent their departure. The ports and 
harbours were narrowly watched; and strict orders were 
given, by authority, not to suffer them to go. What a 
painful situation were they in ! They were not suffered to 
Uve in peace at home, nor allowed to go where th^y could 
enjoy peace. They could effect their escape only by 
secret means, having to bribe the mariners ; and even then 
they were often betrayed, their property seized, and them- 
selves punished. The following facts, extracted from the 
er^inal record belonging to the church at Plymouth in 
New England, will shew how distressing was their 
situation : 

A large company, intending to embark at Boston in 
Lincolnshire, hired a ship, and agreed with the master to 
take them on board on a certain day, and at an appointed 

£Iace. They were punctual to the engagement; yet he 
ept not the day, but finally came and took them on board 
in the night: then, having previously agreed with the 
searchers and other officers, lie delivered the passengers and 
ffoods to them. These persons immediately put them in 
boats, rifled and searched them even " to their shirts ;" and 
treating the women with indelicacy and rudeness, carried 
fhem back to the town, where they were made spectacles 
of public scorn to the multitudes who flocked from all 

auarters to behold them. They were then taken before 
le magisf rates, and cast into prison, where they continued 
for a month, and some of them much longer ; while others 
Were bound over to the next assizes. 

The following spring Mr. Robinson and his friends made 
another attempt to get away. They made known their 
situation to a Dutch captain, and agreed with him to carry 
them to Holland. He was to take them from a large 
Mmmon between Grimsby and Hull, a place remote from 


any town. The women, children, and good^ were sent to 
the place in a small barque; the men travelled by land; but 
tlic barque* arriving a day before the ship, tlie sea being 
rough, and the women very sick, the seamen put into a 
small creek. The next morning (he ship came^ but the 
barque was aground. That no time might be lost, the 
captain sent his boat to receive some of tlie men who weie 
on shore. As the boat was rt^turning for more, the captain 
saw a great comi>any i>f horse and foot coming armed from, 
the country ; at which he weighed anchor, lioisted sail, and 
having a fair wind, was soon out of sight. The men on 
board were thus separated from their wives and children^ 
without a change of garments, or money in their pockets. 
Tears flowed from iheir eyes, but tears were in vain. They 
were soon alter tossed in a most terrible storm, and driv^ 
on the coast of Norway. They saw neither sun, moon, nor 
stars, for seven days. The mariners despaired of obtaining 
relief, and once they supposv*d the ship actually ffoine 
down ; when, with shrieks and cries, they exclaimed, ni 
sinkj we sink. The puritan passengers, in this scene of 
horror and desperation, without any great distraction, cried, 
** Yet, Lord, thou canst save : yet. Lord, thou canst save;'* 
with similar expressions. The ship soon after recovered 
herself; the fury of the storm presently abated ; and thej 
safely arrived in Holland. 

Mr. Robii.son and some others of them, having, hk» 
valiant generals, remained to see the feeblest safe on opard, 
were left on shore. The men escaped, excepting those who 
voluntarily stayed to assist the women and children. Here 
was a scene of distress: husbands and fathers torn from 
their wives and children, and carried into a foreign country; 
children crying with fear, and shivering with cold ! What 
could sustain the mother's breaking heart ? Charity <»r 
humanity would have pitied and cheered the weepinf 
throng ! But charity and humanity were not there. Perse- 
cution raised her cruel voice, terrible as death ; and hurried 
them from one place to another, from one officer to anotheTi 
till their enemies were tired of their victory. To imprisop 
BO many innocent women and children, would have excited 
public odium. Homos they had none; for they had disr 
posed of their property. Their unfeelmg oppressors wer^ 
at length, glad to get rid of them.* 

From these multiplied sufferings the whole companj 

• Morse and Parishes New Eoglaod, p. 7, 8.— EyaDfeUcal MafMiMb 
Tol, ?i. p. Slg, SIS. 


Amved much advantage. Their meekness and christian 
deportment made a favourable and deep impn ssioii on the 
hearts of many spectators, \ihich produced consiilerable 
Accessions to their number. By courag.^ and perseverance 
they all finally cro^ised the sea, and united with iheir frjends^ 
according to the desire of the r hearts, in grateful praises to 
God. Upon their arrival at Amsterdam, in the year ItiOS, 
Mr. Robijison^s first concern was to arrange their church 
■flairs in regular order. Mr. John Smyth and his churchy 
luiving arrived beforethem, were now involved in conf<*ntion; 
■nd the controversy was carried on with so mucii warmth^ 
that Amsterdam proved too hot for the gentle spirit of Mr. 
Kpbinson; who, with the people of his charge, hiving 
Continued there about a yenr, removed to Jjcyden.* There 
they enjoyed the bhssing of religious liberty, and, with the 
leave of the magistrates, hired a meeting-hous^', and ^or* 
ibipped CiocI publicly in their owii way. In this removal^ 
they acted upon the most noble principle : for, though they 
expected less employment and profit at Leydeii than at the 
capital, they cheerfully sacrificed their worldly interest, in 
hopes of beinuf more free from temptations, and of peac ab'y 
^joying the blessings of the gnsp<4. Religion was always 
ike first object in all their calculations and arran^mei'ts. 
They erigaged in such trades aud^ employments as they 
could execute, and soon obtained a comfortable subsistence. 
They had great comfort in each other's society, and great 
tatbfaction in the ordinances of the gospel, under the able 
Biinlstry of Mr. Robinson. They grew in gifts and graces; 
WkI lived in peace, and love, and holiness, f 

Mr. Robinson set out on the most rigid principles of 
Brbwnism ; but having seen more of the world, and con- 
^^ttsed with learned men, particularly Dr. Ames, he became 
gore moderate, and struck out a middle way betwixt the 
Brownists and presbyterians. Though he always main* 
'ftined the lawfulness and necessity of separating from the 
''^formed churches where he resided, he was far from 
feiying them to be true churches. He even admitted their 
^^embers to occasional communion, and allowed his own 
[People to unite with the Dutch churches in prayer and 
^ring the word, though not in the sacraments and disci* 
Wine. This procured him the character of a sfmi^separalht.X 
9^ objected against the imposition of the liturgy, the 

• Prince's Chron. Hist. vol. i. p. 24—27. 
f Mont and Parish's New EnjrUnd, p. 9. 
X B*Hie*8 DissaasWe, p. n.^NeiU'i Pttrftans, vol. W. p. 46» 47« 
'▼OIm II. s 


Srvemmcnt of the biihops, and the mixed ebmimiiium ft 
e churcli of England ; and maintained that ereij paiti* 
cular church or society of christianv had complete power 
within itNcif to choose its own ofllcerf, to aomiiiifler ti 

5oR|)cl ordinances, and to (OKorcise all needful aittbority aid { 
isciplinc oyer its members: consequently^ that it wai 
independetti of all ctassis, synods, oonvocationi, and coas* 
cils. ^< This we hold and aflTirm/' says he. ^^ that aeon- 
puny consisting bat of two or three gatnered by a oorenat 
to walk in all tiie ways of Clod, is a church, and so faatb tiie 
whole power of Christ. Two or three, thus gathered tege* 
ther, hav^ the same right with two or three thousflod: 
neither the smalincss of their numt>ers, nor the ineBmeis of 
their perscms, can prejudice their rights/'* He allowed the 
expediency of those grave assemblies for t'econctUoff dif* 
ferences among churches, by giving them friendly aoviee; 
but not for exercising any act of authority wliatcver^witboat 
the free consent ot* the churches themselves.f Tbcfewe 
some of the principles by which the independerUi aie dif 
tinguishe^l in the present day. 

Mr. Ilobinson and his congregation were no sooner setlkd 
at L(*yden, than their numoer greatly increased. Maiij 
came to his church from various parts of England; and 
their Cfirign*gaHori lK*came so large, that ihiiy had throe 
bundrml communicants, t If at any time the sparks of con* 
tention were kirullc^l, they were immc^diately extinguished; 
or if any one proved obstinate, he was excommunicatiNl: 
but this rarely happinied. ^' Perlmp this churcli,** addi 
our historian, ^^ approached as near tne pattern of apostolic 
churches as any since the first ages of Christianity; and 
this has been its general character to the present time, Tbe 
integrity and piety of its members procured them esti'em 
and confideiKH! in a land of strangers. Though many of 
tli/in were pcKir, when they wished to borrow money, the 
Dut(!li would readily take their word, because they alwsy* 
found (li(*ni punctual io fulfil their engaij^ements. Tbqr 
saw tlH*m iric(tiisantly lalnirious in their callings, and tbeiV' 
fore preferred them as customers : they (bund tuem boneit) 
and therefore gave the prrffrence to their work."i 
While these worthy exiles so greatly increased in n(U0« 

* ntiHIc*! Dliftifiiilvr, p. .Mtt. 
t MfttI'* liivf. of Nrw Krifc. vol. i. p. 7.S, U. 

} IVinrr*» Cbroii. HUt. yuI. i. p. 3«.— BMku*! New Eflf. W^* 
vol. I. p, S2. 
S Moric and Piirlih'i New F^tf Isud, p. V. 

^.ROBINSON. - 339 

ben, tiiejr fived in great firiendship and bannolqr among 
^fhemsdVes and (heir neighbours. TThough a certain scar- 
Tiloos writer is pleased to insinuate that by their broils 
and divisions they were reduced to a very small number ;• 
yet nothing can be more directly opposed to the concurrent 
testimony of the best historians than this account.f Just 
before they left the city of Leyden, the magistrates, from 
the seat of justice, gave this honourable testimony of their 
worth. In addressing the Walloons, who were the French 
church, *' These English,'* say they, " have lived among us 
now these ten years, and we never had any suit or accu- 
sation against them, or against any of them.":^ 

Mr. Robinson and his people, having sojourned in a 
strange land about nine or ten years, began to think of 
xemoving to America, but could not accomplish their pur- 
pose till the year 1620. Having one great object, the 
interest of religion, constantly impressed on their minds, 
and pursuing it with unabating ardour, it was natural for 
them to think of changing their residence, as new and 
favourable prospects opened to their view. Considering 
that they enjoyed the comforts of evangelical instruction 
only fifom the courtesy of strangers, they were unwilling to 
so precious a jewel upon so precarious a tenure. 

heir removal, therefore, was not the effect of a fickle dis- 
^position, but the result of undaunted perseverance for the 
attainment of that great end, which absorbed all other con- 
siderations. They were animated with the hope of carrying 
ibe gospel to pagan countries, and of becoming instruments 
of salvation to many souls ready to perish. Numerous 
other reasons imperiously enforced the measure.§ The 
business was the subject of mature consideration. They 
were peculiarly anxious to preserve their religion, and 
promote its future prosperity, now in danger of being 
scattered and lost in a strange land. In their own cohntry, 
they knew there was not the least prospect of a reformation, 
nor even of a toleration of such as dissented from the 
national church. After spending many days in solenm 
addresses to Grod for direction, it was at length resolved, 
that part of the coYigregation should transport themselves 
to America ; where they might enjoy liberty of conscience, 

• Bailie's Dissnasive, p. 54. 

f MortoD*8 New England's Memorial, p. 2. — Morse's American Geog. 
p. 150. 

?Mather*s Hist, of New Eng. b. i. p. 6. 
Morton's Memorial, p. S> 4. 


and be able to encourage their friends and counttymen to 
follow them. They, accordingly, sent over agents Id 
England, who, having obtained a patent from the CTOwn,* 
agreed with several respectsible merchants and friends te 
become adventurers in the undertaking. Several of Mir. 
Robinson's congregation sold tlieir estates, and made a 
common bank, with which tliey purchased a small ship of 
sixty Ions, and hired another of one Imndred and eighty. 
The agents sailed into Holland with their own ship, to take 
in as many as were willing to embark, while the other vend 
was freighting necessities for tlie new plantation. All thinp 
being in readiness for their departure, Mr. Robinson, im 
his congregation, observed a day of fasting and prayer, 
when he preached an excellent sermon from £zra, viiL SL 
I proclaimed a fast there^ at the river AhaoOy thai we mif^ 
afflict our souls before God^ to seek of him a right axqy/or 
usy and for our tittle ones, and for all our substance, m 
then concluded with ihe following truly generous and 
christian exhortation. 
" Brethren, 

^^ We are now quickly to depart from one 
another, and whether I may ever live to see yoor fiicei 
upon earth any more, the God of heaven only knows; 
but whether the Lord has appointed that or no, I charge 
you before God and his blessed angels, that you foUoW 
me no farther than you have seen me follow the Irfird 
Jesus Christ. If God reveal any thing to you by any 
other instrument of his, be as ready to receive it as ever 
you were to receive any truth by my ministry ; for I am 
verily persuaded, I am very confident, the Lord has moie 
truth yet to break forth out of his holy word* For my 
part, I cannot sufficiently bewail the condition of the 
reformed churches, who are come to a period in religioiiy 
and will at present go no further than the instruments of 
their reformation. The Lutherans cannot be drawn to go 
beyond what Luther saw : whatever part of his will oar 
good God has revealed to Calvin, they will raito die 
than embrace it. And the Calvinists, you 8ee,.sttck fiut 
where they were left by that great man of Grod, who 
yet saw not all things. . . 

" This is a misery much to be lamented. For thougli 
^* they were burning and shining lights in their times^ yet 

* Though these adventarcrs were at great trouble and ezpeoie ii 
obtaining big m^egty's royal patent, tbey iie?er made aoy oae of It^^ 
JPriRct*« CkroH. BUt. vol. i. p. OS. 


H ibty poietrated not into the ^rhole counsel of God : but 
*^ were they now living, would be as willing to embrace 
^ further light, as that which they first received. I beseech 
^ you, remember it is an article of your church covenknt^ 
•* Thai you be readj/ to receive whatever truth mau be made 
•* known to you from the vmtten word of God. ftemember 
'^ that J and eyery other article of your sacred covenant. 
^ But I must, herewiihal, exhort you to take h(ed what you 
^ leceive as truth. Examine it, consider it, and compare it 
*f with other scriptures of truth, before you receive it. For 
^ it is not possible the christian world should come so 
ff lately out of such thick antichristian darkness, and that 
^ perfi^ction of knowledge should break forth at once. 

^^ I must also advise you to abandon, avoid, and shake 
^ off the name of Brownists. It is a mere nick-name, and 
^ a brand for making religion, and the professors of it, 
^ odious to the christian world."* 

On July 1, 16!^, this small band of christian adventurers^ 
in number one hundred and one,f went from Leyden to 
Delft Haven, to which place Mr. Robinson and tlie elders 
4|f the church accompanied them. They continued together 
all nU^ht ; and the next morning, after mutual embraces, 
|fr., Robinson kneeled down on the sea-sliore, and with 
fervent prayer, committed them to the protection and 
Uessin^ of heaven.j The leader of this new colony was 
Mr. William Brewster, a roan admirably well qualified 
for the post which he occupied.^ After the affecting and 

• Ncal's New England, vol, |, p. 74—79. 

i" Neal, by roiitake, says tb«ir namber was one handred and twenty.— 
Ikid. p.80.>-Pniice*« Chron, HUt, vol. i, p. \Q3*-^EvangeUcal Mag.^oL vi. 
p. 314. 

± Morton*8 Memorial, p. 6. 

S Mr. WiUiam Brewster received a learned education in the university 
•f Cambridge. His first employment was iu the service of Mr. Davison, 
a^retary of state to Queen Elizabeth, with whom he went over to Holland, 
•Dd was entrusted with affairs of great importance, particularly with the 
keys of the cautionary towns. He afterwards lived much respected in his owa 
country, till the severity of the times obliged him to return to Holland. 
He was ruling elder of Mr. Robinson^s church previous to its leaving 
Sogland, aqd bore his share of hardships with the rest of his brethren. In 
thii office he continued with great honour, during their twelve years trace 
Ut Holland. When he was sij^ty years of age, he had the courage and re- 
solution to put himself at the head of the colony, which peopled New 
£if land. They sailed from Delft Haven, July 2, 1620, as observed above ; 
aoa after a long and dangerous voyage, arrived at Cape Cod, on the coast 
of New England, November 9th following. Upon their first settlement, 
ikey divided the land by lot, according to the number of persons in each 
AmkUjt I And having agreed upon some general laws, chose a governor, and 
dlM the name of the place New Pltmootr. Inexpressible were the 
iMidihipt which they underwent daring the first winter. The fatigues of 


painful separation, Mr. Uobinson, as a father in Isnuil, wiotr 
a most affectionate and faithful letter to theadventuien; 
which they received at Southampton, and read to the whole 
company, to their ^reat comfort and encouragement. In 
addressing them, he says, ^^ 1 am present in my best oflfeo 
tions and most earnest lon^rings after you. Grod knows how 
willingly and much ratlier than otherwise, I would hafS 
borne my first part in this first brunt, were I not held 
back by strong necessity. Make account of me in the* 
mean time, as a man divided in himself with great-pain, 
having my better part with you. And though I douM not 
of your godly wisdom, I think it my duty to add aonie 
words of advice ; if not because you nefd it, yet because I 
ewe it in love and duty." He then proceecls to ffive them 
the most affectionate and salutary instructions. He uigfs 
them to repentance for all known sins, and generally for all 
that are unknown, lest God should swallow them up in Mi 
judgments. He then exhorts them to exercise a holy jealowy 
and serious watchfulness over their own hearts ; to avoid 

E'ving or receiving offences ; to cultivate forbearance and 
ve one towards another ; and to manage all their affiiin 
with discretion, and by mutual agreement. He niges them 
to have a proper regard for the general good ; to avoid 
<^ as a deadly plague, all private respect for themselves ;** 
and to shew a due respect and obedience to the magistrates 
whom they should elect to rule over diem. He dbserveSi 
'^ that he would not so far wrong their godly minds as 
to think them heedless of other things, which he could 
say ;" and concludes by expressing his earnest and incessant 
prayers to God for them.* 

Mr. Robinson intended to accompany the remaining part 

the late voyage, the severity of the weather, aod the want of the 
of life, occasioned a sad mortality, and swept away half the coloDy | ud 
of those who remained alive, not above t\x or seven at a time were capable 
of belpini; the rest. But as the spring returned, they began to recover; 
and, receiving some fresh supplies from England, they maintained their 
station, and laid the foundation of one of the noblest settlements is 
America, which afterwards proved a comfortable asylom for proteitsst 
nonconformists under all their oppressions. Mr. Brewster soared the 
fatigues and hardships of the infant colony with the ntmost bravery. Be 
was not an ordained minister ; but being a man of considerable leamiBgi 
eminent gifts, and great piety, he preached to them about seven years, tfll 
they could provide themselves with a pastor. He 'was held in the greatt^ 
respect both by the magistrates and the people ; and after saffering Bsch 
in the cause of the Redeemer, he died in peace, April 18| 1643| in the 
eighty.fourth year of his age. — Morton's Momorialf p. 117» 118. — N0tif$ 
Nw> England^ vol, I. p. 211, 212.— iVears Puritant, Tol. U. ]i. 182r^ 
Meru and ParUVs Now Engliindy p. 7— ^« 
* Morton's Memorial, p. &-*9. 


^ bis congregation to America; but before he could 
accomplish his design, it pleased God to remove him to a 
better world. He died March 1, 1625, in the fiftieth year 
of his age. The life of this amiable man, both in public 
and private, exhibited a fair transcript of those numerous 
virtues which elevate and adorn the human character. He 
possessed a strong mind, cultivated by a good educa- 
tion. In his younger days, he was distinguished for good 
Mse and solid learning ; and as his mind, under the influ- 
ence of divine grace, began to expand, he acquired that 
moderate and pacific temper for which he was celebrated 
among christians of different denominations. His un- 
ooaunon probity and diffusive benevolence highly recom- 
mended ^im to the Dutch ministers and professors, with 
whom he lived in the most perfect harmony. They 
lamented his death as a public loss ; and as a t^imony of 
their esteem and affection, though he was hot of their com* 
munion, the magistrates, ministers, professors, and many of 
the citizens, honoured his funeral solenmities with their 
presence. . Mr. Robinson was an admirable disputant ; as 
^>pears by his public disputation in the university 
of Xeydeh, when the Arminian controversy agitated and 
divid^ the churches in Holland. The famous JBpiscopius 
having given out a public challenge to defend his Arminian 
tenets against all opponents, the learned Polydore and the 
chief ministers of the city urged Mr. Robinson to engage 
in a public disputation. But he, being a stranger, and of 
so mild and peaceable a spirit, signified hi;5 unwillingness ; 
but by their repeated solicitations, he at length consented. 
" In the issue,'' our author observes, " he so delpnded the 
truth, and so foiled the opposer, putting him to a nonplus 
in three successive disputations, that it procured him much 
bonour and respect from men of learning and piety."* 
'^he attacliment which subsisted betwixt Mr. Robinson and 
is people was very great. ^' Such was the mutual love 
>U)d respect which he had to his flock, and his flock to him, 
0iat it was hard tp judge whether he was delighted more in 
naving such a people, or they in having such a pastor." 
His death was, therefore, a serious loss to the remaining 
branch of his church at Leyden. Most of them, however, 
after a few years, joined their brethren in New England ; 
*naong whom were his widow and children. His son 
Isaac lived to ninety years of age, and Wt a posterity in 

« PriDcc's Chronological Hist. toI. i* p. 38. 



the county of Barnstaple.* Mr. Robinson** churdi at 
Levden was the first Independent church since the 
retori nation. 

HiH WoRKi.'-l. A Jui^tificHtion of Separation from the Chmrcb of 
Bnglaod, against lieniard, 1610. — 2. Remarks on Mr. Smyth's Con* 
fessitui of l^aitb, 1614. — 3. A Treatise on Commonion, 1614.— 
4. People's Plea for the Exercise of Prophesie, 1618.— 6. Apoli^ 
jnsta vt necessaria Chriittianonim, leqne contum« liose ac commnnitc 
dictomm rrownibtanim ac Barrow iHtartim, 16l9.-^Tbis wai» trtila* 
lated in 1644. — 6. An Appendix to iVIr. Perkins's Six Principle9 0( 
the Cbiisiian Keligiou, 1041. — lie probably wrote some oth^ri* 

Richard Stock, A. M— Thi$ worthy divine was bom 
in the city of York, and educated in at. John*8 college^ 
Cambridge'; \ihero, on account of his great ingenuity, 
industry and prqfifress in learning, he was much belovid by 
the famous Dr. Whitaker. J .eaving the university, he be- 
came domestic chaplain first to Sir Anthony Cope, of Ashby 
in Northamptoiishire,f then to Lady Lane, of 0our<on-(in« 
the- Water in Gloucesti-rshire. Afterwards, he became 
assistant to Mr, Thomas Edmund'*, vicar of. Alhallows, 
Bread-street, London ; where his labours were particularly 
acceptable and useful. He continued for sixteen years to 
assist Mr. Edmunds, at whose death he accepted the 
pastoral charire, and continued sixteen years more,^ even to 
the end of hi$ days. His labours were made a signal 
blessing to the people. Grenl numbers were converted, 
comforted, and established under his ministry. He was the 
means of bringing many persons to a saving knowledge ci 
the truth, who after^vards became celebrated ministers of 
the fifospel. Though many ministers preached to others, and 
not to themselves, Mr. Stock practised what he preached. 
His lifje was one uniform piractical comment upon his 
doctrine. He was much beloved, revered and honoured; 
and always faithful and courageous in reprovins: sin. 

Mr. S'ock having in his younger years preached at 
PkuFs cro>s, he spoke with considerable freedcnn against 

♦ Morton*s Memorial, p. 63.-T-Mar«e*t Americaa Geog. p. 166, 157.— 
Morsr and Parisli's New blnxland. p. SO. 

f Sir Anthony Cope !ii^naliKed bimnelf in the cause of relif^ioas liberty, 
and was a c«ini.tant friend to the ^lersectited nonroofomists. . He wu 
bur^eu for Banbury in Oxfordnhire; and, in ll^e parli^meot of I586tbs 
ofTerrd a bill to the house of rommonK, to abotibh all the penal and diiF 
graceful lawH against the puritan«,to set aside the Book of CoauBMHi Pmyer, 
and to adopt a fresh one, not liable to so many exceptions. J%e bUI was 
Mrarmly supported by several able statesmen, bot was rejected by tbe 
toperiority of (be coart party.^Jlf 5. Chronology^ vol. it p. STY* (4*) 

STOCK. 545 

tbe iniquities of the city ; which some persons took so ill, 
that they charged him with rashness, and called him 
Greerfhead. Towards the close of iitie, having to preach 
at the election of, the lord mayor, he particularly enlarged 
upo i the stme topic, and said, ^^ that a Grajt/'head now 
spoke the same tilings that a Green*head had formerly 
do'ie.*' The end of nis lal)Ours was the bpffiniiing of his 
rest ; and having finish' d his work, he wascdied to receive 
Jiis gracious reward. He died April 20, 1626. He w?ks a 
person of g(K)d learning, excellent talents for the pulpit, 
and an example to his people ii| conversation, in charity, in 
faith, in purity.* Wood denominates him ^' a constant and 
judicious preacher, a pious minister, and a zealpus puritaa 
and reformer of the profanation of the sabbath.**f His 
remain^ were interred in Alhallows church, where the 
following monumental inscription was afterwards erected to 
Im memory :t 

To the sacred Memory 

or that worthy and faithful servant of Christ, 

Master Richard Stock ; 

who after thirty-two years spent in the ministry, 

wherein by bis learned labours, 

joined with his wisdom, 

and a most holy life, 

God's glory was much advanced| 

his church edified, 

piety increased, 

and the true honour of a pastor's place maintained; 

deceased April 20, 1626. 

Some of his loving pai ishioners 

have consecrated 

this Monument of their never-dying love, 

Jan. 28, 1628. 

Thy livelesse trunk (O Reverend Stocke) 
Like Aaron's rod, sprouts out again ; 

And, after two full winters pa^^t. 
Yields blossoms and ripe fruit amaine. 

For why, this worke of piety. 

Performed by some of thy floeke 
To thy dead corps and sacred urne. 

Is but the fruit of this old Stocke. 

There was another Mr. Richnrd Stock, who lived about 
die same time, rector of Kirk*E2aton in Yorkshire, where he 

* Clark*s Lives anaezed to Marty rologie, p. 61— ^« 

4 AtheOB OxoD. vol. i. p. 774. 

t 8l»w*§ tiirvey of Load9ii> b. Hl» p. SCO. 


left a standing monument of his pietjr and diaiitj, by ihs 
erection and endowment of a free-schocd* It does not 
howeyer, appear whether he was any relation to our karoed 

His Works.— 1. The Doctrine and Use of Repentanoe, 1610.*- 
2. A Sermon at the Faneral of John Lord Harrington, 1614. — 3. Ckmi- 
mentary on Malacbi, 1641 «— 4. Stock of Divine KJiowledge, 1641^— 
6. Tmtii's Companion. 

Anthont Wotton, B. D. — This learned person was 
bom in London, and educated first at Eton school, then al 
King^s college, Cambrid^ where he took his degrees* 
Being a person of considerable reputation, he became 
fellow of the coUeee, and was for some time chaplain to the 
Earl of Essex. Upon the death of Dr. Whitaker^ in the 
jear 1596, he stood as candidate for the kind's professorship 
of divinity at Cambrid^ ; but Dr. OveraU, by a superior 
interest, carried the election. Mr. Wottcm, notwithstanding 
this, was hiffhiy applauded in the xmiversity.f 

He was, during the above year, chosen first piofisssor of 
divinity in Gresham college. Also, upon the resignatimi 
of his professorship^ he was chosen lecturer of Alhallows 
Barking, London. Here he met with some trouble on 
account of bis nonconformity. Having used this expres-t 
sion, ^< Lord, open thou the eyes of the king, that he may 
be resolved in the truth, without respect to antiquity,*' hu 
words were supposed to insinuate, '' that the king was bHndf 
waceringj and inclined to poperj/.^'t . For this, therefore, with 
some other things, be was silenced by Archbishop Bancroft.^ 

Mr. Wotton, on account of his views of the doctrine of 
justification, fell under the displeasure of some of the 

* Thoresby^s Vicaria Lrodientis, p. 66. 

-¥ Fuller^ti liist. of Carob. p. 153. % Ward's Gresham Professors, p. 89. 

^ Archbishop Baucroft was a stoot and zealoos chanpion for the chnrth, 
which, it is said, he learnedly and ably defended to the confasion of its 
enemies. Clarendon says, ^' thai he hod an excelleat knowledge of tl|e 
chnrch ; that he almost rescued it out of the hands of the CaWeniao party, that 
be very mnch subdiied the unruly spirit of the noncoDformiftts, and that hil 
death could never be sufficiently lamented." Fnller says, *' it is confess^ 
that he was most stiff and stern in pressing conformity, which he did very 
iercely throughout all his province.'' Collier savs« '^ his iiitfeleatiB| 
strictness gave a. new face to roli^ion. The li^urjry was nwre soleflialy 
•bservedt the fasts aad festivals were more regarded i the Me of cepsi 
was revived} the surplice s^enerally worn; and all things ia a maaaef 
recovered to the firrt settleineot ander Queen £lisahetb» 8oaie whe ImI 
formerly subscril>ed in a loose, reserved sense, were now caUed apoa ta 
tigo their eonforaiity to more dose, uaevasife tertts.t m thit BMT there 

WOTTON. 347 

HfOndon ministers. His chief antagonist was Mr. Greorge 
Walker, anotlier zealous puritan, who, haying opposed 
him for some time with great zeal, as a follower of ^ocinus, 
charged him with heresy and blasphemy ; and sent him a 
letter, dated May 2, 1614, desiring a conference before 
eight learned divines to be chosea by both parties. They 
accordingly met for the purpose; Messrs. Walker, Stoci^ 
Downham, Westfield, and Gouge, on the one part; and 
Messrs. Wotton, Balmeford, Randall, Hicks, and Gataker. 
on the other. But the matters in dispute not being adjusted 
at that time, they had a second conference. In order to a 
better settlement of the points in controversy, Mr. Gataker 

E reposed that Mr. Walker should set down in writing the 
eretical and blasphemous positions of Socinus, and Mr. 
. Wotton's erroneous assertions as agreeing with them ; that 
when they assembled they might the more readily come to 
a conclusion. Both parties agre^ to the proposal. Upon 
their second meeting, after some debate, it was their unani'* 
mous opinion, that Mr. Wotton had not maintained any 
heresy or blasphemy whatsoever; which they accora- 
ingly subscribed under their own hands. The persons who 
attended the second conference, and who subscribed this 
declaration, were those mentioned above, excepting Mn 
Baylie in the place of Mr. Westfield.* 

Mr. Wotton was concerned in the controversy with Dn 
Montague, afterwards bishop of Chichester ; who, in a work 

was no room left for scruples and different persuasion.'* Warner says, 
that he fiUed the see of Canterbury *' with no extraordinary reputation 
mbout six years. *He was naturally of a rough uncourtly temper, -which 
was heightened by his great authority in the high commission. He ha4 
extremely high notions of government in church and state. He was most 
certainly a greater friend to prerogative than to liberty.** By spme be 
was charged with covetousness and want of hospitality , which occasioned 
the following satire upon his death : 

Here lies his grace, in cold clay clad, 
Who died for want of what he had. 

According to Rapin, '* Bancroft never ceased to plagoe the pqritans, and 
never ceas^ incensing the king agaipst them, doing them all the mischief 
he could. Herein he was too closely imitated by the rest of f he bishops, 
wbo fonnd a doable advantage in destroying the puritans. He is also 
tfccosed of haying been one of the most zealous to instil into the king tbo 
maxims of arbitrary power.** He is styled ** a great persecutor and silencer 
Qf hundreds of most godly, conscientious, preaching ministers;'* and is said 
to have lived an evil life, and died a fearful death.— Gr<m^«r'» Biog. HUU 
vol. i. p. 339.— Cterenrfon** HUt. vol. i. p. 68.— Fi«/fer*» Church Hist, b. x. 
p. 95, 67.— CdJficr'* EccL HUt, vol. ii. p. 68T;— >rarn«r*« Hist, of Eng. 
^€». il. p. 496.— AapiVs Hist, of Eng. vol. Ii. p. 1«S, 176.— Pfynne'i Jm- 
UpaikU of EnglUh Prelacies part i. p. 152, 8S9. Edit. 1641. 
* Ward's Greiham Profeasorij p. ^. 


entitled << Appello Cssarem,^' declared himself in fiiTOW 
of Arniinlanism, and made dangerous advances towaidi 
popery. The doctor*s book was no sooner published than 
it met with a host of opponents. Dr. Featlj, Dr. SutdiiC 
Mr. Rouse, Mr. Burton, Mr. Yates, Bishop Carlton, and 
Mr. Wotton, sent forth answers to it : • but the Inst con* 
tained the strongest arguments, and the most solid refiilation. 
^' Dean Sutcliff is said to bavechode heartily, Mr. Rouseracant 
honrstly, Mr. Burton wrote plainly, Mr. Yates lenmedly, 
Bishop Carlton very piously, but Mr. Wotton most solidly .'"f 
Mr. Wotton did not long survive this last performance; 
for he died in London, December 11, 16%. He was 
a great scholar, an excellent preacher, and a zealous advo« 
catc for a further reformation of the church. He wrote an 
elegant Latin style, and is very justly placed among the 
learned writers of King's college, Cambridge.:^ Mr.Gataker 
denominates him, ^^ a worthy servant of God, whom," says 
he, '^ 1 always revered while he lived, as a man deserving of 
singular respect for his piety, learning, and zeal in the 
cause of God, which his works do sufficiently manifest^ 
and will testify to posterity.^ 

His Works. — 1. An Answer to a popish Pamphlet of late oewly fkr- 
niabedy and the second time printed, entitled,' Certain Articles or for* 

• Wood*t Atbf naB Oion. toI. i. p. 442. 

t Dr. Richard Montague was a divioe who, io the rdfn ^f Charles !.» 
zealously promoted arbitrary power; and, for publishinf; seotiaeiU 
trading to the disturbance of charch and ttate, he was accused tQ tkfi 
commons in parliament, and convened and examined before the bar of tie 
bouse. The proceeding of the commons displeased the kingi for, ai 
Montague was one of his chaplains, he pretended that this was an ea-' 
croachment upon his prerogative. He expressed his displeasure at the 
commons, and took occasion, by the instigation of Bishop Land, the kiBg'i 
anost intimate counsellor, to bring the cause before the coancil, and, by 
this means, to stop the prosecution. Notwithstanding this, Bfootagae was 
summoned a second time before the commons, and severely repriamnded. 
His cause wa« recommended to the Duke of Buckingham, by Bishops Laud, 
Buckridge, and llowson, who observed, *'^ That learned nea ought to be 
left to abound io their onn sense. It being the great fault of the coQacH 
of Trent to require tubscripUon to school-opinions.'* Afterwards, a coai- 
Diittee of tt^ commons reported to the house, that Montague's " AppcAl*** 
and several other of his pieces, contained erropeoos papistiiml aod 
Arminian opinions, repugnant to the articles of the church of Englaadi 
among which were the following : — ^* That the church of Rome hatb ever re* 
maiued firm upon the same foundation of sacraments and doctrines InstHated 
by God. That images may be used for the instruction of the igooranty aal 
excitation of devotion. That men justified may fall away, and depart 
from the state of grace.** Notwithstanding these censures, he was prooiolcd 
by the king to the bishopric of Winchester l—Faibr^s Chunk MM. b. lU 
p. 181 .— Kapim't HUl. •/ Eng. vol. ii. p. 240* 244, 81tk 

X Fuller^s Hist, of Camb. p. 75. 

\ Ward's Gresham Professors, p. 40-*49. 

^ KOTHWELL. 349 

«ible Reasons,' &c., 1005. — 2, A Defence of Mr. Perkins's Booke, called, 
* A Reformed Catholicke/ against the cavils of a popish writer, one 
D. B. P. or, W. B. in his ' Deformed Reformation,' 1606.-3. The 
Tryal of the Roman Clergy's title to the Church, 1608.— 4. Sermons 
•on part of Chap. i. of St. John^s Gospel, 1609. — 5. Ruune from Rome; 
or, tlie Necessity of separating from that Church, 1624. — 6. De Re* 
Gonciliationi Peccatoris, 1624. — 7, An Answer to a Book, entitled 
Appello Ctetaremy written by Mr. Richard Montague, 1626. — 8. The 
Art of Logic, 1626. This last is a translation of Ramus's Logic. 

Richard Rotuwell. — This learned and zealous pu« 
ritan was born at Bolton in Lancashire, in the year 1563^ 
and educated in the university of Cambridge. Having 
spent many years in academical pursuits, he entered upon 
the work of the ministry, and was ordained presbyter by 
Achbishop Whitgift. The archbishop, on this occasion^ 
forbade him attempting any interpretation of the types of 
Moses, the book of Canticles, Daniel, and Revelation ; andy 
at that time, he exactly agreed with his lordsliip. Though 
he possessed an amiable natural temper, great intellectual 
endowments, and other ornamental accomplishments, they . 
were only as so many weapons in the hands of a mad- 
man. He continued several years a stranger to religion, 
when he preached learnedly, but lived in profaneness, 
addicting himself to hunting, bowling, shooting, and 
filthy and profane conversation. Wie are told, that in 
Lancashire there were two knights at variance with each 
other; one having a good park, with an excellent store of 
deer; the other good fish-ponds, with an excellent store of 
fish ; and that he used to gratify himself by robbing the 
park of the one, and presenting his booty to the Other, and 
the fish-ponds of the other, and presenting the fish to his 
adversary. On one of these occasions, it is added, the 
keeper caught him in the very act of killing a buck, when 
they fell from words to blows ; but Mr. Roth well, being tall 
and lusty, got the keeper down, and bound him by both his 
thumbs to a tree, with his toes only touching the ground, 
in which situation he was found next morning.* Such 
were the base follies by which he was gratified in the dayi 
of his vanity. 

^ While in the midst of his career in sin, it pleased God, 
who separated him from his mother's womb, and called hiih 
by his grace, to reveal his Son in him. This change was 
IHroduora in the following manner: As Mr. Kothwdl was 

• Clark'i Li? ei aoaezed to hi§ Mart/rologic, p« 67» 118. 


play infr at bo^s on a Satoidaj, amoni^ papists and profane 
gentlemen, at Kochdaie in Lancashire, Mr. Midglej, tbe 
grave and pious yicar of tbe place, came upon the green; 
and, calling him on one side, expressed his great r^;ret 
thnt be was the companion of papists, even on a SatmH^j 
when he ought to have been preparing for the ezeretBes of 
the sabbath : but Mr. Roth well sligh&l what he said, and 
checked him for intermeddling. The good old man, 
being exceedingly grieved, went home, retired into his 
study, and prayed earnestly to God tor him. Mr. Rothwdl 
had no sooner left the bowling-green than Mr. Midgley's 
words stuck fast in his conscience. He could find no 
lest. The day following he went to hear Mr. Middey 
preach in Rochdale church, when it pleased Grod so to blev 
the word, that he was thoroughly awakened to a sense of hu 
sins. Under his painful convictions he went to Mr. Midg^ 
ley after sermon, thanked him for his seasonable reproof, 
and desired his further instruction, with an interest m his 
prayers. Having continued under spiritual bondage for 
some time, he at length, by the instrumentality m Kr. 
Midgley, was made partaker of the liberty of the sons of 
God ; the assurance of which he retained to the end of his 
days. Though he was often exercised by the severe asisaults 
of Satan, his heavenly Father, in whom he trusted, always 
made a way for his escape. This important change bei^ 
effected, Mr. Rothwell gave bis worldly estates among bis 
friends, and devoted himself wholly to the ministry of the 
word, (»ver esteeming Mr. Midgley as his spiritual lather.* 

Mr. Rothwell, liaving tasted that the Lord was gradoos, 
began to preach the gospel by the assistance of the Holy 
Ghost. He so unfolded the depths of Satan's devices, and 
the treachery of the human heart, that he was soon deno- 
minated the rough hewer. His zealous and fidthful 
ministry was accompanied by the power and blessing of 
God. When he preached tlie terrors of the law, sinners 
trembled, and sometimes cried aloud ; and when he preached 
the glad tidings of tbe gospel, sweet consolation was applied 
to their afflicted consciences. 

He was chaplain to a regiment under, the Earl of EsseX) 
in his expedition against the rebels in Irelimd. About the 
same time, he was induced to examine, with an unbiassed 
mind, the grounds of conformity to the established church* 
The result of his impartial investigation was, he became iu> 

« Clark's UTCtaonczed to liisMartyrologie,p»9Ty-69. 


avowed puritan, and a conscientious nonconfonnist. He 
18 said to have soon become so deeply versed in this 
coptroversy, that he satisfied many, and silenced all who 
disputed with him. He was so thoroughly fixed in his 
4[Mrincipled, and in such constant expectation of troubles on 
account of his conscientious scruples, that he would never 
marry. His common observation was, persecution is the 
pledge Cjf future happiness. On the same account he would 
never accsept of any benefice, though many rich livings 
were ofEered him. He was many years a lecturer at a 
chapel in Lancashire, and afterwards domestic chaplain to 
the £arl of Devonshire. During the severe persecutions 
raised by the bishops, as he enjoyed no living, he had none 
to lose. He used pleasantly to say, mi/ head is too big to 
gei into the church. He was frequently called before the 
prelates, especially Bishop Neile, with whom he had several 
contests about nonconformity.* 

By the recommendation of Lady Bowes, afterwards Lady 
Darcy, a person celebrated for piety and liberality ,+ Mr. 
Rothwell removed to Barnard-Castle, in the county of 
Darham. MHlien the good lady expressed her fears about 
his going among these rude and fierce people, he replied^ 
** Aladam, if I thought I should not meet the devil, I would 
not go : he and I have been at odds in other places;, and I 
hope we shall not agree there." The worthy lady therefore 
consented, allowing him forty pounds a year ; and the peopl^ 
upon whom G6d wrought by his ministry, further ccm- 
tnbuted to his support ; but he would not receive a farthing 
ai any others. Being once on a journey, Sir Talbot Bowes 
made a collection for him among the people, amounting to 
thirty pounds ; but when he came home, he caused it to be 
returned to the persons who had contributed, saying, '' he 
sought not theirs but them.** 

Xjpon his first settlement among these rude people, he bad 
many difficulties to encounter : he met with much opposition ; 
and they even sought to take away his life. By faithful 
perseverance in the duties of his calling, his greatest enemies 
afterwards feared him ; and the blessing of Sie Lord was so 
wonderfully poured forth upon his labours, that he seldom 
preached a sermon which did not bring some poor wander* 
ing sinner to God. Many vain gentlemen from a distance 

* Clark*8 Lives annexed to his Martyrologie, p. 69. 

f This ezccUent lady expended one thousand pouodt a year in rapport 
•f f'lestttate mlnisten. Her preachers were all tileoced nonconformists. 
She obtained liberty for many of them when confined in prison; then sent 
them Into the north, the Pdk in Derbysbire, or those places where their 
laboBfi were most wanted » aUowinf^ them » comfortable sapport.— iM. 


came to hoar him, vfxih a view to find faott, malLe spoi^ 
and aci use him ; who returned home convinced of their 
sins, inquiring what they must do to be sri ved . H is laixNUS 
Mere so ext( nsively useful, that the ciiajige wrought among 
the people, and the good order of his congregation^ becantt 
tlie subject of universal admiration, lie was coinmonlj 
denomiuHtixl the Apostle op the North. 

During Mr. RothwelPs alxxle at Baniard-Castle, he was 
deeply afflicted with a complaint in his head ; and thougk 
lie obtained considerable relief, he never perfectly recovernL 
Having laboured at this place many years, he removed 
to Mansfield in Nottinghamshire, where he Continued 
preaching to the end of his days. After his removal to 
this place, he is said to have been concerned in casting out 
a devil, a curious account of which is given by our >«uthor.* 
During his last sickness he was deprived of the exercise of 
his reason, when Mr. Britain, vicar of Mansfield, waited 
upon him, and inquired what he then thought of conformity. 
In their conversation, Mr. Rothwell sometimes said one 
thing, and sometimes another, evidently not knowing what 
he said. Mr. Britain, however, propagated a report that 
Mr. Jlothwell recanted his nonconformity. This was a molt 
notorious calumny. 

At certain intervals during his sickness, his conversatioa 
was free, cheerful, and spiritual. His friends inquiring 
how he did, he said, ^< I shall soon be well. I shall ere 
long be with Christ." A brother minister having prayed 
with him, he smiled and said, ^^ Now I am well. Happy il 
lie who hath not bowed his knee to Baal.'' He then re-' 
quested those Aout him to sing a psalm; and while they 
were singing his immortal spirit took its flight to sing tbe 
song of Moses and the Lamb for ever. He di^ in 1627, ased 
sixty -four years. Mr. Rothwell possessed " a clear under- 
standing, a sound judgment, a strong memory, and a readj 
utterance; and was accounted a good linguist, a subtte 
disputant, an excellent orator, and a learned divine/*f 

John Preston, D. D. — This celebrated divine de- 
scended from the Pn^stons of Preston in Lancashire, waf 
bom at Heyford in Northamptonshire, in the year 1587) 
and educated first in King's coUe^, and then in Queen's 
college, Cambridge. In the latter situation he was pupil to 
the pious and learned Mr. Oliver Bowles, whea be made 

• Clark's LWet annexed to bis Marlyrologiey p; 79^ T4. 
f Ibl4 p. 67. 




amazing progress in philosopby, and almost eyery other 
braiich otpoUte literature* Being of an ambitious mind« 
and haying hopes of liigh preferment at court, he lookea 
lipon the study of cliyinity as insignificant, and far'beneath 
i%d attention of a ^reat mind. In the year 1609 he was 
chosen fellow of his college. The Lord, who designed him 
to fill an important office in his church, was pleased to fhis- 
ti^te his aspiring thoughts. Being brought to hear Mr. 
John Cotton at St. Mary's church, the word of God made 
80 deep^an impression on his mind, as at once cured hinx of 
thirsting after preferment. From this time 'he became 
T^ooarkable for true christian piety ; and though he had 
hitherto desspised the ministerial work as beneath his notice, 
he now' directed all his studies with a yiew to that sacred 

When King James yisited the university of Cambridge, 
Preston, being a man of such extraordbiary learning, was 
appointed one of the disputants before his majesty. The 
suWect of disputation was, " Whether brutes had reason, 
and could make syllogisms.^' He maintained the affirma- 
tive; as in the case of a hound, when he comes to a place 
where three ways meet, he tries one, then another; but, 
finding no scent, runs down the third with full cry, conclud- 
ing that as the hare is not gone in either of the two first 
ways,, she must necessarily be gone in tfie third. The 
argument, it is said, had so wonderful an effect upon the 
audience, especially upon the kin^, that it. would have 
opened a door to his preferment, had not his inclinations io 
Puritanism been a bar in the way. Indeed, Sir Fulke 
Grayille, afterwards Lord Brook, was so highly pleased with 
Um, that, in addition to other demonstrations of his peculiar 
^teem, he settled fifty pounds a year upon him, and con- 
tinued to be his great friend ever after.* 

* Clark's Lives aoncxed to hii Martyrolo^ic, p. 76 — 81. — Lord Brook 
^^ a most zealous patriot, and an avowed advocate for liberty. On ac- 
count of the arbitrary measures of Charles I. he determined to seek freiedom 
^^ America ; and he and Lord Say actaaUy agreed to transport themselve» 
^New England ; but upon the meeting of the long parliament, and the 
fQdden change of public affairs, they were prevented from undertaking the 
Jgagf. He was afterwards commander in the parliament array, and 
^■vl^ redaced Warwickshire to the obedience of the parliament, be ad- 
'^llMd into Staffordshire. On the festival of St. Chad, to whom the cathe- 
^hil of Lkhfleld is dedicated, he ordered his men to storm the adjoining 
^ i» which Lord Chesterfield had retired with a body of the king's 
^t before his orders could be put in execution, he received a 
HilJBthe eye, of which he instantly expired. In the year 164S. 
^''lonof some of the royalists, and especially of the papists^ 

S A 


Preston having renounced all incIinationB of piefemwali 
and even the present opportunitjr of obtaining the rojai 
favour, his conduct became the subject of much apecuhiaoiL 
Courtiers, and those aspiring after posts of bonow, 
wondered that he did not embrace the solden oppoitwiityr. 
Perceiving the young man to be void of ambition, and that 
fte rejected all prospect of rising in the world, they beflu 
to be vsalous ol' him. But having found the treasure hid m 
a fielo, he wisely relinquished every thing for the invaloabfe 
purchase. He had the Kinj^ of kings to serve and hmooi, 
which to him appeared infiiiitely more desirable Aan aoj 
worldly emolument 

From the above act of mortification, flood men bmn i9 
admire him ; and their opinion received additional C(m 
tion from the ibllowing circumstance : — ^The king TJsiBng 
the university a second time, Preston was req[ueBfed that 
one cf his pupils might support a female duuracter, in a 
comedy for the entertainment of his majesty; birt he 
politely refused, saying, ^^ I do not like the m<ki<m ; and I 
cannot believe his friends intended him to be a pines; 
therefore, I beg (o be excused." This instance of his 
peculiar care for his pupil greatly advanced his iepidiitioa> 
He was soon accounted one of the best tutors in ik 
university. Many persons of distinguished eminenoe 
committed their sons to his tuition. He was particobnly 
careful to train tliem up in sound religi<m, as weH as gQod 
literature.* Fuller denominates him ^ the greatest mqiff' 
manger ever known in England, having sixteen m^' 
commoners admitted in Queen's colkge, in one year.^f 
He was, at the same time, an indefatigable student, lefioflflf 
to allow himself sufficient rest and »eep. He used to by 
the bed-clotlics upon himself in such a manner as tbey 
would be sure to tall oft* at an early hour in the night, ana 
so the cold awoke him. This, in time, did irreparable 
injury to his constitution ; but by the use of suitable meant 
his health was again in a great degree restored. 

It might be expected that so great a man would beiMV 
exceedingly popular. When he delivered bis cateefaeticM 
lectures in the college chapel, the place was usntl^ 
crowded with strangers before the fellows came. Tfai 
awakened the malice of those who envied his popnlaft^ji 

that the buHet was directed by St. Chad. Arcbbiibop 
particalar memorial of thii in his diary. — Frymie't BnwigU ef 
p. VI.-^Qrmnger'i Biog. HUi, vol. li. p. 143, 144. 

• Clark's Uves, p. 88. -f Foller^s Wonhits, part U. p. »U 


ttsd tb(^ lodged a complaint against him to the vice- 
ISMnbellor, << that it was not safe for Preston to be thns 
iddred, tmless they wished to set np puritanism, and pull 
down the chorch.'* An order was therefore issued from 
the totmsitiQtjy that the scholars and townsmen should 
knceforwarcfs confine themselves to their own preachers^ 
laid not be allowed, in any case whatever, to attend these 
lectures in future.* Such ecclesiastical rigours appeared 
tflogether unnecessary; for there was now very little 
nteachid^ through the whole university, the two lectures at 
jRrinity diurch and St. Andrew^s being put down, and the 
fcctiirm silenced. 

Having obtained so distinguished a reputation, he was at 
lo^gth aUowed the use of St. Botdph's church, belonging 
to Queen's collie. But here his uncommon popularity 
^SE^osed him to the resentment of his enemies. Dr. New- 
eottib, commissary to the Bishop of Ely, coming to the 
dturch, was exceedingly ofiendea with the crowd (? people 
tssembled ;f and he prohibited him preaching, commandms^ 
fliat only evening prayers should be read. The minister ot 
the j^ce, the £arf of Lincoln, and several others, entreated 
flnt Freflftdn mi^ht be allowed to preach, at least, on that 
docasion. But rf ewcomb remaineci inflexible, and in anger 
inskt home, leaving them to have a sermon at their peril. 
Howevei. Preston was advised to preach ; and, as much 
time had been spent in sending messages to the com* 
ateary, be was obliged to omit the prayers before the 
tcfttion, in order that me scholars might be at home in time 
firir their college prayers. Nexjt morning Dr. Newcomb 
btttened to ]Newmarket, where the court was then held, 
and brought complaints against him to Bishop Andrews and 
otters; assuring them, that Preston was a nonconformist in 
Iicttrt, and would soon be one in practice ; and he was so 
firflowed and adored, that, unless some efiectual means were 
Ipeedily used, all conformity would be destroyed, and their 
mthority be trodden under foot. And he added, that 
Aeston was so cunning, that gentle means would not answer 
tbe purpose ; but he must be seriously and thoroughly 

The Idng being now at Newmarket, the complaint was 
hSd before his majesty, who ordered him to be prosecuted. 
Rttton was immediately convened before them, when he 
iBhD%e in his own defence with great humility and meekness. 
nihop Andrews told him, the king was informed that bt 

• Clark's Lives, p. 82—84. * FnUer'i Hilt of Camb. p. 168. 



held all forms of prayer to be unlawful ; and, as he was lO) 
exceedingly popular, bis opinion was likdy to do Ihef 
greater mischief. Preston replied, that this was all a 
slander ; for he believed set forms to be lawful, and he 
refused not to use them. Upon this, the bishop promised 
to be his friend, and to procure his release from the pieseot 

Prosecution. Indeed, some of the courtiers wished well la 
*reston, but wero reluctant to undertake his cause. Dr^ 
Young, dean of Winchester, had the boldness and honesfy 
to inform him, that Bishop Andrews was his grand 
adversary ; and tliat wliile he gave him kind words and 
fair promises, he was labouring to have him expelled from 
the university. This, in fact, appeared too true, from the 
bishop^s own conduct. For, after Preston's frequent attend- 
ance upon his lordship, and all to no purpose, an order wai 
issued, that on a certain Lord's day, he should declare bis 
sentiments concerning forms of prayer, before the public 
congregation in Botolph's church ; or, in case of his refusal, 
underm a further prosecution.* This was soon noised 
abroad; and it was reported that he was required to 
preach a recantation sermon, which afforded much sport ta 
those who envied his reputation, and sought his disgrace* 
These, with exultation and triumph, went crowding to hear 
him. He preached from the same text as before. Tbe 
whole of the sermon was close and searching ; and in the 
conclusion, he delivered his opinion concerning set forms. 
All who went to laugh were disappointed. Afost peisoDS 
returned silent home, not without evidence of some -good 
impressions upon their minds. Those who vdshed his 
downfall were not quite so merry in the conclusion as at 
the beginning. Unprejudiced hearers praised all, and were 
further confirmed in their high opinion of the preacher. , 
His numerous friends were glad he came off so well, and 
were peculiarly gratified that he was at liberty again to 
preach. But the event proved extremely galling to men of 
high church principles.f 

* Dr. Lancelot Andrews, saccessively bishop of Ely and WfaclesteTt 
was a man of extensive erodition, and much esteemed by several learned 
foreigners. He was ranked with the best preachers and completetticholin 
of bis age^ but appeared to much f^eater advantage in the pnlpit tbiB Ik 
does now in his works ; which abound with Latin qaotations, and trivial 
witticisms. He was a person of polite manners and lively coovenatloa,; 
and was celebrated for his dexterity in punning. He wai paiticataHj 
extolled on account of bis piety, affabiiity, liberality, and n^ud for tht 
iaterests of literature. What a pity then it was that he topk any tiiaK.ia 
the persecution of the puritans.*— 6ran|rer*« Biog* Bitt*y/oh 1.^. S47v^ 
AikifCt Livti of Selden and Uthety p. 364. 

f Clark's LWe«,p, 85— 83. 

PlElESTON. 357 

Pifestoiij having acquitted himself with great honour, was 
afterwards appointed to preach Ibefore the king, which he 

* performed to the admiration of his audience. He was 
endowed with a fluent utterance, a commanding elocution, 

• and a strong memory, delivering what he had prepared 
without the use of notes. At the close of the service, his 
majesty expressed a high degree of satisfaction with the 
sermon, especially with his observation relative to the 
Arminians, ^' That they put God ihto the same extremity as 
Darius, when he would have saved Daniel, but could not." 
The Marquis of Hamilton earnestly recommended to his 
majesty that Preston might become one of his chaplains, 
declaring that he was moved to this entirely from the 
cxcdlency of the sermon. He told the king, that the 
preacher spoke no pen and ink-liorn language, but as one 
vho comprehended what he said, and must, therefore, have 
in him something substantial. The king acknowledged all, 
but said it was too early : he remembered the Newmarket 
business; and so was reserved. 

About this period Preston went abroad, and visited 
several of the foreign universities, by which he obtained 
much literary advantage. Having spent some time among 
learned men on the continent, he returned home, wlien his 
popularity at court became almost universal. He rose to 
iBO high a degree of reputation, that he was told he might 
be chaplain to whom he pleased. The Duke of Buckingham, 
not knowing what friends he might want, persuaded the ' 
King to appoint him chaplain in ordinary to the Prince of 
Wales.* In the year 1622, he was chosen preacher at 
Lincoln's-inn, London, and, upon the resignation of Dn 
^Chadderton, master of Emanuel college, Cambridge, when 
he took his doctor's degree. The Duke of Buckingham 
highly esteemed him, and hoped by his means to ingratiate 
liimseif with the puritans, whose power was then growing 
formidable in parliament. Good men rejoiced to see that 
honest men were not all despised. The courtiers, particu- . 
larly the duke, signified that he would now mount from one 
«tep to another, till he became a bishop. The Earl of 

* The kinj; used to caU the duke Stenny, on account of his fine face, 
alluding to Acts vi. 15, — It was a pleasant remark of his majesty ; who 
•aid, ^ That Stenny had given him three notable servants : a gentleman of 
the bed-chamber, (Clarke) who could not help him to untruss a point ; for he 
had bat one hand. A chaplain, (Dr. Preston) who could not say prayers ; 
for be scfnpled the use of the liturgy. And a secretary of state, (Sir Edward 
Conway) whb could neither write nor read." — Jtapin's Hiit, of Eng. 
vol. it. p. 199. 



Pembroke, and the Countess of Bedford, had a gieat inteiest 
in him; and all looked upon him as a rising maup ^■d 
respected him accordingly. Some of the courtierii how* 
ever, bad a jealous eye upon him ; fox all saw that he cams 
not to court for preferment, as did most others.* 

In Uie year 1684, Dr. Preston was inyited to beoomfi 
lecturer at Trinity church, Cambridge ; for which tbeio 
was a strong contest betwixt him and Mr. Micklethwail^ 
fellow of Sidney college, and a very excellent preacher. 
The contest in yotinff for the new lecturer was so great| 
that it could not be determined without the hearing of the 
king, who was opposed to the doctor's preaching at Cam* 
bridge. As an inducement to drop the contest, he wai 
offered the bishopric of Gloucester, then void; and tht 
Duke of Buckingham further urged, that, as the lectufQ 
was supported by six^penny subscriptions^ it was a thing 
unseemly to the master of a collc^, and the chaplain of the 
prince. But the duke was resolved not to lose him, and, 
therefore, took care that nothing was determined contrary 
to the doctor's wishes. Sir Edmrd Conway told him, thttt 
if he would give up the contest for the lecture, and let it bt 
disposed of some other way, his majesty had auth<Hrised him 
to say, <^ that he should have any other more profitable and 
honourable preferment he might desire.'* But the doctmr's 
chief object was to do good to souls, not to obtain worldly 
emolument: the kings was to render him usdess, and 
divide him from the puritans.^ When, therdbre^ it ap^ 
peared that nothing would allure him from the object iif 
nis wishes, or be a sufficient compensation for this noble 
sphere of public usefulness, he was confirmed in the tectur^ 
being his last preferment, which he held to his death. Thil 
celebrated divine thus generously preferred a situatiim of 
eighty pounds a year, with the prospect of extensive use- 
fulness to souls, to the bishopric of Gioucest^, or any other 
preferment in the kingdom. 

He obtained great celebrity by the learned productions 
of his pen. His writings are numerous, and most ai them 
admirable for the time. The pious and learned Bidiop 
Wilkins gives an high character of his excellent sermons.} b 
his << Treatise on the New Covei^ant," his method i^ highly 
instructive ; and his manner familis^* and insinuating, yet 
very clear. He abounds in apt supiles and illustatiy^ 

• Clark's Lives, p. 89—05. 

f Fuller's Hilt, of Cam. p, 169, 164.-^lark*i UfM, p. 06^ «T. 

t WiUdiis on Preachios, p. SS, S3. 


im^mdm, gmenUy well supported and applied. His 
doctrine drops as the rain, and his speech distiis a^ 
ikt dew*» 

Dr. Preston was a divine of extraordinary abilities and 
learning, and^ about this time, deeply engaged in public 
controversy with several learned Arminians. He was called 
io iake a leading part in two public disputations, procured 
by the £arl of Warwick, ana held at York-house, in the 
presence of the Duke of Buckingham and others of the 
nobility. The first of these contests was betwixt Bishop 
Bnckridge and Dr. White, dean of Carlisle, on the one 
part ; and Bishop Morton and Dr. Preston, on the other. In 
ihe conclusion, the Earl cf Pembroke observed, ^^ that no 
person returned from this learned disputation of Arminiai^ 
^eatiments, who was not an Arminian before he came.'* 
The second conference was betwixt Dr. White and Mr. 
Montague, on the one part ; and Bishop Morton and Do 
]Preston, on the other. On this occasion, Preston is said to 
Jiaw displayed his uncommon erudition and powers of 
diwutation, to the great advantage of the cause which he 
pnaertodL to support.t 

This celebrated divine, by his ^eat interest in the Duke 
fif Buckingham and the Prince of Wales, was of unspeak- 
able service to many of the silenced ministers. He was in 
iraiting when King James died, and aune up with Kin^ 
Charles and the Duke of Buckingham, in a close coach, to 
London. The ^oung king is said to have been so over- 
icharged with ^lef, on account of the death of his father^ 
that lie wanted the comfort of so wise and so great a man.^ 
The duke offered Dr. Preston the broad sed^ but he was too 
wise to accept it. A^rwards the duke, changing measures, 
and fiinding h^ icould neither gain the puritans to his 
arbitrary designs, nor separate the doctor from their inte- 
rests, resolved to bid adieu to his chaplain. Dr. Preston 
saw the approaching storm, and quietly retired to his 
college, where it was expected he would have felt some 
fiuijier effix^ of the duke*s displeasure, if providence had 
|M>t so ordered things, that he had other work to mind, 
which took up aU his tinie and tbouffbts to the day of his 
death.§ '^ 

« Waiiams*! CbristUn Preacber, p. 453. 

f FnUer*t Cborch Hist. b. xi. p. 124, 125.— CI*rJt> Lives, p. 101—105. 

i Boniet't Hist, of bis Time, vol. i. p. 19. 

\ RiUer't Clmrcb Hbt. b. xl. p. 131.— Clark's Lives, p. 106— 109.— The 
Due of Bnckiogham was the great favoarite of King James and Charles L, 
•▼cr whon he had the highest ascendancy. Ji is no wonder t^iM » 


Dr. Preston possessed a strong constitution, which he 
wore out by Iiard study and constant preaching. Hii 
inquiry was not, " How llofig have 1 lived ?" but, how have 
I lived ?'' Desiring, in his last sickness, to die among his 
old friends, he retired to Preston, near Heyford, in his 
native county ; and having revised his will, and settled all 
his worldly affiiirs, he committed himself to the wise and 
gracious disposal of his heavenly Father. As he felt the 
symptoms of death coming upon him, he said, ^^ I shall not 
change my company; for I shall still converse with God 
and saints." A few hours previous to his departure, being 
told it was the Lord's day, he said, " A fit day to be 
sacrificed on ! I have accompanied saints on earth : now I 
shall accompany angels in heaven. My dissolution is at 
hand. Let me go to my home, and to Jesus Christ, who 
hath bought me with his precious blood." He afterwards 
added, " I feel death coming to my heart. My pain shall 
now be turned into joy ;" and then gave up the ghost, in 
the month of July, 1628, being only forty-one years of 
age. His remains W(Te interred in Fausley church, wheii 
the venerable Mr. Dod preached his funeral sermon to ali 
immense crowd of people.* Fuller, who has classed him 
among the learned writers of Queen's college, Cambridfle^ 
says, '^ he was all judgment and gravity, and the perfect 
master of his passions, an excellent preacher, a celeorated 
disputant, and a perfect politician. "f Elchard styles him 
^' the most celebrated of tlie puritans, an exquisite preacher, 
a subtle disputant, and a deep politician.''^ 

His Works. — 1. Treatise on the New Covenant; or, the Saints^ 
Portion, 1629.— 2. Breast-plate ot Faith and Love, 1630.— 3. Ser- 
mons before the Kin^, 1630. — 4. Eternal Life; or, a Treatise of 
the Knowledge of the Divine Essence and Attributes, 1631. — & The 
Lifeless Life, 1635.-6. A Discourse of Mortification and HuDU* 

accumulation of honour, wealth, and power, conferred apon a vain mai^ 
who was suddenly raised from a private station, should be particolarly 
invidious: and, especially, as the duke was as void of prndeneCi umL 
moderation in Che use of these, as his masters were in bestowing tbeia. 
Most men imputed all the calamities of the nation to his arbitral 
councils; and few were displeased at the news of hh death. Sach a 
pageant and tyrant as this, decorated with almost every title and boiHiir 
that two kings could bestow upon him, was sure to be the. butt of eary* 
He was murdered by Eel ton, August 28, 1628.— 6raR^er^« Biog, StUt. vol. i. 
p. 326. ii. \IA,—Near^ PuritaM, vol. ii. p. 151. 

♦ Clark's Lives, p. 113. 

+ Funer*s Hist, of Cam. p. 90.— Worthies, part If. p. 291.— Charch 
Hist. b. xi. p. 131. 

t Echard^s Hist, of Eng. vol. ii. p. 72. 


Itation, 1635.~7. Spiritual Life and Death, 1636.— 8. Judas's Re- 
pentance, 1637;— 9. The Saints' Spiritual Strength, 1637.— 10. The 
JSaints' Qualification and Remains, 1637. — U. Sermons, 1637. — 
12. The Golden Sceptre, with the Church's Marriage and the Church's 
Carriage, 1639.— 13. Divine Love of Christ, 1640. 

"' Job Throgmorton was a zealous and active puritan, 
descended from the family of Throgmortons of Coughtou 
in Warwickshire. He was a man of good learning, and 
master of a very facetious and satirical style ; and is said 
to have been one of the authors of those writings which 
went under the name of Martin Mar- Prelate ;* but, as the 
real authors were never discovered, the charge is without 
foundation. Dr. Sutcliff, a scurrilous and an abusive writer, 
published many reproaches against Mr. Throgmorton, 
charging him with being concerned in the wicked plots of 
Hacket, Coppinger, and Arthington. In reply to the 
misrepresentations of this opponent, he, about the year ' 
1594, published a work, entitled, '^ A Defence of Job 
Throgmorton against the Slanders of Matthew Sutcliff." 
Notwithstanding this, he was indicted and tried at Warwick, 
on a supposition of being concerned with the above con- 
spirators ; but was acquitted. He was innocent, and there- 
for^ hedeserved to be acquitted. " A reverend judge in this 
land," observes Mr. Peirce, " told my lord chancellor, that 
the matter of the indictment passed against Throgmorton at 
Warwick, was, in truth, but a frivolous matter, And a thing 
that he would easily avoid. And the lord chancellor said, 
not only in his own house, but even to her majesty, and 
openly in the parliament, that he knew the said Job Throg- 
morton to be an honest man."t 

Mr. Throgmorton was a man of high reputation, and a 
pious and zealous preacher of the word ; but labouring, in 
the decline of life, under a consumption, and being 
oppressed with melancholy apprehensions about the safety 
of his state, he removed to Ashby, near Fausley, in 
Northamptonshire, to enjoy the counsel and advice of the 
venerable Mr. John Dod. A little before he died, he asked 
Mr. Dod, saying, " What will you say of him who is 
going out of th^ world, and can find no comfort ?" " What 
will you say of our Saviour Christ," replied Mr. Dod, 
'^^ who, when he was going out of the world, found no 

• KeDtiet*s Hist, of Eng. vol. ii. p. 550.-- Heylin*8 Hist, of Fres. p. 879. 
t Peirce'g Yindicatioo, part i. p. 149. 


comfort, but cried, My Body my Oody why Tkgri Ital 
forsaken me f^ This administered consolation to Mr. Hhxog^ 
morion's troubled mind, and he departed soon afler, rejoicuig 
in the Lord.* He is denominated ^< as holy and as choice 
a preacher as any in En^and ;" and is said to baye li?ed 
thirty-seven years ivithout a comfortable assurance and 
then died, having assurance only an hour before his oepar* 
ture.f He died in the year 1628.t Sir Clement Thng^t 
morton, a man of great learning and eloquence^ and a 
member of parliament for the county of Warwid^ 
bis son.^ 

Theophilus Bbadboubn was minister at some pla^ 
in Norfolk, and a zealous old puritan.l He was of striol 
Sabbatarian principles, and zealously maintained the neoef* 
sity of observing the seventh day as the christian sabbath. 
In tlie year 1628, he published a book entitled, ^ A IMedoi 
of the most ancient and sacred ordinance of Grod, the 
Sabbath-day,'* which be dedicated to the king. In tUi 
work he maintained, <^ That the fourth cooimaBdiaflali 
Remember the sabbath-day to keep U hofyy was entiidj 
moral, and of indispensable obligation to the end of thi 
world: — that the seventh day in the week ought to be* 
observed as an holy day in the christian church, as it HV 
among the Jews before the coming of Christ :—aBd that ^ 
was superstition and evil- worship to observe the Loid's dij 
as the sabbath, seeing there was no conunand for iL*^ For 
these opinions, says Fuller, ^< He fell into tlie ambush of 
the high commission, whose well-tempered severity so pie* 
vaileawith him, that, submitting to a private coDifaeenoe^ 
and perceiving the unsoundness of his own principles, he 
became a convert, and quietly conformed to toe diurch of 
England,'* so fkx as concerned the .Sabbatarian contio* 
versy.«« ^ 

The publication of Mr. Bradboum's book louaed tte 
jealousy and indignation of the court; therefore, by tte 
command of the king, and under the direction of Atdif 
bishop Laud, Dr. White, bishop of EUy, underto(d( ^ 

• Clark's Liires BBnezed to bit Martyrologie, p. 172. 

f Brooks on Assnrmoce, p. 39. Edit. 1810. 

t MS. Remarks, p. 494. 

^ Dogdale*s Antiq. of Warwickshint, ¥ol. ii. p, 054. ^it. .ITSQl 

I Wood's Atbeofe Ozoo. vol. i. p. 353. 

1 Pag^t's Heresiflf mpby, p. 161. Edit. 1662. 

•• FaUer'B €barch Hist. b. zi. p. 144. 



of it, entitled, << A Treatise of the Sabbath-day : 
containing a Defence of the Ortbado:xall Doctrine of Iho 
Church of England, against Sabbatarian Noyeltj," 16S5 ; 
which he dedicated to the archbishop. In this dedicatica 
he gives the following account of Mr. Bradbourn : — ^^ A- 
oertain minister in Nonblk," says he, ^' proceeding after thi» 
rule of the presbyterian principles, among which this waf 
the principal : ^ That all religious observations and actions^ 
and the cnrdaining and keeping of holy days, must have 9 
q;iecial warrant and commandment in holy scripture, others- 
wise the same is superstitious;' concluded, that the seventh 
day of every week, having an express command in the 
decalogue, by a precept simply and perpetually moral; 
and the Sunday being not commanded, either in tlie law or 
the gospel ; therefore the Saturday must be the christian's 
weekly sabbath, and the Sunday ought to be a working 

^ This man," his lordship adds, ^^ was exceeding confi- 
dent in his way, and defied his adversaries, loading them 
vrith much disgrace and contempt. He dedicated hi« 
book to the king's majesty himself, and implored his 
{unncely aid to set up the ancient sabbath. He likewise 
admonished the reverend bishops of the kingdom, and the 
temporal state, to restore the tburth c(Hnmandment of the 
decalogue to its original possession. > He professed that he 
vould suffer martyrdom, rather than betray such a worthy 
cause, so firmly supported by the common {Nrinciples of all 
who have in preaching or writing treated of the sabbath* 
While he was in this heat, crying in all places where he 
came, victori/^ victory^ he chanced to light upon an unkind 
accident: which was to be convened and called to an ac- 
count before your grace (meaning Laud) and the honourable 
court of high commissioners. At his appearance, your 
^^ce did not confute him with fire and tagot, with halter, 
ai^e, or scourging ; but according to the usual proceedings 
of your grace, and of that court, with delinquents who are 
overtaken with errpr in simplicity. There was yielded unto 
him a deliberate, patient, and full hearing, together with a 
jBatisfactory answer to all his main objections. 

" The man perceiving," his lordship further observes, 
*' that the principles which the Sabbatarian dogmatists ha^ 
lent him, were not orthodox ; and that all who were present 
at the hearing approved the confutation of his error; he 
began to suspect that the holy brethren who had lent him 
Us principles, and yet persecuted his conclusion, might 
perhaps be deceived in the first, as he had been in the last. 


Therefore, laying aside all his former confidence, he sub- 
mitted hinoself to a private conference ; TRrhich by God's 
blessing so far prevailed, that be became a convert, and freely 
submitted himself to the orthodox doctrine of the church of 
Eji^land, concerning both the sabbath and the Lord's day." 
This reverend prelate, in writing against one of the 
puritans, could not help following his passions or his 
ignorance, by ungenerously, and with great falsehood, 
reproaching them as a body. Within the compass of a few 
pages he stigmatizes the puritans '' a new presbyterian 
sect — these ^ zealots — ^these senators — ^these ecclesiastical 
senators — ^these novel senators — ^these presbyterian senators 
' — these presbyterian rulers — these presbyterian dictators^-- 
these presbyterian backbiters."* 

William Hinde, A. M. — This pious divine was bom at 
Kendal in Westmoreland, in the year 1569, and educated in 
Queen's college, Oxford, wheie he was chosen perpetual 
fellow. He was highly respected and beloved by Dr. John 
ll4inolds, whose doctrine made so deep an impression upon 
his mind, that he became the doctor s great and constant 
admirer. About the year 1603, he left the university, and 
became minister of Bunbury in Cheshire, where he con- 
tinued to the end of his days. He was a minister, highly 
esteemed, and, on account of his great piety and frequent 
preaching, was much followed by persons of serious god- 
liness. The Oxford historian denominates him >^ a close 
and severe student, an eminent preacher, and an excellent 
theological disputant ;" and observes, that he had i^veral 
contests with Dr. Morton, bishop of Chester, about con- 
formity, being esteemed the ringleader of the nonconformists 
in that county .+ Having endured m^y troubles in the 
cause of puritanism, he died at Bunbury, in the month of 
June, 1629, aged sixty years; and his remains were lai(J 
in the chancel of his own church. 

His Works. — 1. The oflSce and use of the Moral Law of God in 
the days of the Gospel, justified and explained at large by Scriptures, 
Fathers, and other Orthodox Divines, 1623. — 2, A faithful Remon- 
istrance of the Holy Life and Happy Death of John Brueuof Bruen- 
Stapleford, in the county of Chester, Esquire, 1641. — 3. Path to 
Piety, a Catechism. — He also revised, corrected, and published Dr, 
Rainolds's " Discovery of the Man of Sin," 1614. And Mr. Robert 
Cleaver's ** Exposition on the last Chapter of Pi'overbs/' 1614. 

« White's Treatise, Dedica. 

f Wood's AthenflB Ozon. vol. I. p. 456,457. — Biog. Britan. voI.t, p« 3181. 
£dit. 1747. 


William Pinke, A. M. — This learned parson was bom 
in Hampshire in the year 1599, and educated in Magdalen- 
• hall, 0:abrd, where he took his degrees. Soon sSier he 
entered upon the ministerial work he was chosen reader of 
philosophy in Magdalen college, which he performed with 
great admiration and applause. In the year 16^ he was 
chosen fellow of the college. He was accounted a person of 
close studies, exemplary piety, a strict conversation, and a 
thorough puritan. Wood says, '^ he possessed a singular 
dextenty in the arts, a depth of judgment, an acuteness of 
wit, and great skill in the Greek, Hebrew, and Arabic 
languages, for which he was much noticed and reverenced 
by the collegians."* He died much lamented in the year 
1639, aged thirty years. His remains were interred in 
Magdalen college chapel. He wrote " The Trial of a 
Christian's sincere Love to Christ, in four sermons," 1630. 
This was often printed. He left behind him numerous 
manuscripts ready for the press, though probably they were 
never printed. 

Sebastian Benefield, D. D. — This learned divine was 
bom at Prestbury in Gloucestershire, August 12, 1569, and 
educated in Corpus Christi college, Oxford, where he was 
afterwards chosen fellow. In 1599 he was elected reader of 
rhe^ric to the college, and the year following admitted to 
the reading of the sentences. In 1608 he took his doctor's 
d^ree, and in about five years was chosen Margaret profes- 
sor to the university. He filled the divinity chair with 
distinguished reputation for the space of fourteen years, 
then rescued it, and retired to the rectory of Messey-Hamp- 
ion in Gloucestershire, where he spent the remainder of his 
days in gfeat retirement and devotion. Some persons ac- 
cused him of being a schismatic, most probably on accoimt 
of his puritanism and nonconformity. But Dr. Kavis, 
bishop of London, acquitted him of the imputation, declar- 
mg him to be free from schism, and abounding in science. 
Wood says, " he was so excellent a scholar, disputant, and 
theologian, apd so well read in the fathers and schoolmen, 
that he had scarcely his equal in the university. He was 
a person of admirable piety, strictness, and sincerity ; a 
Icrrer of the opinions of John Calvin, especially that of pre- 
deiiinatiofi, and was denominated a downright doctrinal 

• Wood's Athens Oxoo. toI. i. p. MS. 

9ei6 Lvra of the portt ans. 

Calrinlgt.** Re wfts always fond of a retired and sed^vtarjr 
life, wbich feude re d Um less easy and affable lit ooaveM'^x 
lion.* He died Angnst 21, 1630, aged sixty *one yeais. ' 

His WdftKiw>-*l. ]>oefriiHeCliriitiaiii6 Sex csfkif*, totldam imkctfo^ 
ailms in Scbok Theol. Oxon pro Ibnna habitis^ di«msta^«t (metptakt^ 
1610.— 3. Apf»eiidix ad eftpnt secuodnm &e eoDciKii eHaagtiUkf 
1610. — 3. Sermon at St Mary*s in Oxon, being K. Janiei^» Innngs: 
tation day, 1611.— 4. Eigbt Sermons pnUicly preached in the IJni- 
terrify of Oxford, 1614.— 5. The Sfai agaimit the Holy Ghtiat dl»^ 
eorered, and other Christian DoctrinAt, delivered in twehre •emontf 
npon part of the tenth Chap, of the Epia. to the Hebtemri, 16lAr^ 
f. Commentary or Exposition npon the first Chi^. of Amoa, ddRTerad 
in twenty-one Sermons, 1613. Translated into Latin by Mr. Henrf 
Jackson, 1616.— 7. Christian Liberty, 1613. — 8. A Latin Seraum, on 
Rev. T. 10., 1616.—^. Prelectiones de Perseter4ntis Sanctorom; 1618. 
•^la The Haton of the Aflicted, 1620.--I1. Conmentary or Expo- 
sition upon the second Chap, of Amos, 1620.— 12b CoouBentary of 
Exposition npon the tliird Chap, of Amos, 1620. 

Robert Brown.— This very singular person wHs htm 
at Tolethorp in Rutlandshire, and descended fixnn ah 
ancient and honourable family. He was nearly related to 
fhe Lord Treasurer Burleigh, and his grandfirfher, by 
charter from Henry VIII., obtained the si^ralar |NriYil«r 
of wearing his cap in the kin^^s presence. He reeeiTed £f 
education in Corpus Chnsti college, Cambri^;e| and 
preached sometimes in Bennet church, where the Tenenieiic* 
of his delivery gained him considerable reputation.t After- 
wards, he became a schoolmaster in Southwark, London, 
then a lecturer at Islington, and domestic chaptein to the 
Duke of Norfolk. Having embraced the principle of the 
puritans, he resolved to refine them, and jmiduce a scheme 
more perfect of his own. He openly invei^ed against the 
discipline and ceremonies of the church of ^Jngbuidy whicli 
he held up to the people as antichristian. 

In the year 1571, Mr. Brown was cited before Ajrch- 
bisliop Parker and the other high commiasioneis at Laaibefl% 
undoubtedly on account of his nonconformity. His noUe 
patron warmly espoused his cause ; disregarded the atiuA* 
mons; and resolved to protect bis chaplain, as exempt fipom 
their lordship' jurisdiction. The stem archbishop and hii - 
colleagues, however, shewed their resoluticm ixf prooced^ 
against him. They wrote to the duke^ tigrafjing^ tbat ii iHBsa 

• Wood*8 AtbenaB Ozoo. toI. i. p. 467. 
f FttUer'i Cbvrcb Hist. b. it. p. Xe6, I6t. 

R. BRowif. am 

lAill Mniirfed in detainmg bis cbaplaid, they must and 
'woola make use of other means : but what other methods 
thef uscdy or what ecclesiastical censure was inflicted upon 
BrowiL we have not been able to ascertain.* 

tn toe year 1581 he settled in the city of Norwich, where 
lie was employed in the stated exercise of his ministry ; and 
many of the Dutch, who had there a numerous congregation, 
imbiDed his principles. Growing confident by success, he 
called in the assistance of one Richard Harrison, a country 
schoolmaster, and planted churches in difierent places.f 
He did not, however, remain long unnoticed. For during 
the above year, he was convened before Bishop Freake of 
Norwich, and other of the queen^s commissioners, and 
eommitted to the custody of the sheriff of the county, by 
whom he was for some time detained a prisoner.]: Also, in 
the same yfear, the celebrated judge Anderson discovered 
the warmth of Eis zeal against Brown ; for which Bishop 
Freake wrote to the treasurer Burleigh, desiring he might 
leceive the thanks of the queen.§ Whether the treasurer 
laid the case before her majesty we cannot learn; but by 
his kind intercession Mr. Brown was at length released from 
orison^ when he left the kingdom, and settled at Middier 
mttf^ m Zealand. There, by leave of the magistrates, ho 
tofOoSed a church according to his own model, which is 
ejk{>laiAed in a book he published in 1582, entitled, '' A 
Treatise of Reformation without tarrying for any, and of 
the widkedness of those Preachers, who will not reform them 
and tiheir charge, because they will tarry till the Magis- 
trate command and compel them. By me, Robert Brown." 
After continuing a short time at Middleburg, bis people 
bc^an to quarrel so violently, and divide into parties, that 
firown grew weary of his office, and returned to England 
An 1585. Soon after his arrival in his native country, he 
"^Dvas convened before Archbishop Whitgifl, and required to 
J^ye his answer to certain things published in one of his 
^aoobs ; but tiie archbishop having by force of reasonin^r 
^Vovght him to a submission, he was dismissed a second 
*^Cftiiel>V the intercession of the lord treasurer. He went to 
^is fiediner's house ; but his father was soon tired of him, and 
^d^doned him to a wandering course of life, and discharged 
•Aim mm bis fomily, saying, <^ that he would not own him 

• Stry^e*8 P&rker, p. S86, 32T. 

f CoUier'8 Eccl. Hist. vol. ii. p. 581. 

i HeyHn*fl Hiit. of Pros. p. S98, 299. 

f Biof . BritaB. via. i. p. 180. B4it. 1778. 



for a sotJy who would not own the cliurch of Englimd for lui 
mother.''''* After travelling up and down tue countnr, 
preaching against the laws and ceremonies of the church, h^ 
went to reside at Northampton. Here his preachiiLB^ sooq 

fave ofience, and he was cited before Bishop Lindseli of 
^terborough, who, upon his refusing to appear, publicly 
excommunicated him for contempt. The solemnity of this 
censure made such an impression upon Brown, thtU; he re- 
nounced his principles of separation, and having obtained 
absolution, he was, about the year 1592, preferred to the 
rectory of Achurch, near Oundle in Northampton8hire.+ 
Upon his promise of a general compliance with the church 
of £ngland, improved by the countenance of his patron and 
kinsman, the Earl of Exeter prevailed upon the archbishop 
to procure him this favour. 

Mr. Brown having obtained a settled and permanent 
abode, allowed a salary for another person to discharge his 
cure ; and thou/^h, according to our author, he opposed his 
parishioners in judgment, yet agreed in taking their tithes. 
He was a person ot good parts and some learning, but his 
temper was imperious and uncontrollable; and so far was 
he from the Sabbatarian strictness espoused by his followeiSi 
that he seemed rather a libertine than othe^ise. ^^ In a 
word," continues our historian, ^' he had a wife with whcHQ 
he never lived, a church in which he never preached, and as 
all the other scenes of his life were stormy and turbulent, so 
was his end." For being poor and proud, and very paasipn* 
ate, he struck the constable of his parish for demanding 
the payment of certain rates; and being Ix^loved by nobody, 
the officer summoned him before Sir Rowland St. John, a 
neighbouring justice, in whose presence he behaved with 
so much insolence, that he was committed to Northampton 
gaol. The decrepid old man not being able to walk, was 
carried thither upon a feather bed in a cart ; where, hot long 
after, he sickened and died, in 1630, aged upwards of eighty 
years, boasting, " that he had been committed to thiriy-tzDO 
prisons, in some of which he could not see his hand at noon 
day."t Such was the unhappy life and tragical end of 
Robert Brown, founder of the famous sect, from hiin called 
BnowNiSTs. He lived in a little thatched house at Thorp 
WaterviUe, which was still subsisting in the year 1791, and 

♦ FuUer's Church Hist. b. ix. p. 167. 
+ CoUier's Eccl. Hist. vol. ii. p* 588. 
t FaUer's Church Hist. b. ii. p. 168, 109. 

HIG6INS0N. 369 

inhabited hy a tenant of the Earl of Exeter.* ThoiL^ 
Fuller does not believe that he ever formally recanted Bb 
opinions, several of our historians assert that he conformed, 
and became an obedient son of the church of EIngland, to 
which he appears to have been tempted by the above 
Taluable benefice.f If he conformed to the national churchy 
lie does not properly belong to the list of puritans, thougn 
it was requisite to give some account of him. 

His Works, in addition to the article already mentioned. — 1. A 
Treatise upon the twenty-third chapter of St. Matthew, WHh for an 
order of studying and handling the Scriptures, and also for avoiding 
the Popish disorders, and ungodly communion of all false Christians, 
and especially of wicked preachers and hirelings. — 2. A Book which 
ahewetb the life and manner of all true Christians, and how unlike 
they are unto. Turks, and Papists, and Heathen folk. Also the 
points and parts of all Divinity, that is, of the revealed will and 
word of Grod, are declared by their several definitions and divisions 

Francis Higginson, A. M. — This excellent minister 
siras bom in the year 1587, and educated in Emanuel 
colle^, Cambridge, and afterwards became pastor of one of 
the churches in Leicester. His preaching >vas truly evan- 
gelical, and multitudes from all quarters flocked to hear 
him. The great object of his ministry was to produce 
that change of hearty and holy rectitude of conduct, 
irithout which no man can see the Lord. The effect, 
through a divine blessing, was such as might be expected. 
A remarkable revival of religion was the reward of his 
labours, and many were effectually turned from sin to holi- 
ness ; but, in the midst of his usefulness, he was deprived on 
account cf his nonconformity. For some years after his 
settlement at Leicester, he continued a strict conformist; 
bat, upon his acquaintance with Mr. Hildersham and Mr* 
Hooker, he was induced to study the controversy about 
ecclesiastical matters. He searched the scriptures, together 
with the earliest antiquity ; and as he searched, the more he 
became dissatisfied with the inventions of men introduce^l 
into the worship of Grod. From his own impartial exa- 
mination, therefore, and the clear evidence of truth, he 
became a decided and conscientious nonconformist. At 
this time the weight of his influence burst forth ; and the 

• Brklges'i Hist, of Northamptonshire, vol. i. p. 366. 
f Jolkr*! Cbarch Hiit. b. ix. p. 168.— CoUier'i JEccL Hist. vol. lit 
p. MS. 

yoL. II. 2 b 


ami of ecclesiastical power could not obscure the lustre of 
his talents. Such were the pathos and enchantine ek^ 
ouence of his ministry, that the people could not be denied 
uie benefit of his instructions. ^^ He was unto them as a 
very lovely song of one that hath a pleasant voice, and cas 
piny well on an instrument." The people obtained liberty 
for him to preach a lecture on one part of the sabbath, and 
on the other to aid an a^ed minister, who stood in need of 
assistance. They supported him by their own voluntary 
subscription; and such was his reputation, «that, white it 
was safe, all the conformist ministers in the town invited 
him into their pulpits. He also preached to another 
congregation in the church at Belgrave, a village near 
JLeicester. His labours and usefulness were thus expanded. 
This, indeed, was through the connivance of the geDerans 
and worthy Bishop Williams of Lincoln ;• and continued 
till Laud became bishop of London, when he determined t9 
extirpate all nonconformists. 

As it often happens in other cases, so it did in this; while 
one part of the community was delighted and encouraged 
in the practice of feligion, another part, feeling themsehrei 
rebuked and condemned by his preacliing, became moif 
violent opposers, and more cruel persecutors. Mr. Hig^ 
ginson openly avowed his opinion, that ignorant and 
immoral people ought not to be admitted to the Lord's 
table. Accordingly, having preached a sermon from ihii 
text, ^^ Give not tliat which is holy to dogs ;" and being 
about to administer the sacrament, he saw a known.swearer 
and drunkard before him, to whom he publicly said, <^ he 
was not willing to give the Lord's supper to him, until hit 
professed his repentance to the satisfection of the brethren, 
and desired him to withdraw." The man went out in a 
rage against Mr. Higginson, and, with horror in his con- 
science, was immediately taken sick, and soon after expired, 
crying out, ^' J am damned.'*^ Another profane person bdiu; 
offended with his wife for attending upon Mr. Higginson^ 

* This very learned and religious prelate was a constant friend t* tbe 
persecuted puritans, many of whom, as will appear from the presest 
work, he protected from the Intolerant proceedings of the eccletiastkal 
courts. We have given a particular account in the introdnclioii, of the 
barbaroos persecution be endured from Archbishop Laud and bit as80citta« 
He was greatly admired for his deep penetration, soHd jodrment, and hb 
wonderfhl memory, which was deemed almost a miractr. Hli parts W* 
very extraordinary; and his constitution still more extmordinary Huui 
his parts; for, notwithstanding his hard study, and a mnlUpUcftj ^^ 
bnsiaess, he never required more than three boors sleep.— £# 2^!ii«^9 Mi^ 
▼eJ. i. part ii. p. 164.— Granger's Biog, HUU vol. !• p.ttl. 


.itoinisiafy^ vowed revenge against him. Accordingly, he 
lesolved on a jonmey to London, to complain against 
■"him in the high conmiission court. All things being ready 
'for his journey, as he was mounting his horse, he was 
adzed with insupportable pain of body, and most dreadful 
iuMrrors of conscience; and being conducted into the house, 
died in a. few hours.* 

Daring Mr, Higginson's abode at Leicester, a clergyman 
lived in flie town who was a doctor in divinity, a prebendary 
-in a cathedral, and chaplain to his majesty; but very 
seldom preached. Indeed, when he did preach, he dis* 
covesed so much ostentation, that the people mostly 
.attended upon Mr. Higginson's edifying preaching, rather 
tiian his affected and empty harangues. This greatly 
^dkpleased the doctor, who embraced every opportunity of 
.expressing his resentment and indignation against Mr. 
-Higginson; and declared he would certainly drive him 
out of the town. This doctor was nominated by the 
■riieriff to preach the assize sermon, and had three months 
ibotice to make jH'eparation. During the whole of this 
.period, he was, however, unable to provide a sermon to his 
.own satisfaction. About a fortnight before the time was 
csipired, he expressed his fears of ever being provided; 
when his friends urged him to attempt it again ; and sig- 
fsified, that, if there was no other alternative, Mr. Higginspn, 
Jbeing always ready, might be procured. The doctor, 
being exceedingly averse to the last proposal, studied with 
an his might to prepare an agreeable sermon, but without 
auceess. So the very night preceding the assize, he got a 
iriend to prevail upon Mr. Higginson to supply his place; 
which he did, to the great satisfaction of the audience. 
Afterwards, when all the circumstances were known, and 
.. become the common topic of conversation, the doctor was so 
iDortified and confounded, that he left the town, declaring 
be would never come into it any more. While Mr. Hig- 

ron, therefore, continued highly respected in the place, 
learned doctor was driven out.f 
Mr. Higginson was afterwards chosen by the mayor and 
ildermen to be the town-preacher. He thanked them for 
tbe hcmour which they conferred upon him ; but, because 
'Sa could not with a good conscience conform, he declined 
4ia offisTj recommendmg to them Mr. John Angel, then a 

'-^■IftlMr*!' HUt. of New Eo^. b. Hi. p. Tl, 7S. 

\ ' 


oonfomiiHt, but a gcKxl man, i?hom they accepted. Indeed, 
icvcral ririt livin^ii were offered liim ; but, on his noncoo* 
forriiitv mm utomtiff ii|Mm him, he modestly refused then 
all. lie could never sru^rifice truth and a good conscicnop 
to ohtuin any worldly emolument whatever. Mr. iliggiDrnm 
Vfan very UM'ful in the education of young men, many of 
whom nflirrwanlN became; I'amous in their day. Among 
tlHwe were Dr. S(*aman, Or. Hrian, and the excellent Mr. 
John llowf^all noted for their learning, moderation, anci 
lionrmifonnKv. At irngth, however, when Ijaud mu 
tranNlatx'd to London, ccnnplaintN were exhibited against hin 
in 'the high connnihNion court, and he was in continual 
expectation of being draggcrd away by pursuivants, when 
perpetual impriMMuncMit mxn the leant he expected. 

A nunilxT of* reNpe(*iable and wealthy merchants, havint 
obtained a charter ol' King (Jharles 1., and iMung incorporated 
by tin* inune of* fh(* governor and comimny of* Massachti* 
settN* liay, in New Tingland, (hterniincHl, in the year 1699, 
to MMul over Nonir hhipN to begin the plantation. Tbej, 
having heard of* Mr. lliggiiihon^s situation, sent tivo 
ineNMMigerN to invite him to Join their company, engaging 
to Nupport him on the passage. Hirse nicssengen, 
umlerNtanding that Mr. IligginNon was in daily expecta- 
tion of odirerH to carry him to licmdou, determim^d to have 
a little Rport. Arciu'dingly, they went boldly to his door, 
and with hnid knocks, cried, ^^ Where is Mr. Hig|rinROii? 
We nuiNi sneak wilh Mr. IligginKon." His aflnglitnl 
wife ran lo hi.s (*liainber, entreating him to con(*cai him.^f. 
** No,** Niiid he, ^^ I will m down and N|H'nk to them, and 
the will of the Lord be (lone." As they enter<;<l his hall 
with an assumed bnldtirsN, and rouglnu^ss of addn*ss, tbry 
pn^scnted him with some papers, saying, ^^ Sir, we come 
from London : oitr husiness is to carry ycm up to liomlon, 
ns yon niJiy s<h» hy lli(*se papers."— *M thought m»,** cX' 
claimed Mrs. lli:v..'Vuison« and innnediately bei^nn to wv\h 
I'poii a slit^lit (Examination of the pn|MU's, IVtr. iiigginsun 
foniul himself invited to Massachusetts by t lie governor and 
company of the intended colony : he weU*ouuHl his guests 
had fnv ctmversation with them, and uHer taking proper 
time to astvrtain (he path of duty, resolv(Hl to cross tiie 
Atlantic. His fan^wtll sermon was pn^acluHl troin Lukr, 
xxi. \^), tf I. ** When yc see •lerusiilem encom|NtsKcd wilh 
armies, iS;c. th(*n flee to the i"- Mns." Kclbrc a vast 
nuMMubly \\v de(iaieil his in ^ England would 

}w ciuiNtiMHl by war, and ti ould have aore 


ftam an ordinaiy share of sufferings.* He expressed his 
thankful acknoiyled^ents to the magistrates and others, 
finr their favour and encouragement; and informed them 
that he was going to- New England, which he believed God 
designed as a refuge for persecuted nonconformists. He 
soon took his journey with his family to London, in order 
to his embarking for the new colony, when the streets, as 
lie passed along, were filled with people, bidding him 
fiuewell, with prayers and cries for his welfare. 

They sailed from the Isle of Wight in the beginning of 
May, 1629, and arrived in Salem harbour the 24th of June 
following. The ships were filled with religious passengers, 
akttong whom were Mr. Samuel Skelton and Mr. Ralph 
'Sbulh, both nonconformist ministers. Mr. Higginson 
kept a journal of tJie voyage, a copy of which is still 
pieserved.f They were no sooner arrived at Salem, than 
they entered upon the important object for which they 
vent. They began the new plantation by calling on the 
name of the Lord. After consulting the brethren at 
Plymouth, who sent messengers to their assistance, they set 
apart the sixth of August as a day of fasting and prayer, 
and for settling the order of their intended church. On 
Qiis interesting occasion, Mr. Higginson drew up a con- 
fession of fai£, and a covenant,^ a copy of which was 
given to. each of the thirty persons who became members ; 
and to this confession and covenant, these thirty persons 
did solemnly and severally declare their consent. Mr. 
Higginson was then chosen teacher, Mr. Skelton the pastor 
qf the church, and Mr. Houghton ruling elder. Afterwards^ 
many other persons joined the church, but none were 
admitted without giving satisfactory evidence of their 
inversion to God. This was the first christian church 
that was ever formed in the Massachusetts* colony,^ 
. Some of the passengers who went with these new 
l^ainters, observing that the ministers did not use the Book 
of Common Prayer ; that they administered the sacraments 
without the English ceremonies ; that they refused to admit 
disorderly persons to the Lord's supper ; and that they 
jesolved to exercise discipline against all scandalous 

^ • Not many years after, Leicester, which was strongly fortified, 
irieeived the wealth of the adjacent country. It was then bebiej^ed, taken 
1^ ttorm, given op to plunder and violence, and eleven hundred of iti 
IplMbiCaDto were slain in the streeU,--Malhet'» Iliit. of N^w Eng. b. iii« 

p. 74. 

, "f 8m Mamcbnsetts* Papers, p. 32—^6. 
t See Mather's Hist, of New £ng.b.i. p. 18,19. ^ Ibid, b.iil. p. 74,76. 


members of the cburcb, began to make distarbance^ and 
Ml up a separate assembly, according to the usage c£ tke' 
church of England. The chief promoters of this breadi 
were Mr. Samuel Browne and his brother, the one a lawyer, 
and the other a merchant. The governor, perceiving this 
disturbance, sent for these two gentlemen, who accused the 
ministers of ^^ departing from the order of the church of 
England ;" adding, ^^ that tkey were separatists, and would 
shortly be anabaptists ; but as to themselves, they would, 
hold to the orders of the church of England/' To these 
accusations, the ministers replied, '^ That they were neither 
separatists nor anabaptists ; that they did not separate fraB 
the church of England, nor from the ordinances of tiod 
there, but only from the disorders and corruptions of thit 
church ; that they came away from the conunon prayer 
and ceremonies, and had suffered much for their muH 
conformity in their native land ; and, therefore, being in A 
place where they might exercise their liberty, they neithmr 
could, nor would use them ; especially because they judged 
the imposition of these things to be sinful corruptions of the 
word of God."» The governor, the council, and the 
people in general, approved of the answers ^iven by the 
ministers. The two brothers, however, not beine satii^ed, 
and endeavouring to raise a mutiny among the people^ 
were sent back to England, by the return of £e same ships 
which carried them. 

The faith and patience of these adventurers were exercised 
with other trials. The first winter after their arrival proved 
▼ei;y fatal. It carried off nearly one hundred of thdr 
company,, among whom was Mr. Houghton the dderof 
the church. Mr. Higginson himself, not heing aUe to 
undergo the fatigues of a new setUement, fell into a hectic 
fever, of which he lingered till the month of August follow* 
in^. The last sermon he preached was from Matt. xL 7. 
** What went ye out into the wilderness to see?" It was 
delivered to several hundreds of persons just arrived fraai 
England, whom he suitably reminded of their design io 
promote true religion, in transporting themselves to that 
country. Mr. Higginson was sooa after confined to his 
bed, when he was visited by the chief persons of the colony- 
He was deeply humbled under a sense of his own nnwoitlii* 
ness ; and when his friends endeavoured to comfi)rt him l]|V 
reminding him of his faithfulness and usefulness, he ie|diea, 

« Morton*! New Eng. Mem. p. 76» 77.— MaUier^s Hilt mt Mew Etf 
¥. i. p. 19. 


« I have been an unprofitable servant ; and all my doings 
" I count but loss and dung. All my desire is to win 
" Christ, and be found in him, not having my own ^ 
" righteousness." He died in the month of August, 1630, * 
aged forty-three years. His funeral was attended with 
all possible solemnity. He was richly endowed with 
divine grace, mighty in the scriptures, a good linguist, and 
an excellent preacher. He held the hearts of his people, 
and his memory was dear to their posterity. He left a 
widow and eight children. Mr. Higginson had two sons, 
Francis and John, who afterwards Jjecame ministers ; the 
former at Kirkby Stephen in Westmoreland, England, 
where he conformed at the restoration.* The latter was 
diosen pastor of his father's church, in the year 1659 ; and 
wa& labouring there in the year 1696, in the eightieth year 
of Jiis age, and the sixtieth of his ministry. Mr. Higgin- 
aon'fl posterity still remain in New England, and are among 
tbanost respectable people of the commonwealth.t 

Robert Nicolls was minister of Wrenbury in Cheshire, 
whete he was held in high repute for his excellent abilities 
and worthy ministerial labours. He was a man of a clear 
lieefd, a tender heart, and a most holy life, always abound* 
ing in the work of the Lord.t He was called before the 
high commission, and, with many of his brethren, exceed- 
ingly harassed for nonconformity. Being required by 
Bishop Morton to produce his arguments against the cross 
in baptism, the use of the surplice, and kneeling at the 
sacrament, he presented them to the bishop in the high 
commission court, when, though he was esteemed a mo3t 
learned and pious minister, his lordship treated him with 
much scorn and abuse.§ He was contemporary with Mr. 
Ball, Mr. Herring, Mr. Ashe, and other divines of dis- 
tinguished eminence, with whom he lived in the greatest 
friendship. During the persecution of the times, he found 
an asylum under the hospitable roof of the excellent Lady 
Bromley, of Sheriff-Hales in Shropshire ; at whose house 
he died about the year 1630.\\ He was author of the 

♦ Mather's Hist, of New Eng. b. iiL p. 75.— Palmer's Noncon. Mem* 
^O], Jii. p. S55.— This Mr, Francis Higginson, says Dr. Mather, wrote tbo 
int book that was ever published against the quakers„ entitled, '* The 
Irf«Hf(loB of Northern Quakers.'*— /6i</. p. 76. 

f Morse and Parish's Hist, of New Eng. p. 52. 

{Clark's Lives annexed to Marty rologie, p. 164. 
Fft^t'i Defence, Pref. CUrk'g Li? es, p. M& 


third part of a TRrork entitled ^^ Some Treasure fetched oat 
of Rubbish ; or, three short but seasonable Treatises, found 
in an heap of scattered Papers, wiiich Providence hath 
reserved for their Service who desire to be instructed from 
the Word of God, concerning tho Imposition and Use of 
Significant Ceremonies m the Worship of God," 1660. 
His part is entitled, '^ Three Arguments Sylogisticallj 
propounded and prosecuted against the Surplice, the Ctqbs 
in Baptism, and Kneeling in the act of receiving the Loid*i 

JouN Warham was a pious and celebrated preacher at 
Exeter ; but, on account of the tyrannical proceedings of 
the prelates, was forced to flee to New Ejigland for rdTugo 
from the storm. Previous to liis departure, a congr^atiooal 
church being gathered at Plymouth, he was, aAer solenm 
fasting and prayer, chosen one of its mstors ; and in the 
year 1630, many pious families out of Devonshire, Dorset* 
shire, and Somersetshire, accompanied them to New 
England.* Upon their arrival, they began the settlenlent 
of Windsor, where, as pastor of the church, he spent the 
rest of his days. The whole colony of Connecticut looked 
up to him as the principal pillar, and the father of the 
colony. Though he was a most pious man5 he oR/ea 
laboured under melancholy apprehensions, even despairing 
of his own salvation. Such were the painful temptations 
imder which his holy soul groaned, that he somdimes 
administered the Lord's supper to the people of his charge^ 
not daring to starve their souls, when he forbore to partdie 
with them, concluding that he was not one of God^ 
children. This darkness continued more or less to the day 
of his death. He was the first minister in New England 
that ever preached by the use of notes ; yet he delivered 
his sermons with remarkable energy and success.t 

Arthur Hildersham, A. M. — ^This celebrated divino 
was descended from the royal family, and the famous 
Cardinal Poole was his great uncle. He was the son of 
Mr. Thomas Hildersham, a gentleman of an ancient family^ 
and Ann Poole his second wife. Mrs. Hildersh